• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat

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Introduction to the Dutch Goat Industry and a Cheese Making Farm (네덜란드 유산양 산업과 치즈생산 목장 Stroese Dame)

  • Ham, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2015
  • The world is presently facing key challenges due to the population explosion, shortages in renewable sources of energy, and environmental problems. One important aspect of ecological intensification is the use and improvement of marginal lands and spaces often ignored, until now. Goats are known to be well adapted to scrubs, forage trees, and rangelands. Goats could contribute marginally, but significantly, to the growing demand for meat without using arable lands. Since 2000, there were 752 million goats globally, and goat livestock increased by 26.8% in 2010, accounting for 954 million heads. Goats are widespread due to their high adaptability to different environmental conditions and nutritional regimes, high productivity, and low maintenance cost. A significant growth in goat number was noticed in the period 2000~2010 in the Netherlands (+113.83%), in spite of the 9.75% decrease in EU-27. A cheese making goat farm in the Netherlands showed how it can survive in the one fifth size of the average. It may be a good model for the Korean goat industry since it uses seasonal breeding and results in reduced "goaty" flavor in the cheese.

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The Recipe Standardization and Nutrient Analysis of Broiled Black Goat Meat (흑염소불고기의 조리법의 표준화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.269-275
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    • 2001
  • The present research was designed to collect recipe of set up a standard recipe and analyze the nutrients of broiled black goat meat (a kind of native local foods in Busan and south province). The results of the study are summarized as follows. The recipe for goat(lamb) meat was recorded in Sanlimkyounggae and Jungbosanlimkyounggae between 1715 and 1827. The goat meat was explained as food for health, rejuvenation and recuperation Since late 1800, it has been utilized for such use. The flavor of broiled black goat meat is influenced by seasonings, fruit juice, heating treatment and cooker. And it also could be affected by the method of slaughter and the sex of the goat. There are lot of element in seasoning. Red pepper paste, garlic and ginger holdback the bad smell and make the taste better. Onion help to retain the water and improve the flavor. Starch syrup, sugar and sesame oil make the meat smoother, glossier and more tasty. The meat is usually roasted on grill over charcoal. It helps to remove or suppress the bad smell and make the taste better. Softness and scent of the meat depend largely on the way to butcher. Female goat meat tastes smoother and smells better. Fruit juice also improve the softness of the meat. Energy per 100g of the 'broiled black goat meat' is 170kcal. There are protein (23g), fat(2.4g), Ca(159mg), Fe(1.1mg) and so on. Amino acid is mainly comprised of essential amino acid such as cystine, lysine, leucine, and arginine. Fatty acid consists primarily of unsaturated fatty acid like oleic acid, linoleic acid.

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The karyotype of Korean native goat (capra hircus) (한국재래산양의 핵형분석)

  • Oh, Seung-hyun;Yun, Young-min;Yoon, Yeo-sung;Lee, Joon-sup;Lee, Heungshik S.;Seong, Je-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.908-920
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    • 1999
  • We investigated the cytogenetic characteristics of Korean native goat(Capra hircus). Chromosome slides were prepared from peripheral blood cell cultures. GTG, GBG, RBG and CBG-banding techniques were employed on those slides. The high resolution karyotype of Korean native goat could be made with the incorporation of BrdU. Korean native goat has 60 chromosomes composed of 58 autosomes and XY or XX sex chromosomes. All of autosomes of Korean native goat were acrocentric chromosomes. X chromosome was submetacentric and Y chromosome was metacentric. The GTG, GBG and RBG-band patterns of Korean native goat were similar to those of other goats. CBG-band regions were distinct at the proximal portion of the long arms of all autosomes in Korean native goats. According to our investigation, there was no significant difference in chromosomal band patterns between Korean native goat and other goats. It might be necessary to use molecular genetic markers for clarifying the genetical characteristics of Korean native goat whose biological characteristics are not clearly defined.

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Goat Milk Yoghurt by Using Lacto-B Culture Modulates the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-10 in Malnourished Rats

  • Nurliyani, Nurliyani;Kandarina, B.J. Istiti;Kusuma, Sari;Trisnasari, Yunita Dewi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.88-98
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    • 2014
  • Total spleen lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in spleen lymphocyte culture were studied in malnourished Wistar rats fed with goat milk yoghurt. Malnourished rats were created by using standard feed restriction as much as 50% of normal rats for 21 d. Goat milk yoghurt containing three types of microorganism e.g., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum derived from Lacto-B culture in powder form. After 21 d, the rats continued to receive restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. Total splenocytes were counted by hemocytometer. Splenocytes proliferation was expressed as stimulation index, whereas the TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-10 of spleen lymphocyte culture were measured by ELISA technique. The total number of splenocytes and stimulation index of splenocytes in moderate malnourished and normal rats supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was not significantly different. The level of TNF-${\alpha}$ in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was lower (p<0.05) than the control group, whereas the level of IL-10 in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was higher (p<0.05) than the control group. In conclusion, goat milk yoghurt supplementation in malnourished rats could decrease TNF-${\alpha}$ as a representation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, while it increases IL-10 as a representation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine.

Effects of Goat Milk Yogurt Supplemented with Citrus Concentrate on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipids in Diabetic Rats (밀감농축액 첨가 산양발효유가 당뇨병 유발 랫드의 혈당 및 혈액지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ham, Jun-Sang;Shin, Ji-Hye;Jang, Ae-Ra;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Park, Kwang-Wook;Kim, Hyun-Uk;Kang, Su-Yeon;Hwang, Hye-Joong;Lee, Wan-Kyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.445-450
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    • 2008
  • The effects of fermented goat milk supplemented with citrus concentrate on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats were examined. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats (type II) were divided into five experimental groups treated with metformin, goat milk, fermented goat milk, fermented goat milk containing citrus concentrate, or no supplementation (control). The rats in each group were examined weekly for blood levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride. HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol. and body weight. On the $24^{th}$ day of the experiment, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out. Administration of fermented goat milk to the diabetic rats significantly decreased blood glucose and triglyceride levels, while administration of metformin (33.3 mg/kg body weight) did not significantly lower blood glucose levels. Fermented goat milk containing citrus concentrate caused a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in the OGTT at 30 min. This study shows that supplementation with fermented goat milk containing citrus concentrate may be a practical method of reducing blood glucose levels in type II diabetics.

STUDIES ON ALCOHOL PRECIPITATION TEST OF GOAT MILK (산양유(山羊乳)의 앨콜심전시험(沈澱試驗)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • CHUNG, GILL TAIK
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 1964
  • The alcohol precipitation test(APT) is widely used in the inspection of cow milk, whereas the APT in goat milk inspection is not specifically known. The APT is used to determine the precipitating ability of milk by heat used in sterilization and evaporating process at the milk plant. The APT may also be used to detect abnormal milks such as acid milk, colostrum, and any milk in which the salt balance is disturbed so that it may be more subject to precipitation than normal milk. In the experiments the applicability of the APT of goat milk was studied. The results obtained by using 87 sample of goat milk are as follows: 1. As all the fresh samples(100%) were APT positive by using 70% ethanol which is used in the practice of cow milk and 3 out of 87 samples(3.7%) were positive by using 45% ethanol, it is suggested that 45% ethanol may be applied in the APT of goat milk. 2. The distribution of natural acidity (apparent acidity) was between 0.12%-0.30% and the amount of natural acidity did not significantly affect the precipitating ability of goat milk by APT. 3. The freshness of goat milk cannot be detected sharply by APT even though 45% ethanol is applied.

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Effect of Transinoculation of Goat Rumen Liquor on Degradation and Metabolism of Mimosine in Sheep Fed with Leucaena leucocephala Leaves

  • Vaithiyanathan, S.;Sheikh, Q.;Kumar, Ravindra
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.332-339
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    • 2005
  • The effect of transinoculation of goat rumen liquor into sheep rumen on mimosine toxicity was studied. One adult Kutchi male goat having higher mimosine degradation capacity than sheep was gradually adapted to Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) leaves by feeding increasing level of eucaena leaves supplementation for 1 month. Six Bharat Merino rams (12-18 months of age) were divided into two equal groups with (group I) or without (group II) infusion of 200 ml of goat rumen liquor per animal. The mimosine degradation in groups I and II were 3.04 and 2.31; 3.90 and 3.73 mg per day per 10 ml rumen liquor respectively after 1 and 2 weeks of leucaena feeding leaves. Total rumen bacterial population in RGCA medium and in a selective medium containing iron showed an increasing trend in both groups, while the bacterial population growing in the presence of cellulose showed a decreasing trend. Animal performance data did not show any adverse effect. Results revealed that transinoculation of rumen liquor from leucaena leaves adapted goat to sheep rumen did not help to improve mimosine degradation in the sheep. The sheep transinoculated with goat rumen liquor displayed no in vivo improvements in nutrient utilization vis-a-vis mimosine metabolism.

A Quick Novel Method to Detect the Adulteration of Cow Milk in Goat Milk

  • Lee, Chi-Chei;Chang, His-Shan;Sheen, Hua-Shan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.420-422
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    • 2004
  • This study was to demonstrate a rapid novel method for detection of adulterated cow milk in goat milk using modified staining protocol after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Samples of cow milk and goat milk containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% (v/v) of cow milk were analyzed. Low levels of cow milk mixed in goat milk were identified by the presence of higher mobility of $\beta$-lactoglobulin A ($\beta$-Lg A) in cow milk. By mini-gel electrophoresis, a distinguishable protein profile was visualized in 25 min using the modified Coomassie blue staining solution, in which methanol (50%) was replaced with ethanol (20%) and the concentrations of Coomassie blue and acetic acid were reduced from 2 to 0.13% and 10 to 5%, respectively. To visualize the milk proteins, gels in the staining solution were water-bathed in boiling water for 5 min and then cooled down immediately for 3-5 min. The sensitivity of this method is relatively high, allowing examination of 1% cow milk in goat milk. The procedure presented here is also very cost-effective due to less reagents needed. This simplified method would be useful and applicable to dairy industry for routine examination of goat milk.

Use of Frequencies of Micronuclei as Biological Dosimetry in Korean Native Cattle and Goat Lymphocytes after Irradiation in vitro (한우 및 한국재래산양 유래 말초혈액 림프구의 미소핵을 이용한 방사선 피폭의 생물학적 선량측정)

  • 류시윤;김민주;김호준;조성환;김태환;정규식;이해준;김성호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.290-294
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    • 2002
  • The frequencies of gamma-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in cytokinesis-blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three donors of Korean native cattle and Korean native goat. Measurements performed after irradiation showed a dose-related increases in MN frequency in each of the donors studied. When analysed by linear-quadratic model the line of best fit was cattle : y : 0.1016D +$0.0118D^2$+0.0147, goat : y = 0.1353D +$0.0043D^2$+0.0087 (y : number of MN/CB cells and D = irradiation dose in Gy). The relative sensitivity of goat lymphocytes compared with cattle lymphocytes was estimated by best fitting linear-quadratic model based on the radiation-induced MN data over the range from 0 Gy to 4 Gy. In the case of MN frequency with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8, the relative sensitivities of goat lymphocytes were 1.106. 1.166. 1.140, 1.069 and 0.976 respectively. Our in vitro radiobiological study confirmed that the cytogenetic response obtained in blood from cattle and goat can be utilized for application in environmental studies.

Production and Consumption of Goat Milk Products in Korea (한국의 산양유제품 생산 및 소비 현황)

  • Park, Seung-Yong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2006
  • There has been a successful re-entry in the form of infant foods and as a product concept of "well-being" milk by feeding goat natural medicinal plants in high mountain lands and goats eating natural feeds. Typical composition of cow's milk and goat's milk are not significantly differ in major nutritional constituents. However, the noticeable differences between milks of the bovine and caprine species concern in the dimensions of the micelles, in casein composition, in size of the micelles and in the mineral charge of the micelle, but the ratio Ca/Pi in the micelle is very close for the two species The potential market in Korea could be expected to expand by keeping its freshness and nutritional benefits. The supply of goat milk products all year around is also an important to the consumers. In order to increase its market scale of goat milk, product manufacturers need extensive advertising promotion. Domestically, goat milk is currently manufactured at small scale dairy goat milk companies and consumed mainly in the form of fresh or fermented goat milk, while imported goat milk powder is used to produce infant goat milk formula by major dairy companies. Decreasing the unpleasant goaty flavour for the Korean consumers would be essential for the researchers who work for dairy science and technology.

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