• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat

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Characteristics of Goat Milk - Milk Fat, Somatic Cell Count, and Goaty Flavor - (산양유의 특성 - 유지방, 체세포, 그리고 산양취 -)

  • Jeong, Seok-Geun;Lee, Seung-Gyu;Kim, Dong-Hun;Ham, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2008
  • Since goat milk infant formula has been increased, it is expected that goat milk consumption would be increased. This review summarizes the characteristics of goat milk especially, milk fat, somatic cell count, and goaty flavor. Average milk fat content for one year of twelve goat milk farms was 3.6%, but $2.9{\sim}3.1%$ in summer, which means summer goat milk could not meet the 'Processing and Ingredient Standard for Animal Products'. More than 3.2% for goat milk fat content in 'Processing and Ingredient Standard for Animal Products' should be amended. In addition to, hygienic standard for goat milk should be newly established because goat milk has naturally higher somatic cell count with noninfectious factors. It is thought that 6-trans nonenal and some branched fatty acids are responsible for the goaty flavor. It is necessary to minimize goaty flavor from farm to table because goaty flavor is the most important factor for the promotion of goat milk industry.

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Current status, challenges and the way forward for dairy goat production in Europe

  • Morales, Francisco de Asis Ruiz;Genis, Jose Maria Castel;Guerrero, Yolanda Mena
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8_spc
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    • pp.1256-1265
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this review is to show the evolution of the dairy goat sector in Europe from all perspectives. Starting from the current situation, the challenges and future potential of this livestock system are presented, as well as strategies to overcome the difficulties faced. Europe holds 1.9% of the world goat population and produces 15.1% of goat milk recorded worldwide. The goat species plays a fundamental economic, social and environmental role in many regions of Europe. The wide diversity of production systems and autochthonous breeds makes the sector very heterogeneous. In order to improve viability, a number of strategies need to be adopted to solve the current problems such as a low profitability, absence of generational change and a little or no recognition of the social and environmental role of the sector. Some strategies to improve the situation of the European goat sector include: i) generating market value that will recognise the diversity of the dairy goat sector (breeds, feeding models, derived products${\ldots}$); ii) promoting and raising awareness of the functional attributes of goat milk and derived products so as to increase consumption; iii) assigning an economic value to environmental and social functions; iv) improving working conditions through technological innovation to make goat farming more attractive to young people; and v) processing more milk into cheese or other dairy products in production areas.

Identification of Korean Native Goat Meat using DNA Analysis (DNA분석기법을 이용한 한국재래산양육의 판별)

  • Sang, B.C.;Lee, S.H.;Ryoo, S.H.;Seo, K.W.;Han, S.W.;Kim, S.K.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to analyze the genetic polymorphisms of genomic DNA of blood and meat for conservation of the genetic resources and genetic improvement of Korean Native goat. The genetic identification between Korean Native goat and imported goat was examined using RAPD(random amplified polymorphisms DNAs) analysis with 30 Korean Native goat, 10 hybrid, 10 imported goat. 10 Korean native goat meat and 10 imported goat meat. The results obtained from this study were summarized as follows: 1. Genomic DNA from Korean native goat, hybrid and imported goat could be obtained above about 23kb size using 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and the ratio of optical density at 260nm to that at 280nm was between 1.7 and 2.0 using UV spectrophtometer instrument. 2. In the results of the gene identification between Korean Native goat and hybrid, and imported goat using RAPD methods with random primer of 110 kinds, only Korean native goat showed a specific band at about 369bp using a random primer OPO-19 (5'-CAA ACG TCG G-3'), but imported goat and hybrid not showed. 3. Also, in the results of the gene identification between Korean Native goat meat and imported goat meat using RAPD methods with random primer, Korean native goat only showed a specific band at about 369bp using a random primer No. 19(5'-CAA ACG TCG G-3'), but imported goat not showed.

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Recently Ongoing Progresses and Future Prospects of Worldwide Dairy Goat Industry (세계 산양유산업의 최근 진보 및 향후 전망)

  • Jung, Hoo-Kil;Kim, Sun-Jin;Seok, Min-Jung;Kang, Kyung-Jin;You, Young-Hyun;Yoon, Seul-Ki;Kim, Sun-Young;Jung, You-Kyung;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.217-229
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    • 2016
  • Goat milk production and processing is a dynamic and growing industry that is fundamental to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is recognized as an important contributor to many national economies. Goat milk has contributed significantly to the economic and nutritional quality of life in developing countries, particularly in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. Goat milk has played an important role in the health and nutrition of infants and the elderly, and is also known to be beneficial and therapeutic for people with milk allergies. The potential and value of the nutritional, health, and therapeutic effects of goat milk and specialized goat milk products are now attracting attention. Various products can be made from goat milk based on its chemical properties. In addition, special products such as hair, skin care, products, and cosmetics produced using goat milk have garnered more attention in recent years. Nevertheless, high quality products can only be made from good quality goat milk. Advanced technical treatments are necessary to produce high quality goat milk that meets consumer expectation of nutritional, hygienic, and good sensory products. Good taste has been a critical criterion when deciding to buy and consume goat milk and associated products. However, it may be possible to produce more value-added products that cater to the new trends in consumer needs and thus maintain economic sustainability of goat milk industry.

Goat Meat Production: Present Status and Future Possibilities

  • Dhanda, J.S.;Taylor, D.G.;Murray, P.J.;Pegg, R.B.;Shand, P.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1842-1852
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    • 2003
  • The bulk of the world's goat population is found in South-East Asia and Africa, where goats are the major source of meat production. Unfortunately, lack of an organized goat meat industry and marketing structure in developing countries is primarily responsible for their poor export earnings compared to those in developed countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Goat meat is leaner than meat from other domestic red meat species as well as being comparable in terms of its nutritional constituents. Furthermore, there are few, if any, religious or cultural taboos limiting the consumption of goat meat. Development of a carcass grading system and a suitable infrastructure in developing countries are some of the key requirements needed to establish a sustainable goat meat industry in the world. With an increase in demand by consumers for low-fat red meat alternatives, the future of the goat meat industry looks promising.

Dairy goat production in sub-Saharan Africa: current status, constraints and prospects for research and development

  • Kahi, Alexander K.;Wasike, Chrilukovian B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8_spc
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    • pp.1266-1274
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents a review of dairy goat production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from 2010- 2017, its current state, constraints and prospects for research and development. Since the introduction of dairy goats in SSA in pre-colonial times, their populations have continued to increase due to declining land size as a result of land fragmentation and increasing demand for goat milk. The current goat population in SSA is 372,716,040 head of which only 15.98% used for milk production. Populations in the Eastern and Western regions of SSA have shown an increasing trend from 2010 to 2017. The Southern Africa goat population is on the decline at an annual rate of about 1.77% whereas Central Africa has had a constant goat population within the same period. Eastern Africa reported the highest increase in the population of goats used for milk production. Milk production was highest in Eastern Africa and lowest in Southern Africa. However, dairy goat productivity remained constant in the Eastern region throughout the review period. Dairy goats are mainly raised under smallholder mixed crop-livestock systems. To enhance the development of the dairy goat, concerted efforts should be made to alleviate the constraints that stifle its growth. These constraints can be categorized into nutrition and feeding, breeding and reproduction, diseases, parasites, climate change, and underdeveloped dairy goat products market. Effective management of dairy goats requires a holistic approach and there is the need to expand the markets by further sensitization on the nutritional and medicinal advantages of dairy goat products. In order to achieve rapid development in the dairy goat sub sector, research and development initiatives should be directed towards alleviating the hurdles in nutrition and feeding, breeding, animal health and resilience as well as dairy goat markets.

Genetic Diversity of Goats from Korea and China Using Microsatellite Analysis

  • Kim, K.S.;Yeo, J.S.;Lee, J.W.;Kim, J.W.;Choi, C.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.461-465
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    • 2002
  • Nine microsatellite loci were analyzed in 84 random individuals to characterize the genetic variability of three domestic goat breeds found in Korea and China: Korean goat, Chinese goat and Saanen. Allele diversity, heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, F-statistics, indirect estimates of gene flow (Nm) and Nei's standard distances were calculated. Based on the expected mean heterozygosity, the lowest genetic diversity was exhibited in Korean goat ($H_E$=0.381), and the highest in Chinese goat ($H_E$=0.669). After corrections for multiple significance tests, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were statistically significant over all populations and loci, reflecting the deficiencies of heterozygotes (global $F_{IS}$=0.053). Based on pairwise FST and Nm between different breeds, there was a great genetic differentiation between Korean goat and the other two breeds, indicating that these breeds have been genetically subdivided. Similarly, individual clustering based on the proportion of shared alleles showed that Korean goat individuals formed a single cluster separated from the other two goat breeds.

Integration and Expression of Goat ${\beta}-Casein/hGH$ Hybrid Gene in a Transgenic Goat

  • Lee, Chul-Sang;Lee, Doo-Soo;Fang, Nan-Zhu;Oh, Keon-Bong;Shin, Sang-Tae;Lee, Kyung-Kwang
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2006
  • In order to generate transgenic goats expressing human growth hormone (hGH) in their mammary glands, goat ${\beta}-Casein/hGH$ hybrid gene was introduced into goat zygotes by pronuclear microinjection. DNA-injected embryos were transferred to the oviduct of recipients at 2-cell stage or to the uterus at morula/blastocyst stage after cultivation in glutathione-supplemented mSOF medium in vitro. Pregnancy and survival rate were not significantly different between 2-cell embryos and morula/blastocysts transferred to oviduct and uterus, respectively. One transgenic female goat was generated from 153 embryos survived from DNA injection. Southern blot analysis revealed that the transgenic goat harbored single-copy transgene with a partial deletion in its sequences. Despite of the partial sequence deletion, the transgene was successfully expressed hGH at the level of $72.1{\pm}15.1{\mu}g/ml$ in milk throughout lactation period, suggesting that the sequence deletion had occurred in non-essential part of the transgene for the transgene expression. Unfortunately, however, the transgene was not transmitted to her offspring during three successive breeding seasons. These results demonstrated that goat ${\beta}-casein/hGH$ gene was integrated into the transgenic goat genome in a mosaic fashion with a partial sequence deletion, which could result in a low level expression of hGH and a failure of transgene transmission.

The Commercial Value of Goat Milk in Food Industry (산양유의 산업적 이용 가치에 대한 연구 고찰)

  • Jung, Tae-Hwan;Hwang, Hyo-Jeong;Yun, Sung-Seob;Lee, Won-Jae;Kim, Jin-Wook;Shin, Kyung-Ok;Han, Kyoung-Sik
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2016
  • In many countries, goat milk is an excellent nutrient source and is less allergenic for children and the elderly. The casein composition of goat milk consists largely of ${\beta}$-casein and lower amounts of ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein, which may interfere with digestion by forming solid curds in the human stomach. Goat milk contains small fat globules and large amounts of medium chain fatty acids for, better digestibility, as well as abundant minerals and vitamins with high absorption rates. Recently, the medical benefits of goat milk in different human disorders have been recognized, leading to an increased interest in developing functional foods with goat milk, particularly for individuals with malabsorption syndrome. However, the physiological and biochemical properties of goat milk are largely unknown. We review the importance of goat milk as a potential functional food by providing scientific evidence confirming its health benefits.

Current status, challenges and the way forward for dairy goat production in Asia - conference summary of dairy goats in Asia

  • Liang, Juan Boo;Paengkoum, Pramote
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8_spc
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    • pp.1233-1243
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    • 2019
  • Asia hosts more than half of the world's 1 billion goats and is also where domestication of wild goats began. Goats, including dairy goats, are adapted to a wide variety of harsh environments and thus play key roles as providers of nutrition, food security and socio-economic status to their human owners in many low-income Asian countries. In many countries in Southeast and East Asia, medium and large scale commercial dairy goat farming can be profitable enterprises because of the high price of goat milk, and good demand due to its health and medicinal properties. In some Asian countries, dairy goats play important roles in non-commercial activities, including use as educational animals in elementary schools in Japan and show animals in Indonesia. Dairy goat farmers in Asia are faced with numerous challenges, such as a shortage of high producing animals adapted to the local environment, lack of quality feeds during a prolonged dry season, many diseases and difficulty getting their product to market, however, the increasing demand for goat milk in the newly developed and developed economies in Asia provides an optimistic future for dairy goat production in this region.