• Title/Summary/Keyword: Gelatinization

Search Result 632, Processing Time 0.145 seconds

Effects of Rice Bran Dietary Fiber Extract on Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Wheat Flour (미강 식이섬유 추출물이 밀가루의 호화 및 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Soo;Ha, Tae-Youl;Lee, Sang-Hyo;Lee, Hyun-Yu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.29 no.3
    • /
    • pp.464-469
    • /
    • 1997
  • Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the effect of rice bran dietary fiber extract on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat flour. The addition of rice bran dietary fiber extracts from various heat treated bran into wheat flour caused to increase the pasting temperature, peak viscosity and final viscosity of RVA measurements. For gelatinization measured with DSC, mixtures of wheat flour and rice bran dietary fiber extract had slightly higher To (onset temperature) and Tp (peak temperature) values than those of control (wheat flour), and wheat flour/defatted rice bran dietary fiber extract mixture had the lowest enthalpy value. In comparison with gelatinization, the retrogradation endotherm of mixtures stored at $4^{\circ}C$ up to 4 weeks occurred at about $20^{\circ}C$ lower temperatures than gelatinization endotherm with broader shape and well-defined thermograms with storage time. The retrogradation of wheat flour was retarded greatly by addition of rice bran dietary fiber extract, and there was no big difference between 5% and 10% additions.

  • PDF

Effect of ${\beta}-Glucan$ on Gelatinization of Barley Starch (${\beta}-Glucan$이 보리 전분의 호화에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Hee-Don;Seog, Ho-Moon;Kim, Sung-Ran;Park, Yong-Kon;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.545-550
    • /
    • 2003
  • The effect of ${\beta}-glucan$ on gelatinization of barley starch was studied. By the rapid visco-analyzer measurement, gelatinization of starch became rapid and viscosity increased largely on the RVA pattern by addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ to starch. The results of differential scanning calorimeter showed that molecular structure of starch was getting stabilized through shifting up of gelatinization temperature and increase in enthalpy by addition of ${\beta}$-glucan. X-ray diffraction pattern also showed the same results as differential scanning calorimeter. But it was revealed that addition of ${\beta}$-glucan to starch didn't affect characteristics such as microscopic observation, solubility, swelling power, and iodine binding properties during gelatinization of starch.

Effect of Ohmic Heating on Thermal and Water Holding Property of Starches (옴가열이 전분의 열적 특성과 흡수력에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.112-119
    • /
    • 2014
  • Ohmic heating uses electric resistance heat which occurs equally and rapidly inside food when the electrical current is transmitted into. Prior to the study, we have researched the potato starch's thermal property changes during ohmic heating. Comparing with conventional heating, the gelatinization temperature and the range of potato starch treated by ohmic heating are increased and narrowed respectively. Herein, we have studied thermal property changes of wheat, corn, potato and sweet potato starch by ohmic heating as well as conventional heating. And then we measure the water holding capacity of starches. Annealing of starch is a heat treatment method heated at 3~4% below the gelatinization point. This treatment changes the starch's thermal property. In the DSC analysis of this study, the $T_o$, $T_p$, $T_c$ of all starch levels have increased, and the $T_c$-$T_o$ narrowed. In the ohmic heating, the treatment sample is extensively changed but not with the conventional heating. From the ohmic treatment, increases from gelatinization temperature are potato ($8.3^{\circ}C$) > wheat ($5.3^{\circ}C$) > corn ($4.9^{\circ}C$) > sweet potato ($4.5^{\circ}C$), and gelatinization ranges are potato ($7.9^{\circ}C$), wheat ($7.5^{\circ}C$), corn ($6.1^{\circ}C$) and sweet potato ($6.8^{\circ}C$). In the case of conventional treatment, water holding capacity is not changed with increasing temperature but the ohmic heating is increased. Water holding capacity is related to the degree of gelatinization for starch. This result show that when treated with below gelatinization temperature, the starches are partly gelatined by ohmic treatment. When viewing the results of the above, ohmic treatment is enhanced by heating and generating electric currents to the starch structure.

Comparison of Differential Scanning Calorimetry with Enzymatic Method for the Determination of Gelatinization Degree of Corn Starch (DSC에 의한 전분의 Endothermic peak와 효소분석법에 의한 호화도 비교)

  • Lee, Boo-Yong;Mok, Chul-Kyoon;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.400-403
    • /
    • 1993
  • Gelatinization degrees of torn and waxy corn starches in the low-moisture environment were determined by DSC thermogram and enzymatic analysis, the results were compared each other As the moisture content increased from 20% to 70%, the enthalpy of endothermic peak of starch increased linearly in DSC thermograms. When the moisture content exceeded above 70%, the DSC enthalpy of starch remained constant in DSC thermogram. The enthalpies for gelatinization of corn and waxy corn starches were 3.23 cal/g and 4.2 cal/g, respectively. When gelatinization degrees of starches were measured by enzymatic analysis, the gelatinization degree increased linearly as the moisture content increased from 20% to 80%. A linear correlation between DSC and enzymatic analysis was obtained only when the moisture content was under 70%.

  • PDF

Effect of flaking on the digestibility of corn in ruminants

  • Kang, Hamin;Lee, Mingyung;Jeon, Seoyoung;Lee, Sang Moon;Lee, Ju Hwan;Seo, Seongwon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.63 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1018-1033
    • /
    • 2021
  • In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of flaking on the nutrient digestibility of corn grain in ruminants. In this regard, in vitro rumen fermentation, in situ rumen degradability, and in vivo metabolic experiments were performed. The automated gas production technique was used for the in vitro fermentation experiments. Six types of corn flakes with various degrees of gelatinization (32%, 41%, 48%, 66%, 86%, and 89%) were ground and incubated in rumen fluid to measure rumen fermentation characteristics and digestion rate. The in situ degradability of ground corn, whole corn, and corn flakes with 62% and 66% gelatinization was measured by incubation in the rumen of two cannulated Holstein cows. In vivo metabolic experiments were performed using 12 crossbred goats (29.8 ± 4.37 kg) using a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The dietary treatments consisted of ground corn and flaked corn with 48% or 62% gelatinization. In vitro experiments showed that as the degree of gelatinization increased, the digestion rate increased linearly, while the discrete lag time decreased linearly (p < 0.05). The effective rumen dry matter degradability, determined by in situ fermentation, was 37%p lower in corn flakes than ground corn, assuming a passage rate of 6%/h (p < 0.01), and there was no difference between the two flakes. In the in vivo experiment, there was no difference in dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and nitrogen utilization among the treatment groups (p > 0.05); however, the crude fat digestibility was lower for corn flakes than for ground corn (p < 0.05). To summarize, the rate of fermentation of corn flakes increased as the degree of gelatinization increased. However, non-ground corn flakes had lower rumen digestibility and did not improve in vivo apparent nutrient digestibility, compared with ground corn. In contrast to the assumption that flaked corn provides more energy to ruminant animals than ground corn, we conclude that the digestibility and energy value of corn flakes are lower than those of ground corn if mastication does not sufficiently reduce the particle size of corn flakes.

Varietal Variation of Alkali Digestion Value and Its Relationship with Gelatinization Temperature and Water Absorption Rate of Milled Rice Grain (쌀 알칼리붕괴반응의 품종간 변이와 호화온도 및 수분흡수율과의 관계)

  • Kwang-Ho Kim
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.37 no.1
    • /
    • pp.28-36
    • /
    • 1992
  • Fifty rice varieties were tested for alkali digestibility of milled rice grain at four different KOH levels, and twenty-four varieties selected were tested again for alkali digestibility at different degrading times and KOH levels. Gelatinization rate at several heating times and heating temperatures, and water absorption rate at 21$^{\circ}C$ and 77$^{\circ}C$ water temperatures were observed using rice samples of twenty-four varieties to clarify the relationship between alkali digestibility response, gelatinization rate and water absorption rate. Varietal difference of ADV in Japonica and Tongil tye rices was biggest at KOH 1.2%, but it was better to test at KOH 1.2% and 1.4% levels to know the exact alkali digestibility response of rice varieties. Rice varieties tested could be classified into three groups, low, intermediate and high, based on their alkali digestibility response at four KOH levels, and most of Korean cultivated rice varieties were belonged to intermediate or high ADV group. Varietal variation was also found in alkali degrading response at different soaking times in alkali solution. Low ADV varietal group showed higher gelatinization temperature and needed longer heating time for complete gelatinization compared with intermediate or high ADV group. Same trends was found between intermediate and high ADV groups, but varietal variation in the same ADV group was also found in gelatinization temperature and heating time needed for complete gelatinization of rice grain. Water absorption rate of low ADV group was lower than intermediate or high ADV group both at 21$^{\circ}C$ and 77$^{\circ}C$ water temperatures, and intermediate ADV group showed lower absorption rate than high ADV group only in initial water absorption stage at 21$^{\circ}C$.

  • PDF

Studies on the Processing Properties and Interactions Between Porcine Blood Proteins and Waxy Rice Starch During Making Porcine Blood Cake

  • Lin, Chin-Wen;Yang, Jeng-Huh;Chu, Hsien-Pin;Su, Ho-Ping;Chen, Hsiao-Ling;Huang, Chia-Cheong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.358-364
    • /
    • 2001
  • The physiochemical properties and interactions between porcine blood and waxy rice were determined. Addition of calcium chloride (0.15%) improved acceptability of blood cake and increased the gelatinization degree of waxy rice. The water-holding capacity of porcine blood gel (blood/water=60/40, v/v), extent of absorption and gelatinization of waxy rice, and scanning electron microscopy showed that blood protein matrix and waxy rice are competitors for holding water in the cooking procedure. Non-haem iron content increased linearly (R=0.95) when heating temperature rose. The presence of blood proteins caused increasing of peak temperature (Tp) of gelatinization in differential scanning calorimetric thermal gram, The microstnlcture of plasma proteins and haemoglobin appeared continuous changes, and interacted with surface of waxy rice flour in terms of network and mosaic form, respectively. The electrophoretic patterns revealed an interaction between plasma proteins and waxy rice glutelin and haemoglobin when heated could be found at temperatures above $60^{\circ}C$.

Effects of Various Salts on the Reheating Behavior of Retrograded Rice Starch and Cooked Rice

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Kim, Bo-Reum;Lee, Seog-Won;Rhee, Chul
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.157-164
    • /
    • 2011
  • The influence of sodium salts and chlorides at various concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00%) on the reheating behavior of retrograded rice starch and cooked rice was investigated. The degree of gelatinization of the all retrograded rice starch gels and the cooked rice containing sodium salts and chlorides increased after reheating compared to the starches without salt. Gelatinization also showed an increasing trend as the concentration of sodium salts and chlorides increased. The increase of gelatinization after reheating the samples containing sodium salts and chlorides was greater than 38.0%. The reheated retrograded rice starch and cooked rice containing $Na_3PO_4$ showed the lowest set back value and retrogradation rate constant. Among all the samples, the cooked sample containing $Na_3PO_4$ showed the highest increment of gelatinization after reheating. Also, this same sample showed the lowest retrogradation degree.

Effects of Particle Size and Gelatinization of Job's Tears Powder on the Instant Properties

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Park, Soo-Jea;Lee, Seog-Won;Rhee, Chul
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.67-73
    • /
    • 2010
  • The effects of particle sizes (small, medium and large sizes) and gelatinization treatment on the changes of the instant properties of Job's tears powder were investigated. The degree of gelatinization on the different particle size samples of Job's tears powder was the highest in the small particle size, and it also showed an increasing trend regardless of pregelatinizing whether it is or not as the particle size decreased from large particle size to small particle size. The water solubility index of the pregelatinized samples was high compared to that of ungelatinized samples regardless of particle size and temperatures. The water absorption and swelling power increased as particle size and temperature were increased. The dispersibility and sinkability of ungelatinized sample was increased as particle size and temperature were increased and it also showed lower value regardless of particle size and temperature. However, the dispersibility and sinkability of pregelatinized samples were shown to have the opposite result, such that the smallest particle size of pregelatinized sample had the lowest sinkability (11.3%). The turbidity of the pregelatinized small particle size was the highest by a factor of 1.08.

In-Process Control of an Infant Formula with Rice Starch using Rheology (쌀 전분의 유동성을 함유한 영.유아용 조제분유의 공정 관리)

  • Heo, Young-Suk;Konuklar, Gul
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.45-49
    • /
    • 2008
  • We studied the feasibility of monitoring and controlling the manufacturing process of an infant formula with rice starch by testing in-process samples using rheology. We used DSC to first determine the gelatinization temperature of the rice starch, a key ingredient of this product. With this characteristic temperature and the process design known, rheological measurements were conducted on the in-process samples for detecting the presence and extent of gelatinization and retrogradation of rice starch; in-process samples were collected from the carbohydrate tank, after the homogenizer, and the finished product tank. The correlation between the rheological measurements on these samples and manufacturing performance proved that rheology is a very sensitive tool for monitoring the structural development of this infant formula during main process, and their influence on sterilization efficiency. We observed that the lower degree of gelatinization during main process, a shorter residence time in the finished product tank, and using caustic flush rather than clean-in-place additively lead to higher sterilization efficiency. These findings can be utilized for a rational design and analysis of the manufacturing process for infant formulas containing rice starch.

  • PDF