• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gastrointestinal Tract

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Recent Achievements in Stem Cell Therapy for Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tract Disease

  • Bae, Sun Hwan
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2013
  • The field of stem cell research has been rapidly expanding. Although the clinical usefulness of research remains to be ascertained through human trials, the use of stem cells as a therapeutic option for currently disabling diseases holds fascinating potential. Many pediatric gastrointestinal tract diseases have defect in enterocytes, enteric nervous system cells, smooth muscles, and interstitial cells of Cajal. Various kinds of therapeutic trials using stem cells could be applied to these diseases. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in stem cell applications for pediatric gastrointestinal tract diseases.

7 Cases of Incidental Radionuclide Uptake in the Gabtrointestinal Tract During $^{99m}Tc$-Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy ($^{99m}Tc$-MDP 골 스캔 중 발견된 위 및 장관의 섭취증가 7예)

  • Son, Tae-Yong;Kim, Hyung-Gun;Yuh, Young-Jin;Lee, Sang-Goo;Cheon, Eun-Mee;Lim, Sang-Moo;Hong, Sung-Woon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.315-318
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    • 1993
  • We experienced 7 cases of patients who were performed $^{99m}Tc$-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy for the evaluation of diseases they had. Their bone scintigrams showed incidental radionuclide uptake in the gastrointestinal tracts and they had no special symptom or sign attributable to the findings. Case 1 showed radionuclide uptake in the stomach and both lung and the patient had suffered from hypercalcemia and azotemia. Case 3 and case 6 showed diffuse radionuclide uptake in the stomach and intestinal tract. Others showed diffuse or regional radionuclide uptake in the intestinal tracts. Radionuclide uptake in the gastrointestinal tract by $^{99m}Tc$-methylene diphosphonate is caused by a certain pathologic lesion but also can be seen in the normal gastrointestinal tract. So, one who reads bone scintigrams should be alert for the pathologic lesion in the gastrointestinal tract although one must interpretate with the concept of this normal variations.

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Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

  • Wang, Jin;Fan, Huan;Han, Ye;Zhao, Jinzhao;Zhou, Zhijiang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.100-110
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep's health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum) of sheep. Methods: This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results: The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum). Conclusion: This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

Telemetry capsule for pressure monitoring in the gastrointestinal tract (소화관 내 압력 측정을 위한 텔레메트리 캡슐 구현)

  • Yoon, Ki-Won;Woo, Sang-Hyo;Lee, Jyung-Hyun;Moon, Yeon-Kwan;Park, Hee-Joon;Won, Chul-Ho;Kim, Byung-Kyu;Choi, Hyun-Chul;Cho, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2005
  • As the cause and the treatment about gastrointestinal disease has been issued recently, the importance of measuring the pressure in the gastrointestinal tract has been increased. However, the conventional measurement methods of the pressure in the gastrointestinal tract cause the patients' pain and inconvenience as well as an inaccurate pressure measurement. In this paper, the pressure monitoring telemetry system has been designed and implemented for an accurate pressure measurement inside the gastrointestinal tract with minimizing pain and inconvenience. The pressure monitoring telemetry system is composed of a pressure measurement capsule and an external receiver. The capsule has been miniaturized into the same size of a vitamin tablet so that the capsule can be swallowed through the oral cavity. After the capsule acquires and encodes the pressure data in the gastrointestinal tract, the encoded pressure data are modulated by frequency shift keying (FSK) and transmitted with ultrahigh frequency (UHF) band signal to the outside of a body. The performance of the telemetry capsule for monitoring pressure in the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated by the results of animal in-vivo experiments.

Immunohistochemical study of neurotensin-, pancreatic polypeptide- and gastrin/cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana during developmental stages (개체발생에 따른 황소개구리(Rana catesbeiana) 위장관에서 neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide 및 gastrin/cholecystokinin 면역반응세포에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeung-sik;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Jae-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 1999
  • To investigate the regional distribution and relative frequency of the neurotensin-, pancreatic polypeptide(PP)- and gastrin/cholecystokinin(Gas/CCK)-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana) with developmental stages, group of bullfrogs subdivided into the tadpole with hindlegs, metamorphosed bullfrog with tail, 2 weeks after metamorphosed bullfrog and adult bullfrog, were stained by immunohistochemical methods (PAP methods). Neurotensin-immunoreactive cells were observed from the pylorus of the metamorphosed bullfrog with tail, but these cells were not detected after that periods. PP-immunoreactive cells were detected from the adult bullfrog in the pylorus, duodenum and ileum. These cells were most predominant in the pylorus. Gas/CCK-immunoreactive cells were observed from the adult bullfrog in the pylorus. According to these results, most of immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the bullfrog were appeared after the complete metamorphosed periods, in which the complete differentiation of structure of gastrointestinal tract were occurred, and variable changes of the regional distribution and relative frequency with developmental stages were observed.

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Medical Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children: Prokinetic Agents (소아의 기능성 장질환에서 사용하는 소화기계 약물의 종류: 위장관조절제)

  • Seo, Ji-Hyun
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.sup1
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2008
  • The knowledge of motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract has increased over the past decades. The development of newer therapies for bowel motility disorders has been disappointingly slow. Prokinetic agents are medications that enhance coordinated gastrointestinal motility and transit of material in the gastrointestinal tract. These agents are pharmacologically and chemically diverse. However, life-threatening adverse effects of prokinetic agents such as cisapride was present. In this review, pharmacologic effects and use of prokinetic agents in children was introduced.

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S-100 protein-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the Catfish, Silurus asotus (메기 소화관의 S-100 protein 면역반응세포에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-hyun;Park, Ki-dae;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.415-420
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    • 2000
  • Distribution of S-100 protein-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the catfish, Silurus asotus was investigated by PAP method. S-100 protein-immunoreactive cells were mainly observed just under the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. Immunoreactive cells were distributed numerously in the stomach and moderately in the middle part of the intestine, however, a few in the upper and lower part of the intestine.

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Immunohistochemical study of the somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the native korean goat during postnatal periods (생후 발생단계에 따른 한국재래산양 위장관에 있어서 somatostatin 면역반응세포에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeung-sik;Lee, Mal-soon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 2000
  • The regional distribution and relative frequency of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract were studied during the postnatal development(1 day old, 1 month old, 6-month-old and adult) of the Korean native goat by immunohistochemical methods. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entire gastrointestinal tract and were most predominant in the fundic gland region except for the pyloric gland region of the 1 day old. The number of these cells was observed to decrease along the gastrointestinal tract and to decrease according to the increase with age in all postnatal stages. In this study, immunoreactive cells revealed the differences of regional distribution and the relative frequency in the gastrointestinal tract during postnatal development. These results suggest that although the functional significance of fetal endocrine cells remains unknown, this was caused by changing of feeding habits and physiological conditions during different ages.

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Scintigraphic Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders (기능성 위장관 질환에서 핵의학 검사의 역할)

  • Choe, Jae-Gol
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2001
  • Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes alter therapy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

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Large Cavernous Hemangioma in the Jejunum of a 2-year-old Boy Treated by Laparoscopy-assisted Resection (2세 남아에서 발생한 공장 해면혈관종의 복강경 보조절제)

  • Park, Jinyoung
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2012
  • Although hemangiomas are common vascular tumors that can occur anywhere in the body, they seldom involve the gastrointestinal tract. Hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract in infants and children are rare benign vascular tumors that most commonly present with gastrointestinal bleeding. We describe here the case of 2-year-old boy with intestinal bleeding caused by a large jejunal cavernous hemangioma, which was treated by laparoscopy-assisted resection of the affected portion of the jejunum.

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