• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat

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Identification of Raw Materials in Processed Meat Products by PCR Using Species-Specific Primer (종 특이 프라이머를 이용한 식육가공품의 사용원료 판별법)

  • Park, Yong-Chjun;Ahn, Chi-Young;Jin, Sang-Ook;Lim, Ji-Young;Kim, Kyu-Heon;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Cho, Tae-Yong;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Park, Kun-Sang;Yoon, Hae-Sung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2012
  • In this study, a method was developed using molecular biological technique to distinguish an authenticity of meats for processed meat products. The genes for distinction of species about meats targeted at 12S or 16S genes in mitochondrial DNA and the species-specific primers were designed by that PCR products' size was around 200bp for applying to processed products. The target materials were 10 species of livestock products and it checked whether expected PCR products were created or not by electrophoresis after PCR using species-specific primers. The results of PCR for beef, pork, goat meat, mutton, venison, and horse meat were 131, 138, 168, 144, 191, and 142 bp each. The expected PCR products were confirmed at 281, 186, 174, and 238 bp for chicken, duck, turkeymeat, and ostrich. Also, non-specific PCR products were not detected in similar species by species-specific primers. The method using primers developed in this study confirm to be applicable for composite seasoning including beefs and processed meat products including pork and chicken. Therefore, this method may apply to distinguish an authenticity of meats for various processed products.

Prediction of Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of Female Korean Black Goats (번식용 교잡 흑염소의 유지와 성장을 위한 대사에너지 요구량 추정)

  • Lee, Jinwook;Kim, Kwan Woo;Lee, Sung Soo;Ko, Yeoung Gyu;Lee, Yong Jae;Kim, Sung Woo;Jeon, Da Yeon;Roh, Hee Jong;Yun, Yeong Sik;Kim, Do Hyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to predict the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of female Korean black goats during their growth and pregnancy phases. Fifty female goats ($18.7{\pm}0.27kg$) in their growth phase with an average age of 5 months were stratified by weight and randomly assigned into 5 groups. They were fed 5 diets varying in metabolic energy (ME) [2.32 (G1), 2.49 (G2), 2.74 (G3), 2.99 (G4), and 3.24 (G5) Mcal/kg] until they were 9-month-old. After natural breeding, 50 female goats ($30.7{\pm}0.59kg$) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned into 5 groups. They were fed 5 diets varying in ME [2.32 (P1), 2.43 (P2), 2.55 (P3), 2.66 (P4), and 2.78 (P5) Mcal/kg]. The average feed intake ranged between 1.5 and 2.0% of the body weight (BW), and there was no significant difference between the treatment groups with goats in growth or pregnancy phases. Average daily gain (ADG) in diet demand during the growth phase increased with an increasing ME density and ranged from 46 to 69 g/d (p<0.01). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved with the ME density during the growth phase (p<0.01). The intercept of the regression equation between ME intake and ADG indicated that energy requirement for maintenance of goats during growth and pregnancy phases was $103.53kcal/BW^{0.75}$ and $102.7kcal/BW^{0.75}$, respectively. These results may serve as a basis for the establishment of goat feeding standards in Korea. Further studies are required to assess the nutrient requirement of goats using various methods for improving accuracy.

Study on Pile Cloth Rugs Produced after the Late Joseon Period (조선 말기 이후 첨모직 깔개에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Yoon-Mee;Oh, Joon Suk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.84-107
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    • 2018
  • Cheommojik is a pile cloth, a type of textile whose surface is covered with short piles. The term chaedam was used during the late Joseon dynasty to refer to pile cloth rugs, while the terms yoongjeon, dantong and yangtanja were used in the early twentieth century. Various documents, newspaper articles and photographs confirm that pile cloth rugs were used by the general public as well as the royal family from the late Joseon dynasty onward, and that there were domestic manufacturers of such rugs at that time. This study investigated six pile cloth rugs that were produced after the late Joseon dynasty, five of which feature Persian knots made of cut pile, the other being made with the loop pile method. The cut pile rugs are rectangular in shape and measure between 72-98cm by 150-156cm; and they are decorated in the middle with patterns of butterfly, deer, and tiger or the ten longevity symbols, and along the edges with patterns composed of 卍 symbols. The ground warp of all six rugs are made from cotton yarn, while the ground weft is made of cotton yarn on three pieces, wool on one piece and cotton and viscose rayon. The ground weft yarn from four pieces are Z-twist yarn made with two or more S-twist cotton yarn. Four to six colors were used for the pile weft, all being natural colors except for red. Two or more S- or Z-twist yarn were twisted together in the opposite twist for the pile weft, with the thickness determining the number of threads used. Six or more weft threads were used to make the start and end points of the rug; and the ground warp ends were arranged by tying every four of them together. For the left and right edges, three or more threads were wrapped together into a round stick-like form, and the second and third inner ground warps from the edges were stitched on to the wrapped edge. For the loop pile, loops were made in the direction of the warp; the ground warp and the ground weft may have been made with cotton, the pile warp with wool yarn. An analysis of the components of three rugs was conducted to determine which types of animal hair were used for the pile weft. Despite some inconclusive results, it was revealed that goat hair and fat-tailed sheep hair were used, raising the possibility that various kinds of animal fur were used in the production of pile cloth rugs. The six rugs examined in this study are estimated to have been made between the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Although the manufacturer of the rugs cannot be confirmed, we concluded that the rugs were produced in Korea after referring to the documentation of the domestic production of pile cloth rugs during the aforementioned period and the form and placements of the patterns on the rugs.

Studies on the Meat Production and Woolskin Processing of Sheep and Korean Native Goats for Increasing Farm Income as a Family Subsidiary Work (농가부업(農家副業)의 소득향상(所得向上)을 위한 양육생산(羊肉生産) 및 모피가공(毛皮加工)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kwon, Soon-Ki;Kim, Jong-Woo;Han, Sung-Wook;Lee, Kyu Seung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.93-114
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    • 1978
  • The purpose of the study was to find out possible ways for increasing farm income through the sheep and Korean native goats farming, and to investigate meat productivity, wool productivity; woolskin utility, physiological characteristics and correlation between economical college animal farm of the Chungnam National University and sample farms in the suburbs of Dae jeon City were selected for feeding 20 heads of Corriedale wethers and another 20 heads Korean native kids as research materials for the periods of 5th May-26th November, 1977. The data such as growth rate, carcass, viscera weight, blood picture and plamsa components, hebage intake and economic traits were obtained and analysed. The result of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Meat production and quality 1) After 196days of feeding, the body weight of sheep and Korean native goats was increased by two times of those at the beginning of the trial, i.e. 20kg and 8kg respectively. 2) There was no significance of growth rates of sheep in housing and grazing. 3) The growth rate of Korean native goats were excellent at the mountainous areas of Gong ju-Gun where infectious diseases were not found 4) Accroding to the body measurements of 18-month-old sheep, percentages of hip height, body length, rump length, chest depth, chest width, hip width, chest girth and forearm circumference to the withers height were 103,%, 104%, 33%, 44%, 31%, 23%, 135% and 15% respectively, and those of hip height, body length, chest depth and chest girth of 8-month-old native goats to the withers height were 106%, 109%, 46% and 122,% respecitively. As a result, it was found that the percentage of hip height, body length and chest depth of Korean native goats were higher than those of sheep while that of the chest girth of goats was lower. 5) In the carcass data, 47, $52{\pm}2.27%$ of carcass percentage, $34.61{\pm}1.62%$ of lean meat, $26.07{\pm}2.51%$ of viscera, $9.75{\pm}1.4%$ of bone, and $20.95%{\pm}2.14%$ of woolskin for sheep, and $45.58{\pm}5.63%$ of carcass percentage, $27.62{\p}3.81%$ of meat, $34.86{\pm}4.16%$ of viscera, $11.66{\pm}1.83%$ of bone, $3.63{\pm}1.61%$ of skull and $9.26{\pm}2.41%$ of woolskin for native goats were obtained. 6) The contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash in native goat meat were much similar in both plots of housing and grazing. It was, however, known that the contents of moisture and protein were higher in grazinrg than in housing, while fat content was lower in grazing plots. 7) The weights of visceral organs shown similar tendency for both of sheep and native goats. For the weights of liver, heart, kidney and spleen, significance was not reconized among the treatments. Those of rumen, reticulum, small and large intestine were heavier in grazing than in housing, while the amount of visceral fat was heavier in housing. 2. Wool productivity and woolskin 1) The wool production of sheep for 7 months was $3.88{\pm}1.02kg$, and wool percentage, staple length, straighten length, wool growth per day and number of crimps were $9.27{\pm}1.48%$, 8. $47{\pm}1.00cm$, $10.63{\pm}0.99cm$, $0.40{\pm}0.04cm$ and $2.78{\pm}0.40$ respecitively. 2) The tensile strength and tear strength of woolskin treated by alum tanning were highest on the skin obtained from rump, i.e. $1,351kg/mm^2$ and $2,252kg/mm^2$ respectively, and they are in order of loin and shoulder. 3. Utilization and improvement of pasture. 1) The difference of herbage intake of native goats was not recognized between grazing and tethering, but the intake in the afternoon was s lightly higher than that in the morning. However the hervage intake of sheep was superior in grazing and in the afternoon. 2) The cultivation effect was lower in the native goat plots due to their cultivation abilities, in other words, the establishment rates of pasture by hoof cultivation were 60.25% in the goat plots and 77.35% in the sheep plots. 4. Correlation among economical traits. 1) The correlation between live weight of sheep and daily gain was higher. On the other hand, the correlation between other traits was not significant except that live weight, daily gain and lean meat percentage to the length of thoracic vertebrae. The live weight of native goats and meat production were highly correlated, and high correlation was also found between weights of carcass and meat. However, negative correlation was shown between viscera weight and live weight as well as daily gain. 2) The correlatoin between fleece weight of sheep and other traits such as live weight, daily gain and fleece percentage is very high at the 1% siginficant level, and this means that rapid-growth individuals can produce much fleece. 3) The correlation between the factors such as weights of live body, lean meat and viscera of sheep and body measurements, i. e. chest girth and body length was highest, and weights, of carcass and lean meat was highly correlated to chest width and depth. It will be therefore reasonable that the meat productivity estimates will have to be made on the basis of chest girth and body length. The meat production traits of native goats were highly correlated to the most of body measurement data, and the correlation coefficient between chest girth and weights of live body, carcass, lean meat and bone percentage was very high, i. e. 0.992-0.974 in particular. The correlations of meat production traits to chest depth, forearm circumference, body length were 0.759-0.911, 0.759-0.909 and 0.708-0.872 respectively. Therefore, the meat production of native goats will have to be estimated on the basis of chest data. 5. Blood picture and plasma components. 1) The number of erythrocyte and MCHC of native goats were $12.93{\times}10^6/mm^3$ and 36.14%, and those of sheep were $10.68{\times}10^6/mm^3$ and 36.26 respectively. The values of native goats were significantly higher than those of sheep. 2) The hemoglobin concentration, PVC, MCV and MCR of native goats were 10.92 g/100ml, $23.40{\mu}^3$ and 10.94 pg, and those of sheep were 11.73 g/100ml, 36.25 ml/100ml, $33.97{\mu}^3$ and 30.2 ml/100ml 8.43 pg respectively. The values of native goats were significantly lower those of sheep. 3) The number of leukocytes of native goats was significantly higher than that of sheep, that is, $11.64{\times}10^3/mm^3$ in native goats and $9.32{\times}10^3/mm^3$ in sheep. 4) In differential count of leukocyte, neutrophil was significantly high in native goats while lympocyte in sheep. On the other hand, the basophil, eosinophil and monocyte were not significant between native goats and sheep. 5) The amounts of total protein and glucose in the plasma of native goats were 6.2g/100ml and 53.6mg/100ml, and those of sheep were 5.6g/100ml and 45.7mg/100ml, which means that the values of native goats were significantly higher that those of sheep. The amount of total-lipid of native goats(127.6mg/100ml) was significantly than that of sheep(149.6mg/100ml). 6) The amount of non-protein nitrogen, cholesterol, Ca, P, K, Na and Cl were not different between native goats and sheep. 6. Economic analysis. 1) The gross revenue of a farm which fed native goats and sheep was 4,000won per head and the optimum size for feeding them in a farm as a subsidiary work is 5-10 heads. 2) Since there was no difference between housing and grazing, they can be fed in group for farm's subsidiary work. 3) They can be also fed by youths and house wives in the suburbs of cities, because labour requirement is estimated as only two hours per days for feeding 5 heads of native goats and sheep.

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Effect of Plowing Frequency and Sowing Dates on the Agronomic Characteristics, Feed Value, Weed Yield and Palatability of Silage Corn (경운횟수와 파종기 이동이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성, 사료가치, 잡초발생 및 가축의 기호성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Byoung-Tae;Hwang, Joo-Hwan;Jeon, Byoung-Tae;Moon, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of plowing frequency and sowing dates on the agronomic characteristics, feed value, weed yield and palatability of silage corn. Treatments were a basal treatment(C: May 5 seeding, plowing once, weeding control once), T1(May 12 seeding, plowing twice, weeding control 0 time), T2(May 19 seeding, plowing three times, weeding control 0 time, T3(May 26 seeding, plowing four times, weeding control 0 time) and T4(June 2 seeding, plowing five times, weeding control 0 time). The experiment was performed at the College of Life and Natural Sciences of Sangju University in Sangju in 2006. The plant height and ear height showed highly in order to C > T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 treatment, leaf length was the highest at T2 (96.0cm). Leaf width and number of dead leaf were the highest at C and T3 (11.2cm), C, C and T1 (4.6), respectively. Stem diameter was the highest at T3 as 31mm, while T2 was the lowest as 25mm (p<0.05). Ear circle showed highly in order of C > T1 > T4 > T3 > T4 (p<0.05), and tip filling degree was the highest at C treatment as 8.8, while T4 treatment was the lowest as 6.0 (p<0.05). The stem hardness and grain hardness were C < T1 < T2 < T3 < T4 (p<0.05). Stem saccharinity was T1(6.1%) was the highest, while T2(3.0%) was the lowest(P<0.05). Fresh yield of weed was the lowest at C treatment as 500 kg/ha, but T1 treatment was the highest as 44,100 kg/ha (p<0.05). Weed coverage rate showed highly in order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > C treatment (p<0.05). Fresh yield of corn was the highest at C treatment as T3,550 kg/ha, but T4 treatment was the lowest as 65,500 kg/ha (p<0.05). Dry matter yield of corn showed highly in order of C(26,978 kg/ha) > T1(26,130 kg/ha) > T2(20,255 kg/ha) > T3(20,255 kg/ha) > T4(17,508 kg/ha) treatment (p<0.05). Crude protein content was T1(7.69%) > T4(7.42%) > T2(6.34%) > T3(5.99%) > C(5.91%) treatment (p<0.05), and Crude fat content showed highly in order of C (2.13%) > T1(2.04%) > T2(1.96%) > T3(1.95%) > T4(1.84%) treatment. Relative palatability of Holstein, Korean native goat and spotted deer was the highest at C treatment, but Korean native cattle was the highest at T1 treatment.

Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rates on Transfer of Pronuclear Microinjected Embryos in Korean Black Goats (전핵 미세 주입법으로 생산된 한국흑염소 수정란의 이식 조건이 수태율에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Y.S.;Shin, H.G.;Jang, S.K.;Yang, H.S.;Lee, O.K.;Lee, D.S.;Cho, J.K.;Shin, S.T.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2007
  • This study was investigated factors affecting the pregnancy rates after transfer of pronuclear microinjected embryos for the production of transgenic Korean black goats. Embryo transfer was carried out in 343 recipient Korean black goats from September 1999 to June 2000. Estrus was induced by the insertion of intravaginal progesterone devices $CIDR^(R)$ for 2 weeks. A single injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered at 48h before $CIDR^(R)$ removal to increase the proportion of does cycling and ovulation rate. Good quality embryos were prepared by microinjection of DNA into the pronuclei of fertilized goat oocyte and cultured in vitro. Pronuclear microinjected $1{\sim}8$ cell stage embryos were surgically transferred into the oviducts of the recipient at day 4 or 5 following $CIDR^(R)$ removal, and morula to blastocyst stage embryos were surgically transferred into uterus at day 9. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound scanning at $20{\sim}30d$ and 8 weeks following embryo transfer. The pregnancy rate was affected by several factors, such as estrus induction, the number of previous transfer, transfer site, stage of CL (corpus luteum), the number of recipient CL, stage of embryos and the number of transferred embryo. The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in recipients that came into estrus naturally than recipients that induced to come into estrus with $CIDR^(R)$(59.1% vs. 36.8%; P<0.05). The pregnancy rate was higher when the embryos were transferred into the left oviduct than transferred into the right oviduct (42.9% vs. 35.3%; P<0.05). The pregnancy rate of recipients with $CH_1$ (early) stage corpus hemorrhagicum in ovary was hi틴or than recipient with $CH_3$ (late) stage hemorrhagicum (47.5% vs. 17.9%; P<0.01). Higher pregnancy rates were obtained by transfer of 1-cell stage embryos into oviduct while late blastocysts (51.6% vs. 66.7%; P<0.01) into uterus. The pregnancy rates when 3 embryos were transferred to recipients were significantly higher than when 2 embryos we.e transferred (47.6% vs. 27.0%; P<0.05). Although there were no significant difference among the group, adhesion of reproductive organs, uterine size, ovulation rate of recipients, presence of large follicle and difficulty of transfer affected pregnancy rate of recipient. Higher pregnancy rates were obtained in the recipients with $8{\sim}15m$ diameter uterine horn as compared to the recipients with <5m diameter or >20mm diameter uterine hem (38.9%, 20% vs. 18.2%), in the recipients with large follicle in the ovulated ovary ipsilaterally (53.6% vs. 37.1%) and in the transfer which was carried out easily (39.2% vs. 27.8%, 0%). In conclusion, the high rate of pregnancy was achieved following transfer of pronuclear microinjected embryos when three or four 1-cell stage embryos were transferred into oviduct with $CH_1$ stage corpus hemorrhagicum in the ovary of recipient which came into estrus naturally.

Application for Identification of Food Raw Materials by PCR using Universal Primer (일반 프라이머를 이용한 PCR의 식품원료 진위 판별에 적용)

  • Park, Yong-Chjun;Jin, Sang-Ook;Lim, Ji-Young;Kim, Kyu-Heon;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Cho, Tae-Yong;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Han, Sang-Bae;Lee, Sang-Jae;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Yoon, Hae-Seong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2012
  • In order to determine an authenticity of food ingredient, we used DNA barcode method by universal primers. For identification of animal food ingredients, LCO1490/HCO2198 and VF2/FISH R2 designed for amplifying cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (CO1) region and L14724/H15915 for cytochrome b (cyt b) region on mitochondrial DNA were used. Livestock (cow, pig, goat, sheep, a horse and deer) was amplified by LCO1490/HCO 2198, VF2/FISH R2 and L14724/H15915 primers. Poultry (chicken, duck, turkey and ostrich) was amplified by LCO1490/HCO 2198 and VF2/FISH R2 primers. But, Fishes (walleye pollack, herring, codfish, blue codfish, trout, tuna and rockfish) were only amplified by VF2/FISH R2 primers. For plant food ingredients, 3 types of primers (trnH/psbA, rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R) have been used an intergenic spacer, a RNA polymerase beta subunit and a ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase region on plastid, respectively. Garlic, onion, radish, green tea and spinach were amplified by trnH/psbA, rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R. The PCR product sizes were same by rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R but, the PCR product size using trnH/psbA primer was different with others for plants each. We established PCR condition and universal primer selection for 17 item's raw materials for foods and determine base sequences aim to PCR products in this study. This study can apply to determine an authenticity of foods through making an comparison between databases and base sequences in gene bank. Therefore, DNA barcode method using universal primers can be a useful for species identification techniques not only raw materials but also processed foods that are difficult to analyze by chemical analysis.