• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat

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Establishment of Quality Index on the Black-goat Meat Extracts (흑염소 추출액 제품에서 품질 지표의 도출에 관한 연구)

  • 길복임;송효남
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.322-328
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    • 2001
  • To assess the quality characteristics of black-goat meat extracts and to develop their quality index, the ingredient ratio, manufacturing process and general composition of black-goat meat extracts were investigated. A partial meat of black-goat had high protein content(20.2∼21.6%) and low lipid content (1.9∼3.3%). The crude protein contents, 3.5∼6.1%, of black-goat meat extracts had a high correlation (r=0.88, p<0.01) with black-goat meat content and the soluble solid content had a high correlation (r=0.87. p<0.01) with the subsidiary material content. Two commercial products had total bacteria of 10$^1$∼10$^2$ cfu/ ml. showing the necessity of pressure sterilization of final process.

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Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

  • Kim, Hyo-Hee;Yun, Sung-Seob;Oh, Chang-Hwan;Yoon, Sung-Sik
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.572-576
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    • 2015
  • The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder.

Identification of Korean Native Goat Meat using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) DNA Markers (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) DNA Marker를 이용한 한국 재래흑염소육 감별)

  • 정의룡
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.301-309
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to develop the breed-specific DNA markers for breed identification of Korean native goat meat using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-PCR techniques. The genomic DNAs of Korean native goat, imported black goat and four dairy goat breeds(Saanen, Alpine, Nubian and Toggenburg) were extracted from muscle tissues or blood. Genomic DNA was digested with a particular combination of two restriction enzymes with 4 base(Mse I and Taq I) and 6 base(EcoR I and Hind III) recognition sites, ligated to restriction specific adapters and amplified using the selective primer combinations. In AFLP profiles of polyacrylamide gels, the number of scorable bands produced per primer combination varied from 36 to 74, with an average of 55.5. A total of 555 bands were produced, 149(26.8%) bands of which were polymorphic. Among the ten primer combinations, two bands with 2.01 and 1.26 kb in M13/H13 primer and one band with 1.65 kb in E35/H14 primer were found to be breed-specific AFLP markers in Korean native goat when DNA bands were compared among the goat breeds. In the E35/H14 primer combination, 2.19, 2.03, 0.96 and 0.87 kb bands detected in imported black goat, 2.13 kb band in Saanen breed and 2.08 kb band in Nubian breed were observed as breed-specific bands showing differences between goat breeds, respectively. The E35/H14 primer combination produced four DNA bands distinguished between Korean native goat and Saanen breed. The is study suggested that the breed specific AFLP bands could be used as DNA markers for the identification of Korean native goat meat from imported black goat and dairy goat meats.

Studies on the red blood cell sedimention rates in heteroplasma of chicken and goat (닭 및 산양의 이종plasma내에서 적혈구 침강에 대한 연구)

  • Yu, Chang-jun;Lee, Soo-doo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 1988
  • In order to study the marked variation of red blood cell sedimentation rate in some species of animals, the packed cell volume, volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood, was reshuffled of 20%, 40% and 60% using heteroplasma of chicken and goat, and the red blood cell sedimentation rate was measured in Westergren tubes at $27{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and $8{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The values of packed cell volume(PCV) of goat and chicken were $40.7{\pm}4.1%$ and $30.2{\pm}2.2%$ respectively. 2. The sedimentation rates of reshuffled red blood cell were settled faster at lower PCV than higher PCV, i.${\acute{e}}$. there was a reverse relationship between the sedimention rate and PCV. 3. Red blood cells of chicken settled quickly, where as those of goat settled very slowly. Chicken red blood cell sedimented rapidly even in goat plasma, and goat red blood cell sedimented slowly in chicken plasma. These findings indicate that the plasma is not the only factor determining the rapid red blood cell sedimentation rate of chicken. 4. The sedimentation rate of reshuffled red blood cell of chicken and goat were accelerated at higher temperature than lower temperature.

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Diversity and Genetic Relationships among Seven West African Goat Breeds

  • Missohou, A.;Talaki, E.;Laminou, I. Maman
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1245-1251
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to determine the genetic relationships among seven west African goat breeds : Casamance Goat (Kolda, Senegal), Labe Goat (Fouta Djallon, Guinea), three Sahel Goat (Djoloff, Senegal ; Maradi, Niger; Gorgol, Mauritania) red Sokoto Goat (Maradi, Niger) and Guera goat (Atar, Mauritania).The polymorphism of six microsatellites and the ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein locus was analysed. The six microsatellite loci were polymorphic with a mean number of alleles ranging from 2.71 to 4.0. At the ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein locus, A and B were the most frequent alleles, which are known to be associated with a high level of protein synthesis. A neighbour-joining tree and a Principal Component Analysis were performed and the reliability of both methods was tested. Our study shows that the genetic relationships among the breeds analysed correspond to their geographical distribution and in addition, that the Labe Goat is strongly separated from the other breeds. Among the seven markers used, four have an effect on the distribution of breeds while three seem to be non-informative.

Differences in Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Meat Quality by Muscle Type and Age of Korean Native Black Goat

  • Hwang, Young-Hwa;Bakhsh, Allah;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.988-999
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality traits by age of Korean native black goat (KNBG), four muscles (longissimus dorsi, LD; psoas major, PM; semimembranosus, SM; gluteus medius, GM) were obtained from five adult goat (AG; 18 months old) and five young goat (YG; 9 months old). PM muscle had the highest fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of type I, followed by SM, GM, and LD muscles. FNP and FAP of type IIB were significantly (p<0.001) higher in AG than those in YG. YG had higher L* values but lower b* values than AG. The highest L* and b* values were observed in LD muscle (p<0.001). Age and muscle type had detrimental (p<0.001) effect on shear force and collagen content for all muscle in AG as compared to YG. YG had significantly (p<0.001) higher myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) than AG for all four muscles. These results suggest that muscle fiber compositions of different muscle types of KNBG depend on age, resulting in variations of meat color, MFI, collagen content, and shear force.

Effect of the Difference in the High Molecular Weight Fraction of Whey Between Cow's Milk and Goat's Milk on Creaming Phenomenon

  • Masuda, T.;Taniguchi, T.;Suzuki, K.;Sakai, T.;Morichi, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.351-357
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    • 2001
  • The rapid formation of a cream line cannot be observed in raw goat's milk standing at a low temperature. Although the poor creaming ability of goat's milk has been considered to be due to the small size of milk fat globules and the lack of euglobulin capable of being adsorbed on milk fat globules, there is much left to study. The present work attempted to elucidate a factor for poor creaming ability of goat's milk. The creaming ability of the experimental milks reconstituted from creams and skim milks separated from cow's milk or goat's milk was measured by the volume of the cream layer and the fat content of bottom layer. The polypeptides composition of the P1 the fraction (i.e., the high molecular weight fraction eluted near the void volume obtained by the gel filtration of whey) and milk fat globule membrane prepared from both milks were compared. It was found that the promotion of creaming originated from goat's skim milk was lower than that from cow's skim milk. The P1 fraction in goat's skim milk was less than that in cow's skim milk. The polypeptide (M.W. $4.3{\times}10^4$), found in the P1 fraction of cow's milk was not found in the P1 fraction of goat's milk. It is suggested that the poor creaming ability of goat milk is caused mainly by the difference from cow milk in the amount and the composition of the P1 fraction.

Stockmanship Competence and Its Relation to Productivity and Economic Profitability: The Context of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

  • Alcedo, M.J.;Ito, K.;Maeda, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.428-434
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    • 2015
  • A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals' needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer's income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively, a percentage difference of 65.23%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM was 14 kg and 30% respectively. After FLS-IGM, median mature weight was 19 kg and mortality rate decreased from 30% to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers who were able to undergo FLS-IGM. With regard to income, there was a 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved SC could lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also to better animal welfare.

Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

  • Lee, Wonseok;Ahn, Sojin;Taye, Mengistie;Sung, Samsun;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Cho, Seoae;Kim, Heebal
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.862-868
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    • 2016
  • Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and cross-bred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

Studies on The Diseases of the Korean Native Goat-A Review (우리나라 재래염소의 질병에 관한 연구-문헌조사)

  • 이정길;이채용;곽형수
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.32-44
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    • 2000
  • The Korean native goat has been extensively used in the experimental work. Compared to those experimental work employing the goat, reports on their diseases have been scarcely documented. In the present communication, authors reviewed the literatures pertaining to the diseases of the Korean native goat. Diseases of the respiratory system, the alimentary tract, the liver, the musculoskeletal system, the skin, the urogenital system, the nervous system, the eye, and the heart were reviewed. And then metabolic, toxic, and parasitic diseases were reviewed. Of those diseases reviewed, diseases of the heart and kidney, and metabolic and toxic diseases were wholly artificially-induced. Except the parasitic diseases, a considerable number of diseases of other organ systems were also artificially-induced. And the parasitic diseases reported were confined to the internal parasites. Authors feel that the known occurrence of diseases would help diagnose new disease in the goat.

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