• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat

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Insights into the genetic diversity of indigenous goats and their conservation priorities

  • Liu, Gang;Zhao, Qianjun;Lu, Jian;Sun, Feizhou;Han, Xu;Zhao, Junjin;Feng, Haiyong;Wang, Kejun;Liu, Chousheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1501-1510
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity of 26 Chinese indigenous goats by 30 microsatellite markers, and then to define conservation priorities to set up the protection programs according to the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic diversity. Methods: Twenty-six representative populations of Chinese indigenous goats, 1,351 total, were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Within-breed genetic diversity and marker polymorphism were estimated calculating the mean number of alleles, observed heterozygosities, expected heterozygosities, fixation index, effective number of alleles and allelic richness. Conservation priorities were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: A relatively high level of genetic diversity was found in twenty-four population; the exceptions were in the Daiyun and Fuqing goat populations. Within-breed kinship coefficient matrices identified seven highly inbred breeds which should be of concern. Of these, six breeds receive a negative contribution to heterozygosity when the method was based on proportional contribution to heterozygosity. Based on Weitzman or Piyasatian and Kinghorn methods, the breeds distant from others i.e. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, Chengdu Brown goat and Leizhou goat obtain a high ranking. Evidence from Caballero and Toro and Fabuel et al method prioritized Jining Gray goat, Liaoning Cashmere goat, and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, which agree with results from Kinship-based methods. Conclusion: Conservation priorities were determined according to multiple methods. Our results suggest Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (most methods), Jining Gray goat and Liaoning Cashmere goat (high contribution to heterozygosity and total diversity) should be prioritized based on most methods. Furthermore, Daiyun goat and Shannan White goat also should be prioritized based on consideration of effective population size. However, if one breed can continually survive under changing conditions, the straightforward approach would be to increase its utilization and attraction for production via mining breed germplasm characteristics.

Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Mongolian Goat, Sheep and Cow Milk

  • Chuluunbat, Tsend-Ayush;Yoon, Yoh-Chang;Kim, Soo Yeon
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2013
  • For purposes of substantiation of organizing measures on industrial processing of goat's and sheep's milk in Mongolia and the production of dairy products we have conducted the studied physico-chemical characteristics of the Mongolian goat's and sheep's milks especially to recognize amino acids, minerals and vitamins in the milk and compare with the Mongolian cow's milk. And also was studied fractional structure of goat's milk whey proteins.

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Effects of Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Composition on Off-flavor in Goat Milk (산양유의 지방분해 특성과 지방산 조성이 산양유 이취에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Y.S.;Ham, J.S.;Jeong, S.G.;Ahn, J.N.;Choi, S.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2008
  • The average milk fat content in goat milk was 3.88% on yearly basis. The milk fat content of 3.8% during summer season was lower than 4.2% during winter season. Total solid content increased in proportion to milk fat. When goat milk was stored at 4℃ for 24 hr, short-chain FFA(C4:0~C10:0) and medium- and long-chain FFA(C12:0~C18:1) increased about 106% and 203%, respectively. Induced lipolysis of goat milk by homogenization increased short-chain FFA and medium- and long-chain FFA by 22% and 199%. When goat milk was treated with calf lipase, there was increase of short-chain FFA by 9 times greater than increase of medium- and long-chain FFA by 5.6 times. Treatment with lipases from Candida rugosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in increase of medium- and long-chain FFA by 34 and 162 times, respectively, which was greater than increase of short-chain FFA by 6 and 14 times, respectively. Lipolysis in goat milk stored at 4℃ for 24 hr was correlated with LPL activity in goat milk(r=0.5635). Off-flavor of goat milk was correlated with LPL activity(r=0.5777). Milk fat content was negatively correlated with LPL activity(r=-0.4627). Palmitic acid content in goat milk was correlated with off-flavor(r=0.7226).

Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Kishi, Tetsuya;Nagai, Ayako;Matsumura, Yuka;Nagamine, Itsuki;Uechi, Shuntoku
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.101-114
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    • 2014
  • While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight $309.3{\pm}11.1$ g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal's blood pressure returned to normotensive. These results indicate that, as in the case of chicken consumption, prolonged consumption of goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

Effects of Agitation and Temperature Activation on Lipolysis in Goat Milk (산양유의 지방분해에 미치는 온도활성화 및 교반의 영향)

  • 김거유;이승범
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of temperature activation and agitation on lipolysis of goat milk. When goat milk was temperature activated twice at intervals of 12hours, free fatty acids were significantly increased after the first activation, but increased slightly during the re-cooling period and after the second activation. Lipolysis of the goat milk warmed at $30^{\circ}C$ was significantly facilitated during the re-cooling period. Lipolysis of the goat milk warmed at $30^{\circ}C$ was much higher than those warmed at $10^{\circ}C$ and $40^{\circ}C$ respectively. The highest lipolysis was occurred when the goat milk was warmed at $30^{\circ}C$ for 5 minutes after pre-cooling for 24 hours at $40^{\circ}C$. However, any significant difference was not found in the milk warmed at $40^{\circ}C$, regardless of the pre-cooling period. Lipolysis of the goat milk warmed and agitated at $30^{\circ}C$ was significantly facilitated during the re-cooling period. The lipolysis of that at $30^{\circ}C$ was significantly facilitated during the re-cooling period. The lipolysis of that at $30^{\circ}C$ was much enhanced with agitation. The lipolysis was much higher when agitated at $30^{\circ}C$ than when agitated at $10^{\circ}C$. The length of agitation time at $30^{\circ}C$ didn't give any effect on lipolysis.

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On Phylogenetic Relationships Among Native Goat Populations Along the Middle and Lower Yellow River Valley

  • Chang, H.;Nozawa, K.;Liu, X.L.;Geng, S.M.;Ren, Z.J.;Qin, G.Q.;Li, X.G.;Sun, J.M.;Zheng, H.L.;Song, J.Z.;Kurosawa, Y.;Sano, A.;Jia, Q.;Chen, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 2000
  • This paper is based on the 9 goat colonies along the middle and lower Yellow River valley and 7 local goat colonies in the Northeast, Tibet and the Yangtze valley. After collecting the same data about the 22 goat colonies in China and other countries, it establishes and composes the matrix of fuzzy similarity relation describing the genetic similarities of different colonies. It also clusters 38 colonies according to their phylogenetic relationship. The establishment of the matrix and the cluster are effected in terms of the frequency of 18 loci and 43 allelomorphs in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The study proves that the middle Yellow River valley is one of the taming and disseminating centers of domestic goats in the South and East of Central Asia. Compared with other goat populations in this vast area, the native goat populations in the west of Mongolian Plateau, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the middle Yellow River valley share the same origin. The colonies in the lower Yellow River valley and those in the middle valley, however, are relatively remote in their phylogenetic relationship. The native goat colonies in the southeast of Central Asia can be classified into two genetic groups: "East Asia" and "South Asia" and the colonies in Southeast Asia belong to either group.

In Vitro Development of Interspecies Nuclear Transfer Embryos using Porcine Oocytes with Goat and Rabbit Somatic Cells

  • Quan, Yan Shi;Naruse, Kenji;Choi, Su-Min;Kim, Myung-Youn;Han, Rong-Xun;Park, Chang-Sik;Jin, Dong-Il
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 2008
  • Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a valuable tool for studying the interactions between an oocyte and somatic nucleus. The object of this study was to investigate the developmental competence of in vitro-matured porcine oocytes after transfer of the somatic cell nuclei of 2 different species (goat and rabbit). Porcine cumulus oocytes were obtained from the follicles of ovaries and matured in TCM-199. The reconstructed embryos were electrically fused with 2 DC pulses of 1.1kV/cm for $30{\mu}s$ 0.3M mannitol medium. The activated cloned embryos were cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), mSOF or RDH medium for 7 days. The blastocyst formation rate of the embryos reconstructed from goat or rabbit fetal fibroblasts was significantly lower than that of the embryos reconstructed from porcine fetal fibroblast cells. However, a significantly higher number of embryos reconstructed from goat or rabbit fetal fibroblasts cultured in mSOF or RDH, respectively, developed to the morular stage than those cultured in PZM-3. These results suggest that goat and bovine fetal fibroblasts were less efficacious than porcine-porcine cloned embryos and that culture condition could be an important factor in iSCNT. The lower developmental potential of goat-porcine and porcine-bovine cloned embryos may be due to incompatibility between the porcine oocyte cytoplasm and goat and bovine somatic nuclei.

Separation and Purification of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Goat's Milk Casein Hydrolysates

  • Lee, K.J.;Kim, S.B.;Ryu, J.S.;Shin, H.S.;Lim, J.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.741-746
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the basic information and the possibility of ACE-inhibitory peptides for antihypertension materials, goat's caisin (CN) was hydrolyzed by various proteolytic enzymes and ACE-inhibitory peptides were separated and purified. ACE-inhibition ratios of enzymatic hydrolysates of goat's CN and various characteristics of ACE-inhibitory peptides were determined. ACE-inhibition ratios of goat's CN hydrolysates were shown the highest with 87.84% by pepsin for 48 h. By Sephadex G-25 gel chromatograms, Fraction 3 from goat's CN hydrolysates by pepsin for 48 h was confirmed the highest ACE-inhibition activity. Fraction 3 g and Fraction 3 gh from peptic hydrolysates by RP-HPLC to first and second purification were the highest in ACE-inhibition activity, respectively. The most abundant amino acid was leucine (18.83%) in Fraction 3 gh of ACE-inhibitory peptides after second purification. Amino acid sequence analysis of Fraction 3 gh of ACE-inhibitory peptides was shown that the Ala-Tyr-Phe-Tyr, Pro-Tyr-Tyr and Tyr-Leu. IC$_{50}$ calibrated in peptic hydrolysates at 48 h, Fraction 3, Fraction 3 g and Fraction 3 gh from goat's CN hydrolysates by pepsin for 48 h were 29.89, 3.07, 1.85 and 0.87 g/ml, respectively. Based on the results of this experiment, goat's CN hydrolysates by pepsin were shown to have ACE-inhibitory activity.

Rapid Identification of Cow and Goat Milk in Milk Products Using a Duplex PCR Technique (Duplex PCR을 이용한 유제품 안에 있는 산양유와 우유의 신속한 동정에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Bae;Choi, Suk-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.647-652
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    • 2009
  • A duplex PCR technique was applied for specific identification of cow and goat milk in milk products by using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Duplex PCR using primers specific for cow and goat generated specific fragments of 223bp and 326bp from cow and goat milk DNA, respectively. Duplex PCR was applied to 15 milk products purchased from the market to verify label statements. The labeling statements of four market milk products, three yoghurt products, and one whole milk powder product were confirmed in the duplex PCR. The labeling statements of five of seven infant milk powder products were also confirmed by duplex PCR but the other two products were shown to be contaminated with either cow or goat milk. The proposed duplex PCR provides a rapid and sensitive approach to detection of as little as 0.1% cow milk in goat milk and one-step detection of cow or goat milk in milk products.

Comparison of Single and Double Combination of Temperature-time in Sous Vide Treated Semitendinosus Muscle from Cattle and Goat

  • Ismail, Ishamri;Hwang, Young-Hwa;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2019
  • This study observed the effects of the double combination of temperatures-times (2 temperatures: 2 times combination, 2T2T) in sous vide cooking method on the physicochemical properties and collagen solubility (CS) of semitendinosus muscle from cattle and goat as a comparison to common sous vide treatment (1 temperature: 1 time combination, 1T1T). The new invention of sous vide cooking method (2T2T) cooked at the first temperature at $45^{\circ}C$ for 3 h, and the second temperature at $60^{\circ}C$, $65^{\circ}C$, and $70^{\circ}C$ for 3 h, and labeled as N45-60, N45-65, and N45-70, respectively. While, common sous vide treatment (1T1T) were cooked directly for 6 h at $60^{\circ}C$ (T60), $65^{\circ}C$ (T65), and $70^{\circ}C$ (T70). Results revealed that cooking with 2T2T treatment improved the water-holding capacity and reduced the cooking loss of both beef and goat meat. The $L^*$ values have no apparent changes between treatment in beef and goat meat, while $a^*$ values of N45-60 treated goat presented markedly higher values than other treatments but an only slight increase in beef at the same treatment (p>0.05). Again, 2T2T treatment tended to decrease mean shear force (SF) values for beef and goat meat with the lowest SF values recorded at N45-60, and the CS no or less influenced this value. Therefore, the application of innovative sous vides cooking method (2T2T) presented comparable values in the treated beef and goat meat as compared to common sous vide method (1T1T).