• Title, Summary, Keyword: Genetic toxicity

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Novel Genotoxic Strategies for Efficiently Detect Chemicals' Carcinogenicity (노동자 건강보호를 위한 최신 유전독성학 연구전략)

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Effective genetic toxicology and molecular biology research techniques and strategies that are highly correlated with the carcinogenic inhalation toxicity test and related research are required. The aim of this study was to maximize the utilization of chemical substances to prevent workers' occupational diseases. Methods: We surveyed the literature, domestic and international references, and the status of relevant domestic and foreign professional organizations. Expert advisory opinions were reflected, and experts were consulted by participating in domestic and overseas academic conferences. Results: The current status of domestic and international genotoxic toxicity evaluation was examined through various documents from related organizations. Cell models for in vitro lung toxicology were investigated and summarized, and the human resources and performance results of genetic toxicity studies and pilot projects were compared and analyzed by holding an advisory meeting. We examined domestic and international genotoxicity guidelines and investigated new test methods for the development of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Ultimately, we described long-term future predictions, including the implementation of our researchers' recommendations and occupational genetic toxicology forecasts for future worker health protection. Conclusions: This research project aims to establish current genetic toxicology and molecular biology research techniques and strategies that can maximize the linkage with the carcinogenic inhalation toxicity test and research in the future. We expanded the study of genetic toxicity and establish a foundation forgenetic toxicity in accordance with research trends in Korea and abroad.

Safety study on Genetic Toxicity of Cervi Pantotrichum Cornu Herbal acupuncture Solution(CPCHA) (유전독성시험에 의한 녹용약침의 안전성 연구)

  • Seo, Bu-Il;Byun, Boo-Hyeong
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate genetic toxicity of Cervi pantotrichum Cornu herbal acupuncture solution(CPCHA). Methods : In this study, a series of investigation have been carried out to analyze the effects of Cervi pantotrichum Cornu herball acupuncture solution(CPCHA) on colony forming ability of NIH3T3cells, Hela cells and adrenorectal coloncell for genetic toxicity test. Results and Conclusions : From the above results, it is suggested that Cervi pantotrichum Cornu herball acupuncture solution(CPCHA) was limited 0.5-10ug/ml by test. Cervi pantotrichum Cornu herball acupuncture solution(CPCHA) did not exert the protective role to the genetic toxicity in kinds of cell lines used in this study. From these results, Cervi pantotrichum Cornu herbal aqua-acupuncture solution needs further study to prove it's function in cell culture system.

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Genotoxicity Study of Glycopeptide (G-7%NANA)

  • Kim, Ha-Young;Kim, Min-Hee;Kim, Hee-Kyong;Park, Yeong-Chul
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2018
  • Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein of milk, has functions including differentiation and development of nervous system, and anticancer and antiviral effects. To develop new functions, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) containing 7% sialic acid was separated from GMP to produce G-7%NANA. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is another type of sialic acid separated from GMP, which has been linked to immune disorders and chronic inflammation-mediated diseases. Therefore, safety was a concern in the use of G-7%NANA in functional foods. To ensure safety, in this study, three genetic toxicity tests on G-7%NANA were conducted. In the reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, and in the chromosome aberration test using CHO-K1 cells, no significant differences from negative control were found at all dose levels. Similarly, no dose-related differences were evident compared to negative control in the micronucleus test using ICR mice. There was no evidence of G-7%NANA-related genetic toxicity.

ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF HEPACCINE-B(HEPATITIS B VACCINE)

  • Lee, Yong-Soon;Cho, Jung-Silk;Kim, Sun-Chul
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 1986
  • Acute toxicity study was conducted on a Hepatitis B vaccine (Hepaccine-B-inj.) with mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, in accordance with the norms suggested by the F.D.A. in U.S.A. Dose ranges were 2 doses/mouse, 5 doses/guinea pig, 10 doses/rabbit. They received the vaccine subcutaneously and intraperitoneally. Thereafter, all animals injected were observed of general signsdaily, and of body weight for two weeks. At the end of the observation period (or at the time of death), all animals received the highest dose group were autopsied and gross observation was made on various organs and tissues. No significant toxicity was noted.

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Immunotoxicological Effects of Aripiprazole: In vivo and In vitro Studies

  • Baek, Kwang-Soo;Ahn, Shinbyoung;Lee, Jaehwi;Kim, Ji Hye;Kim, Han Gyung;Kim, Eunji;Kim, Jun Ho;Sung, Nak Yoon;Yang, Sungjae;Kim, Mi Seon;Hong, Sungyoul;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Cho, Jae Youl
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2015
  • Aripiprazole (ARI) is a commonly prescribed medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To date, there have been no studies regarding the molecular pathological and immunotoxicological profiling of aripiprazole. Thus, in the present study, we prepared two different formulas of aripiprazole [Free base crystal of aripiprazole (ARPGCB) and cocrystal of aripiprazole (GCB3004)], and explored their effects on the patterns of survival and apoptosis-regulatory proteins under acute toxicity and cytotoxicity test conditions. Furthermore, we also evaluated the modulatory activity of the different formulations on the immunological responses in macrophages primed by various stimulators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pam3CSK, and poly(I:C) via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and TLR3 pathways, respectively. In liver, both ARPGCB and GCB3004 produced similar toxicity profiles. In particular, these two formulas exhibited similar phospho-protein profiling of p65/nuclear factor $(NF)-{\kappa}B$, c-Jun/activator protein (AP)-1, ERK, JNK, p38, caspase 3, and bcl-2 in brain. In contrast, the patterns of these phospho-proteins were variable in other tissues. Moreover, these two formulas did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells. Finally, the two formulations at available in vivo concentrations did not block nitric oxide (NO) production from activated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, pam3CSK, or poly(I:C), nor did they alter the morphological changes of the activated macrophages. Taken together, our present work, as a comparative study of two different formulas of aripiprazole, suggests that these two formulas can be used to achieve similar functional activation of brain proteins related to cell survival and apoptosis and immunotoxicological activities of macrophages.

EVALUATION OF GENETIC TOXICITY FROM ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN DAPHNIA MAGNA AND CHIRONOMUS TENTANS FOR APPLICATION IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

  • Park, Sun-Young;Lee, Si-Won;Choi, Jin-Hee
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2006
  • The genetic toxicity of environmental pollutants, namely, nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and chloropyriphos (CP) was investigated in aquatic sentinel species, freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna, and larva of aquatic midge, Chironomus tentans, using Comet assay. Physiological effect of such pollutants was also investigated by studying the specimens' rates of reproduction, growth and survival. Acute toxicity results showed that, as expected, Daphnia was more sensitive than Chironomus to chemical exposure. The order of acute toxicity was CP > NP > BPA in D. magna and NP > CP > BPA in C. tentans. BPA may exert a genotoxic effect on D. magna and C. tentans, given that DNA strand breaks increased in both species exposed to this compound, whereas NP- and CP-induced DNA damage occurred only in C. tentans. In vivo genotoxic data obtained in aquatic sentinel species could provide valuable information for freshwater quality monitoring. The experiments with NP-exposed D. magna showed that the pollutant has long-term effects on reproduction, whereas no short-term effect on DNA integrity was found, being an example of a false-negative result from the biomarkers perspective. This result could be interpreted that other mechanism than genetic alteration might be involved in NP-induced reproduction failure in D. magna. False-positive results from the genotoxic biomarker obtained in BPA-exposed D. magna and in NP-exposed C. tentans make it difficult to use DNA integrity as an early warning biomarker. However, as the mere presence of genotoxic compounds, which are potentially carcinogenic, is of high concern to human and ecosystem health, it could also be important to rapidly and effectively detect genotoxic compounds in the aquatic system in ways that do not necessarily accompany a higher level of alteration. Considering the potential of D. magna and C. tentans as bioindicator species, and the importance of genotoxic biomarkers in ecotoxicity monitoring, DNA damage in these species could provide useful information for environmental risk assessment.

Genetic Toxicity Test of o-Nitrotoluene by Ames, Micronucleus, Comet Assays and Microarray Analysis

  • Lee, Eun-Mi;Lee, So-Youn;Lee, Woo-Sun;Kang, Jin-Seok;Han, Eui-Sik;Go, Seo-Youn;Sheen, Yhun-Yong;Kim, Seung-Hee;Park, Sue-Nie
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2007
  • o-Nitrotoluene is used to synthesize artificial dyes and raw materials of urethane resin. In this study, we have carried out in vitro genetic toxicity tests and microarray analysis to understand the underlying mechanisms and the mode of action of toxicity of onitrotoluene. TA1535 and TA98 cells were treated with o-nitrotoluene to test its toxicity by basic genetic toxicity test. Ames and two new in vitro micronucleus and COMET assays were applied using CHO cells and L5178Y cells, respectively. In addition, microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in L5178Y cells in response to o-nitrotoluene was analyzed using Affymatrix genechip. The result of Ames test was that o-nitrotoluene treatment did not increase the mutations both in base substitution strain TA1535 and in frame shift TA98. o-Nitrotoluene has not increased micronuclei in CHO cells. But onitrotoluene increased DNA damage in L5178Y cell. Two-hundred two genes were initially selected as differentially expressed genes in response to o-nitrotoluene by microarray analysis and forty four genes among them were over 2 times of log fold changed. These forty four genes could be candidate biomarkers of genetic toxic action of o-nitrotoluene related to induction of mutation and/or induction of micronuclei and DNA damage. Further confirmation of these candidate markers related to the DNA damage will be useful to understand the detailed mechanism of action of o-nitrotoluene.

Human-yeast genetic interaction for disease network: systematic discovery of multiple drug targets

  • Suk, Kyoungho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.11
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    • pp.535-536
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    • 2017
  • A novel approach has been used to identify functional interactions relevant to human disease. Using high-throughput human-yeast genetic interaction screens, a first draft of disease interactome was obtained. This was achieved by first searching for candidate human disease genes that confer toxicity in yeast, and second, identifying modulators of toxicity. This study found potentially disease-relevant interactions by analyzing the network of functional interactions and focusing on genes implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), for example. In the subsequent proof-of-concept study focused on ALS, similar functional relationships between a specific kinase and ALS-associated genes were observed in mammalian cells and zebrafish, supporting findings in human-yeast genetic interaction screens. Results of combined analyses highlighted MAP2K5 kinase as a potential therapeutic target in ALS.

Evaluation of General Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Silkworm Extract Powder

  • Heo, Hyun-Suk;Choi, Jae-Hun;Oh, Jung-Ja;Lee, Woo-Joo;Kim, Seong-Sook;Lee, Do-Hoon;Lee, Hyun-Kul;Song, Si-Whan;Kim, Kap-Ho;Choi, Yang-Kyu;Ryu, Kang-Sun;Kang, Boo-Hyon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.263-278
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    • 2013
  • The silkworm extract powder contain 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent ${\alpha}$-glycosidase inhibitor, has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. Therefore, natural products containing DNJ from mulberry leaves and silkworm are consumed as health functional food. The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of the silkworm extract powder, a health food which containing the DNJ. The repeated toxicity studies and gentic toxicity studies of the silkworm extract powder were performed to obtain the data for new functional food approval in MFDS. The safety was evaluated by a single-dose oral toxicity study and a 90 day repeated-dose oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. The silkworm extract powder was also evaluated for its mutagenic potential in a battery of genetic toxicity test: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. The results of the genetic toxicology assays were negative in all of the assays. The approximate lethal dose in single oral dose toxicity study was considered to be higher than 5000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 day study, the dose levels were wet at 0, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg/day, and 10 animals/sex/dose were treated with oral gavage. The parameters that were monitored were clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumptions, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weights, and histopathological examination. No adverse effects were observed after the 90 day administration of the silkworm extract powder. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of silkworm extract powder in the 90 day study was 2000 mg/kg/day in both sexes, and no target organ was identified.