• Title, Summary, Keyword: Genetic Diversity

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Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Comus controversa Hemsley Using RAPD (RAPD에 의한 층층나무의 유전적 다양성과 집단구조)

  • Moon, Sung-Gi;Huh, Man-Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.175-179
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    • 2008
  • Cornus controversa is a long-lived woody species mostly distributed in East Asia. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Korean populations of this species. A high level of genetic variation was found in seven populations of C. controversa. The mean genetic diversity (H) was 0.222 across populations, varying from 0.200 to 0.238. Eighty of the 93 loci (86.0%) showed detectable polymorphism in at least one population. Total genetic diversity values ($H_T$) varied between 0.192 and 0.231, giving an average overall polymorphic loci of 0.212. The interlocus variation of genetic diversity within populations ($H_S$) was high (0.167). Mean of genetic diversity in C. controversa was higher than average values for species with similar life history traits. The sexual reproduction, perennial habitat, and longevity are proposed as possible factors contributing to high genetic diversity. On a per locus basis, the proportion of total genetic variation due to differences among populations ($G_{ST}$) ranged from 0.169 to 0.278 with a mean of 0.216, indicating that about 21.6% of the total genetic variation was among populations. An indirect estimate of the number of migrants per generation (Nm=1.893) indicated that gene flow was extensive among Korean populations of C. controversa.

Genetic Variation in the Selected Populations of Hovenia dulcis var. koreana Nakai. Based on RAPD Analysis

  • Kim Sea-Hyun;Han Jin-Gyu;Chung Hun-Gwan;Cho Yoon-Jin;Park Hyung-Soon
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2005
  • This study used RAPD markers to assume genetic diversity and variation in selected populations of Hovenia dulcis var. koreana. Ratio of polymorphic RAPD markers were 93.4% in selected populations of Hovenia dulcis Thunb., difference of genetic structure among populations and within populations showed 16.45%, 83.55%, respectively in amount of total genetic variation of 4 populations. Total gene diversity($H_T$) that show genetic diversity appeared 0.313 and coefficient of gene differentiation($G_{ST}$) that compare genetic differentiation of populations appeared 0.1645, analysis of AMOVA for variation among populations and within populations was significantly different (P<0.001). Genetic diversity of whole populations showed that 12.44% difference among population and 87.56% difference within populations. As a result, difference within populations was larger than difference among populations in genetic diversity. Nei's genetic distance and cluster analysis appeared that mean genetic distance among populations was 0.076, thus dividing two main groups and geographic relationship did not show in populations.

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Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of maize, Zea mays, in Both Landraces and Cultivar Lines

  • Huh, Man-Kyu;Lee, In-Sup
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2002
  • Enzyme electrophoresis was used to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of maize, Zea mays L. (Graminales) in Korea. In nine populations, fourteen of the 24 loci (58.3 %) showed detectable polymorphism. Genetic diversity (0.205) was higher than average values for species with similar life history traits. Although our data are relatively small and the landraces not direct ancestors of cultivar, apparently the domestication process has eroded the levels of genetic variation of maize. The recent cultivars were found to have fewer alleles per locus (1.42 vs. 1.56), fewer alleles per polymorphic locus (2.27 vs. 2.33), lower percent polymorphic locus (33.3% vs. 41.7%), and lower diversity (0.159 vs. 0.185) than landraces. These genetic diversity parameters indicated that the cultivar populations were genetically depauperate relative to landlaces. The GST value of nine populations was 0.239. Nearly 76% of the total genetic diversity in Zea mays was apportioned within populations. The indirect estimate of gene new based on mean GST was moderate (Nm=0.80).

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Genetic Diversity of the Mud Crab Scylla serrata in Micronesia based on Microsatellite Marker Analysis (마이크로세틀라이트 마커 분석을 이용한 남서태평양 일대에 서식하는 남방톱날꽃게(Scylla serrata)의 유전적 다양성)

  • Jang, Yo-Soon;Yi, Soon-Kil;Noh, Choong-Hwan;Oh, Sung-Yong
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2009
  • Analysis of four microsatellite markers from Mud Crab Scylla serrata revealed that there is high level of genetic diversity within this species. Genetic diversity of S. serrata was calculated using allele diversity, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity (Het-exp), polymorphic information content, gene differentiation and Nei's $D_{A}$ distance. Mean polymorphic information content value was 0.797, which reflected high level of polymorphism across the loci of S. serrata. The Palau population has the highest genetic diversity (Het-exp=0.871), while the Kosrae population has the lowest genetic diversity (Hetexp=0.806). However, the geographical genetic distance among S. serrata populations from Yab, Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Palau were low (0.2009${\sim}$0.3350). These results suggest that despite their wide distribution, S. serrata are no different in geographical genetic diversity within the five sampled locations.

Effects of habitat differences on the genetic diversity of Persicaria thunbergii

  • Nam, Bo Eun;Nam, Jong Min;Kim, Jae Geun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.84-88
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    • 2016
  • To understand the effects of habitat characteristics on the genetic diversity of Persicaria thunbergii, three sites of different environmental conditions in a water system were surveyed. Site A was the closest to the source of the water system, and there was a dam between sites A and B. Site C is located on the lowest downstream in the water system. Vegetation survey of four quadrats at each site was performed, and soil samples were collected for physicochemical analysis. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of ten P. thunbergii individuals at each site was conducted to calculate population genetic diversity and genetic distance among populations. Soil was sterile sand at site A, whereas loamy soil at sites B and C. A pure stand of P. thunbergii appeared at site A, while other species occurred together (such as Humulus japonicus and Phragmites australis) at sites B (Shannon-Wiener index; $H_B=0.309$) and C ($H_C=0.299$). Similar to the species diversity, genetic diversity (Nei's gene diversity; h) within population of site A ($h_A=0.2381$) was relatively lower than sites B ($h_B=0.2761$) and C ($h_C=0.2618$). However, site C was separated from sites A and B in genetic distance rather than the geographical distance (Nei's genetic distance; A~B, 0.0338; B~C, 0.0685; A~C, 0.0833).

Genetic Diversity of Magra Sheep from India Using Microsatellite Analysis

  • Arora, R.;Bhatia, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.938-942
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    • 2006
  • Genetic diversity of Magra - a lustrous carpet wool breed of India, was investigated by means of 25 ovine microsatellite markers proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Society for Animal Genetics (FAO-ISAG). All used microsatellites amplified well and exhibited polymorphisms. A wide range of genetic variability was observed as allele number from 3 (BM6506, OarCP20) to 10 (CSSM31), observed heterozygosity from 0.200 (BM6506) to 0.947 (OarHH35), expected heterozygosity from 0.368 (CSSM47) to 0.864 (BM1314) and Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) from 0.347 (CSSM47) to 0.849 (BM1314). This supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in the measurement of genetic diversity indices in Indian sheep too. Various average genetic variability measures viz., allele diversity (5.7), observed heterozygosity (0.597), expected heterozygosity (0.694) and mean PIC (0.648) values showed high genetic variability despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by the high average inbreeding coefficient ($F_{IS}=0.159$) due to the unequal sex ratio of the breeding animals.

Genetic Diversity Among Waxy Corn Accessions in Korea Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

  • Park, Jun-Seong;Park, Jong-Yeol;Park, Ki-Jin;Lee, Ju-Kyong
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2008
  • Knowledge of genetic diversity and of the genetic relationships among elite breeding materials has had a significant impact on the improvement of crops. In maize, this information is particularly useful in i) planning crosses for hybrid and line development, ii) in assigning lines to heterotic groups and iii) in plant variety protection. We have used the SSR technique to study the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among 76 Korean waxy corn accessions, representing a diverse collection from throughout Korea. Assessment of genetic diversity among members of this group was conducted using 30 microsatellite markers. Among these 30 microsatellite markers, we identified a total of 127 alleles (with an average of 4.2 and a range of between 2 and 9 alleles per locus). Gene diversity at these 30 microsatellite loci varied from 0.125 to 0.795 with an average of 0.507. The cluster tree generated with the described microsatellite markers recognized two major groups with 36.5% genetic similarity. Group I includes 63 inbred lines, with similarity coefficients of between 0.365 and 0.99. Group II includes 13 inbred lines, with similarity coefficients of between 0.45 and 0.85. The present study indicates that the 30 microsatellite loci chosen for this analysis are effective molecular markers for the assessment of genetic diversity and genetic relationships between Korean waxy corn accessions. Specifically, this study's assessment of genetic diversity and relationships between a set of 76 Korean waxy corn inbred lines will be helpful for such activities as planning crosses for hybrid and line development and association mapping analyses of maize breeding programs in Korea.

Assessment of genetic diversity of Typha angustifolia in the development of cattail stands

  • Min, So-Jung;Kim, Heung-Tae;Kim, Jae-Geun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2012
  • Typha angustifolia has ecological characteristics of clonal growth similar to Phragmites australis. The plant spreads byclonal growth and seed dispersal. In this study, for the three stands which have different settlement age at the Baksilji wetland in Korea, genetic diversity was estimated by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis to evaluate the change in genetic diversity of T. angustifolia during stand development in the same population. Stand (ST) 1 was the oldest and ST 4 was the youngest. ST 5 was in a small ditch out of the Baksilji. Although the ST 1, ST 2, and ST 3 did not differ significantly in vegetational or physical environment, the genetic diversity estimated according to Nei's gene diversity (h) and the Shannon index (i) increased in the order of ST 1 < ST 2 < ST 3 contrary to formative age. The genetic diversity of ST 4 was much higher than that of the other three stands. ST 4 has similar abiotic environmental conditions with slight T. angustifolia dominance, and seems to be in the early establishment stage. ST 5 differed from the other stands in vegetational and soil environments, which can result in stressful cattail conditions. Even though the ST 5 stand was not younger than the ST 4 stand, ST 5 showed the highest genetic diversity. Our results indicate that after early settlement of the T. angustifolia population, genetic diversity within the species decreased over time and that the decreasing pattern of genetic diversity within T. angustifolia stands is not likely to occur under stressful conditions.

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

  • Suh, Sangwon;Kim, Young-Sin;Cho, Chang-Yeon;Byun, Mi-Jeong;Choi, Seong-Bok;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Lee, Chang Woo;Jung, Kyoung-Sub;Bae, Kyoung Hun;Kim, Jae-Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1548-1553
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    • 2014
  • Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds-Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black-are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.

Genetic Diversity and Metabolite Analysis of Gastrodia elata by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) Markers (ISSR 표지에 의한 천마의 유전 다양성분석 및 기능성 물질분석)

  • Kim, Hyun Tae;Kim, Ji Ah;Park, Eung Jun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.440-446
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    • 2012
  • Gastrodia elata, an achlorophyllous orchid plant, is rare medicinal plant. We investigated the genetic diversity in G. elata from 4 locations by using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers. Shannon's information Index (S.I.) indicating genetic diversity ranged from 0.255 (Pocheon) to 0.322 (Muju) with the mean of 0.29. The level of genetic diversity was lower than other plant and most genetic diversity was allocated among individuals within populations (26.81%). The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance failed in showing decisive geographic relationship. In the case of gastrodin (GA), the major components in G. elata, Sangju was highest. The ergothionine (ERG) was detected a lot of contents in Muju and Pocheon. In conclusion, our results is very important information for explaining relationship of genetic variation and functional substances without the effects of environment factors and developing genetic marker by ISSR in G. elata, which may be responsible for the development of breeds with a lot of functional substance in G. elata.