• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gingko biloba

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Studies on the Air Pollution Tolerance of the Urban Trees (대기오염에 대한 가로수의 내연성 연구)

  • Bae J. O.;Kim J. G.;Kim J. B.;Park J. J.
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 1986
  • This study was performed to investigate the air pollution tolerance of urban trees; Gingko biloba, Platanus occidentalis, Salix pseudolagiogyne and Purunus serrulata growing in Seoul, Taegu, Chungju area. Vitality of trees and water soluble sulfur content in the leaves were determined at 24 points in those cities. The ratio of the each number of Platanus occidentalis, Gingko biloba, Salix psuedolagiogyne and Prunus serrulata to the total number of urban tree in Seoul area was $49.38\%,\; 17.36\%,\; 13.42\%,\;2.43\%$, respectively. Its ratio in Taegu area was $36.76\%,\;14.25\%,\;13.36\%,\;3.32\%$ and in the Chungju area was $59.06\%,\;17.35\%,\;11.09\%,\;8.33\%$, respectively. The species deversity was 0.7017, 09067, 0.5297 in Seoul, Taegu, Chungju, respectively. The significant correlation between the S02 concentration and the tree vitality highly found on Platanus occidentalis, Gingko biloba, Salix pseudolagiogyne and Prunus serrulata. Positive correlation coefficient between $SO_2$ concentration and water soluble sulfur content were shown on Platanus occidentalis, Salix pseudolagiogyne and Prunus serrulata and that between tree vitality and water soluble sulfur content were shown on Platanus occidentalis and Gingko biloba. The tolerant to the S02 gas was high in order of Salix pseudolagiogyne, Gingko biloba, Prunus serrulata and Platanus occidentalis. Also the absorption activity to the $SO_2$ gas was high in order of Salix psuedolagiogyne, Gingko biloba, Platanus occidentalis and Prunus serrulata.

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Studies on toxic substances of Gingko leaves inducing contact dermatitis in rabbit (은행엽(銀杏葉)의 가토(家兎) 피부(皮膚) 접촉성염증(接觸性炎症) 유발(誘發) 독성물질(毒成物質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Baek, Byeong-kirl;Kim, Byeong-su;Kim, Sun-hee;Ahn, Byung-zun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 1991
  • Gingko biloba is one of the oldest trees on earth. It can be traced 300 million years or more into past. In recent years, this tree has become increasingly popular because of its longevity. Amount of comsumption of Gingko leaves in Korea is increased to produce drugs for blood circulating system's disorder. The workers who work at the company of product drug with Gingko leaves complain pruritus at belt position of west, however toxic substance from extracts of Gingko biloba was carried out to determine what kind of the toxic substance from extract could induce a contact dermatitis by means of histopathological study. Dried leaves of Korean G. biloba were exhaustively extracted with chloroform. The aqueous chloroform residue was extracted with hexane. After evaporation, the hexane extract was passed through a silica gel column chromatography, it was separated into 9 fractions by means of gradient solvent (benzene: acetone/ 98~93 : 2~7%). The 4th and 7th fraction were idendified as bilibol and gingkolic acid by silica gel thin layer chromatography and NMR spectrophotometer. The 4th and 7th fractions of Korean Gingko leaves have an irritant substances which can be induced ear swelling and increased thickness of stratum cornium of rabbit ear exposed with the fractions (3 time/3 day, $100{\mu}l$ of 50mg/ml ethyl alcohol). In the 4th fraction, the substance have induced the surface of ear to swell and mass of unknown cell like inflammatory cell were infiltrated within the stratum corneum, and the 7th fraction have the surface of ear to loss the hairs, and sebaceous gland and follicle of hair were infiltrated with inflammatory cells. and other fractions at all did not induced a certain contact dermatitis and also Deutschen drug of Gingko (named as Gerigeron) have induced the contact dermatitis such as dematitis of Korean Gingko extract.

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Antibacterial Activities of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extracts Against Isolated Bacteria from Museums (박물관에서 분리된 세균에 대한 은행잎 추출물의 항균활성)

  • Kwon, Young-Suk;Cho, Hyun-Hok;Jeong, Seong-Yun;Lee, Sang-Youb;Kim, Min-Ju;Cho, Sun-Ja;Lee, Sang-Joon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.983-988
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    • 2006
  • The textile remains have been affected largely by environmental factors including microorganisms because they were composed of organic compounds to be easy to damage. So, we selected 8 strains of the 131 isolated strains from museum environments and textile remains by high pretense activity, and identified them for measuring the antibacterial activity of Gingko biloba extracts. They were identified Genus Arthrobacter spp. 3 strains (Arthrobacter nicotiannae A12, Arthrobacter sp B12, Arthrobacter oxidans B13), Cenus Bacillus spp. 2 strains (Bacillus licheniformis D9, Bacillus cereus D33), Genus Pseudomonas spp. 2 strains (Pseudomonas putida A24, Pseufomonas fluorescene C21) and a Genus Staphylococcus sp. 1 strain (Staphylococcus pasteuri D3) as closest strains through the blast search of NCBI. Though antibacterial activity of the extracts of Gingko biloba leaves as MIC was lower than that of other pharmaceutical antibiotics. However the extracts was crude extracts, the extracts might have good antibacterial against most of the isolates from museum. Especially, the antifungal activity of Gingko biloba is known previously, the extracts of Gingko biloba leaves has possibility of usage as a good natural material for conservation of remains.

Air Pollution Effects on the Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Contents of Street Trees in Seoul (대기오염 피해를 받은 서울시내 가로수의 엽록소함량과 광합성 특성)

  • 우수영;이성한;이동섭
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of air pollution on the street trees in Seoul. Ten Gingko biloba street trees were selected in both Jongno(polluted area as a control) and Yangjae(non-polluted area) to investigate chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes such as APX(Ascorbate peroxidase) and GR(Glutathione reductase). The sampling, measurements and analysis were conducted in August. Chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis of Gingko biloba grown in Yangjae were higher than those of Jongno in the August measurement. In contrast, APX and GR activities of Gingko biloba grown in Yangjae were lower than those of Jongno. The observed tree responses are considered to be atypical compensatory response to polluted locations.

Characteristics of Particleboard Fabricated from Waste Wood Particles with Gingko Tree Leaves

  • Park, Sang-Bum;Lee, Sang-Min;Park, Jong-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.106-110
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to find potentialities of the leaves of gingko tree (Gingko biloba L.) as a raw material for particleboard (PB) manufacturing. Various amounts of the leaves were mixed with wasted wood particles to manufacture PB. Physical and mechanical properties, such as density, internal bond (IB) strength, and modulus of rupture (MOR) of manufactured PB were not much different from those of the control board. Formaldehyde emission values decreased with increasing the amount of leaves. Especially, the formaldehyde emission of PB made with 5 percent of leaves was decreased to 1.31 mg/l, which is about 36% lower emission than that of the control. From these results, the leaves of gingko tree may be considered as an additive of lowering formaldehyde emission in a functional PB manufacturing process.

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Analyses of glycerides in Gingko biloba pancreatic lipase (Pancreatic lipase에 의한 은행(銀杏) glycerides의 분석(分析))

  • Han, Jae-Sook;Park, Jyung-Rewng
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 1974
  • Fatty acids of Gingko biloba lipid and its binding position were determined by using pancreatic lipase. Optimum conditions for hydrolysis of glyceride were found as 9mg of lipase and 5 min reaction time for 50 mg of TG. The results showed that oleic acid and linoleic acid were presented about 40% and 29.7%, respectively, but linoleic acid was very small comparing with other seeds. It was found that both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were almost equally distributed at ${\beta}\;and\;{\alpha}{\cdot}{\alpha}'-position$ of TG.

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Vasodilation Effect of the Water Extract of Gingko biloba, Acanthopanax senticosus and Augmented Four-Substance Decoctions in Rat Thoracic Aorta (백과엽(白果葉) 및 자오가(刺五加) 가미사물탕(加味四物湯)이 백서(白鼠)의 흉부대동맥(胸部大動脈) 혈관이완(血管弛緩)에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Hyung-Hwan;Park Soo-Yeon;Kang Soon-Ah;Kim Hong-Yeoul;Ahn Duk-Kyun;Park Seong-Kyu
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2003
  • We have examined the relaxational response to the water extract of Angelica gigas $N_{AKAI}$ (AG), Gingko biloba $L_{INNE}$ (GB), Acanthopanax senticosus $H_{ARMS}.$ (AP) and Augumented-Four-Substance Decoction (AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD) in isolated thoracic aorta from sprague dawley(SD) rat. Rat thoracic aorta was investigated in vessel segments suspended for isometric tension recording by polygraph. Responses to AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD were investigated in vessels precontracted with 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) were compared in vasodilation effect. We found that the thoracic aorta segments responded to AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD with a dose-dependent vasodilation. The 5-hydroxytryptamine induced contraction at $10^{-4}M$ were inhibited by 26.3%, 75.8%, 87.5% and 6.9%, 22.6%, 30.8% after addition of the 0.1 g/mL water extract of AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD. In conclusion, AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD induced relaxation in the isolated rat thoracic aorta were composed of dose-dependent relaxation. AP-FSD has very potent vasodilation.

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A Relationship Between AtmosPheric $SO_{2}$ Concentrations and Water Soluble Sulfur Contents in Gingko biloba in Seoul (서울 일부지역의 도로변 대기중 $SO_{2}$ 농도와 은행나무잎의 수용성 황함량과의 관계)

  • 박정숙;정문식;박석환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1991
  • The atmospheric SO$_{2}$ concentrations and water soluble sulfur contents in Ginkgo biloba were measured and analyzed in auto-measuring station, Kwangleung, and Yongmun from August 5 to October 21, 1990. The results of the study are as follows: 1. Atmospheric SO$_{2}$ concentrations between the seoul area(Pulkwang, Ssangmun, Myonmok, Oilurn) in which the concentrations exceeded the air quality standards and the surburb of seoul (Kwangleung, Yongmun) revealed the significant difference (p<0.01). 2. Water soluble sulfur contents in Ginkgo biloba in autumn were higher than those in Ginkgo biloba in summer (p<0.01). Water soluble sulfur contents in leaves showed a significant difference between seoul and its surburb(p<0.01). 3. Correlation between atmospheric SO$_{2}$ concentration and water soluble sulfur content of Ginkgo biloba in autumn was as follow Y=0.2714+9.8123 X, r=0.6362 (X: Airborne SO${_2}$ Concentration according to sampling location, Y: Water Soluble Sulfur Contents)

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Identification of a Novel Function of Extract of Gingko biloba (EGb 761®) as a Regulator of PYY Secretion and FFA4 Activation

  • Kim, Hye Young;Kim, Kyong
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2019
  • Although the functions of a standardized extract of Gingko biloba leaves (EGb $761^{(R)}$) has been reported with regard to neurobiological properties, no attention has been paid to the impact of EGb $761^{(R)}$ on the neuronal regulation of energy homeostasis. To evaluate the hypothesis that EGb $761^{(R)}$ affect the secretion of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and the activation of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4), which are involved in the neuronal circuitries that control energy homeostasis by inducing the transfer of information about the influx of energy to the brain, we examined whether EGb $761^{(R)}$ can stimulate PYY secretion in the enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells and if EGb $761^{(R)}$ can activate FFA4 in FFA4-expressing cells. In NCI-H716 cells, EGb $761^{(R)}$ stimulated PYY secretion and the EGb $761^{(R)}$-induced PYY secretion was involved in the increase in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration and the activation of FFA4. Furthermore, in FFA4-expressing cells, EGb $761^{(R)}$ activated FFA4. These results suggest that EGb $761^{(R)}$ may affect the control of energy homeostasis via the regulation of PYY secretion and FFA4 activation.