• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat

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Characteristics of Goat Milk and Current Utilizing Trends in Korea (산양유의 특성 및 국내 이용 현황)

  • Im, Yeong-Sun;Gwak, Hae-Su;Lee, Si-Gyeong
    • Journal of Milk Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2006
  • Goat milk is digested better than cow milk, because the fat globules in goat milk are smaller and the protein is similar to human milk, and assimilated easily. Goat milk is particularly rich in taurine (4.7mg/100mL) and retinol (40mg/100mL). Therefore, it might be recommened to heal dyspepsia and infants allergy by cow milk. However, during winter, supply of goat milk products are unsteady in Korea, because unbalance of demand and supply is resulted from seasonal breeding. Dairy industry for goat milk will be able to grow much more, if goat milk products can keep steady supply without changing by season. This review includes the physicochemical characteristics of goat milk, domestic production of goat milk, domestic goat milk products and future development.

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EFFECT OF FLOCK SIZE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GOATS FED GLIRICIDIA-SUPPLEMENTED DIET IN DRYLAND FARMING IN BALI, INDONESIA

  • Sukanten, I.W.;Nitis, I.M.;Uchida, S.;Putra, S.;Lana, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 1996
  • On-farm experiments were carried out in dryland farming in Bali for 48 weeks to study the effect of flock size on the growth and carcass characteristics of cross-bred goat fed gliricidia-supplemented diet. Eighty four bucks with average live weight of 15.87 kg were allocated in a completely randomized block design arrangement, consisted of three treatments and four blocks. The treatments were $3goats/2.7m^2$ (A), $6goats/5.4m^2$ (B) and $12goats/10.8m^2$ (C), while the floor density was the same ($0.9m^2$ per goat). Feed consumed by goat B was similar (p > 0.10), while feed consumed by goat C was lower (p < 0.10) than goat A. Live weight gain of goat B and C were lower (p<0.05) than goat A. FCR of goat B was higher (p < 0.10) than goat A, while FCR of goat C was similar (p > 0.10) with goat A. Goat B has heavier (p < 0.10) head and digestive tract, while goat C has heavier (p<0.10) hindlegs and digestive tract than goat A. Goat B has lighter (p < 0.10) shoulder, while goat C has lighter shoulder and heavier legs (p < 0.10) than goat A. The carcass quality (measured in terms of loin eye muscle area, meat, bone and fat portions) were not affected (p > 0.05) by the flock sizes.

Quantitative Detection of Cow Milk in Goat Milk Mixtures by Real-Time PCR

  • Jung, Yu-Kyung;Jhon, Deok-Young;Kim, Kang-Hwa;Hong, Youn-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to develop a fluorogenic real-time PCR-based assay for detecting and quantifying amounts of cow milk in cow/goat milk mixtures or goat milk products. In order to quantify the exact amount of cow milk in cow/goat raw milk mixtures and commercial goat milk products, it was necessary to achieve quantitative extraction of total genomic DNA from the raw milk matrix. Both mammalian-specific PCR and cow-specific PCR were performed. A cow-specific 252 bp band obtained from the raw cow milk and raw goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified, along with the relationship between the cow milk amount and band intensity of the electrophoresis image. The detection threshold was found to be 0.1%. The expression of cow's 12S rRNA in the cow/goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified. The expression quantity of the milk 12S rRNA increased with increasing ratios of the cow/goat milk mixtures. Using these calibrated relative expression levels as a standard curve in the cow/goat raw milk mixtures, the contents of cow milk were 1.8% in the commercial goat milk, 9.6% in goat milk powder A, and 11.6% in goat milk powder C. However, cow milk was not detected in goat milk powder B.

Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information

  • Ling, Y.H.;Zhang, X.D.;Yao, N.;Ding, J.P.;Chen, H.Q.;Zhang, Z.J.;Zhang, Y.H.;Ren, C.H.;Ma, Y.H.;Zhang, X.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

Effects of Goat Milk and Fermented Goat Milk on Reproductive Function and Stamina of the Male Rodent (산양유 및 산양유 발효유가 웅성 설치류의 생식기능과 지구력에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Im, Kyung-Soon;Kang, Jae-Ku;Choi, Ki-Myung;Pae, Chang-Joon;Joh, Woo-Jea
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 2000
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of goat milk and fermented goat milk on reproductive function and stamina of male rodent. Methods: Experiment I: Male ICR mouse was divided into four groups. Group 1 none-treated control; Group 2 received saline; Group 3 received cow milk 10 ml/kg per day for 15 days; Group 4 received goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 15 days. The cauda epididymal sperm motility and testicular sperm production were investigated. Experiment II: Male SD rat was divided into three groups. Group 1 received saline; Group 2 received goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 28 days; Group 3 received fermented goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 28 days. The cauda epididymal sperm motility and testicular sperm production were also investigated. The concentration of testosterone in serum at 1 and 3 weeks after treatment was determined using Immulite 2000 kit. Testes, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle were weighed. Experiment III: Male ICR mouse was divided into four groups. Group 1 none-treated control; Group 2 received saline; Group 3 received goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 4 weeks; Group 4 received fermented goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 4 weeks. After treatment, the mouse was forced to swim to test for stamina. Results: In Experiment I, the cauda epididymal sperm motility after in vitro culture for 1 or 3 h was significantly (p<0.05) higher in cow milk and goat milk than in the control and saline. There was no significant difference in the cauda epidymal sperm motility between cow and goat milk. The testicular spermatid number was significantly (p<0.01) higher in goat milk (222.8${\times}10^6$) than in the control (108.6), saline (98.2), and cow milk (118.2). In Experiment II, the cauda epididymal sperm motility after in vitro culture for 1 h was significantly (p<0.05) higher in fermented goat milk than in saline and goat milk. There was no significant difference in the cauda epidymal sperm motility between saline and goat milk but goat milk showed slightly higher sperm motility than saline. After in vitro culture for 3 h, the cauda epididymal sperm motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in fermented goat milk and goat milk than in saline. The testicular spermatid number was significantly (p<0.05) higher in goat milk than in saline, and significantly (p<0.01) higher in fermented goat milk than in saline. And the serum testosterone levels of rats administered with goat milk or fermented goat milk were increased but were no significant difference among three groups. Also the prostate weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the goat and fermented goat milk. In Experiment III, the swimming time in the goat milk and fermented goat milk groups was significantly (p<0.01) longer than in the control and saline. There was no significant difference in the swimming time between goat and fermented goat milk but the fermented goat milk showed slightly longer swimming time than the goat milk. Conclusion: The cauda epididymal sperm motility, the testicular spermatid number and stamina were improved when the mice and rats were drunk with goat milk or fermented goat milk.

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Diversity of Chinese Indigenous Goat Breeds: A Conservation Perspective - A Review -

  • Li, M.H.;Li, K.;Zhao, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.726-732
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    • 2004
  • In this manuscript, a review of the diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds according to data from body stature and appearance, chromosome group, blood proteins, DNA molecular markers (mitochondria DNA, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellite DNA, major histocompatibility complex) has been introduced. All of these provide efficient tools for the diversity analysis of Chinese indigenous goat breeds and are very important for biodiversity conservation, restoration of declining goat breeds, the priority defining in Chinese indigenous goat breeds' protection and the selection of nature preservation zones. Many Chinese indigenous goat breeds with small population size in the isolated mountains or reservoir areas are verging the potential threat of extinction, effectively lost with the rapid destroying of ecological environment. On the other hand, as a result of the introduction of modern commercial goat breeds and shortage of effective conservation, some populations, such as Small-xiang goat and Tibetan goat decrease rapidly in number of sires. In the interests of the long-term future of the goat breeds in China, conservation of goat breeds' genetic resources should be considered urgently and some conservation measures should be adopted. In addition, the continuing development of molecular biology will further enhance conservation of diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds.

Current status, challenges and prospects for dairy goat production in the Americas

  • Lu, Christopher D.;Miller, Beth A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8_spc
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    • pp.1244-1255
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    • 2019
  • Dairy goat production continues to be a socially, economically and culturally important part of the livestock industry in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean islands. Goat milk, cheese and other dairy products offer consumers food products with nutritional, health and environmental benefits. In North America, Mexico produces the greatest volume of goat milk, but most is for family or local consumption that is typical of a mixed farming system adopted by subsistence farmers in dry areas. The United States is not yet a large global goat milk producer, but the sector has expanded rapidly, with dairy goat numbers doubling between 1997 and 2012. The number of dairy goats has also increased dramatically in Canada. Commercial farms are increasingly important, driven by rising demand for good quality and locally sourced goat cheese. In South America, Brazil has the most developed dairy goat industry that includes government assistance to small-scale producers and low-income households. As of 2017, FAO identified Haiti, Peru, Jamaica, and Bolivia as having important goat milk production in the Western Hemisphere. For subsistence goat producers in the Americas on marginal land without prior history of chemical usage, organic dairy goat production can be a viable alternative for income generation, with sufficient transportation, sanitation and marketing initiatives. Production efficiency, greenhouse gas emission, waste disposal, and animal welfare are important challenges for dairy goat producers in the Americas.

Recent advances in dairy goat products

  • Sepe, Lucia;Arguello, Anastasio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8_spc
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    • pp.1306-1320
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    • 2019
  • Goat population world-wide is increasing, and the dairy goat sector is developing accordingly. Although the new technology applied to the goat industry is being introduced slowly because the weight of traditional subsector in the dairy sector, considerable advances have been made in the last decade. Present review focuses on the emerging topics in the dairy goat sector. Research and development of traditional and new dairy goat products are reviewed, including the new research in the use of goat milk in infant formula. The research in alternatives to brine, production of skimmed goat cheeses and the use of different modified atmosphere packaging are also addressed. Special attention is given to antibiotic residues and their determination in goat milk. Functional foods for human benefits are a trending topic. Health properties recently discovered in dairy goat products are included in the paper, with special attention to the antioxidant activity. The dual-purpose use of goats by humankind is affecting the way of how new technology is being incorporated in the dairy goat sector and will certainly affect the future development of dairy goat products.

Diversity in Six Goat Populations in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Valley

  • Jiang, X.P.;Liu, G.Q.;Ding, J.T.;Yang, L.G.;Cao, S.X.;Cheng, S.O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.277-281
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    • 2003
  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs) markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in six autochthonous goat populations distributed in the middle and lower Yangtze River valley. The goat populations were Chengdu Grey Goat (CGG), Chuandong White Goat (CWG), Banjiao Goat (BG), Matou Goat (MG), Hui Goat (HG) and Yangtze River Delta White Goat (YRDWG). A total of 180 individuals (30 per population) were analysed using ten selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 78 clear polymorphism loci. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained within populations, as indicated by the average genetic similarity, and they were ranged from 0.745 to 0.758 within populations and 0.951 to 0.970 between populations. No breed specific markers were identified. Cluster analysis based on Nei' genetic distance between populations indicated that Chengdu Grey Goat is the most distant population, while CWG and YROWG were the closest populations, followed by BG, HG and MG. Genetic diversity of the goat populations didn' confirm what was expected on the basis of their geographical location, which may reflect undocumented migrations and gene flows and identify an original genetic resource.

Current status of global dairy goat production: an overview

  • Miller, Beth A.;Lu, Christopher D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8_spc
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    • pp.1219-1232
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    • 2019
  • The global goat population continues to grow and is now over one billion. The number of goats raised primarily for milk production is also growing, due to expanding demand. Most of the world dairy goat production and consumption is in Asia, but a global view of the dairy goat sector reveals important lessons about building successful modern dairy goat industries. The most organized market for goat milk is found in Europe, especially in France. The European goat sector is specialized for milk production, mostly for industrial cheesemaking, while also supporting traditional on-farm manufacturing. Government involvement is significant in sanitary regulation, research, extension, support for local producer organizations, and markets, and ensures safety and quality. Nonetheless, producers are still vulnerable to market fluctuations. New dairy goat industries are developing in countries without a long goat milk tradition, such as China, the United States, and New Zealand, due to rising consumer demand, strong prices, and climate change. The mix of policies, management and markets varies widely, but regardless of the country, the dairy goat sector thrives when producers have access to markets, and the tools and skills to sustainably manage their livestock and natural resources. These are most readily achieved through strong and inclusive producer organizations, access to technical services, and policies that enable the poor and marginalized groups to benefit from increasing demand.