• Title, Summary, Keyword: Goat Kid Growth

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Production of Cloned Korean Native Goat (Capra hircus) by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

  • Park, H.S.;Jung, S.Y.;Kim, T.S.;Park, J.K.;Moon, T.S.;Hong, S.P.;Jin, J.I.;Lee, J.S.;Lee, J.H.;Sohn, S.H.;Lee, C.Y.;Moon, Y.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.487-495
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    • 2007
  • The objectives of the present study were to initiate cloning of Korean native goat by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) and to examine whether unovulated (follicular) oocytes can support the same developmental ability of NT embryos as ovulated (oviductal) oocytes after hCG injection in stimulated cycles of the goat. The in vivo-matured and immature oocytes were collected from the oviducts and follicles of superovulated does, respectively, and the immature oocytes were maturated in vitro. Ear skin fibroblasts derived from a 3-yr-old female Korean native goat were used as the donors of nuclei or karyoplasts. Following fusion, activation and in vitro culture to a 2- to 4-cell stage, 49 in vitro-derived and 105 in vivo-derived embryos were transferred to 6 and 17 recipient does, respectively. One doe and three does of the respective groups were identified as pregnant by ultrasonography on day 30 after embryo transfer. However, only one doe, which had received in vivo-derived embryos, delivered a normal female kid of 1.9 kg on d 149. The cloned kid gained more weight than her age-matched females as much as 87% during the first 4 mo after birth (17.7 vs. $9.4{\pm}0.8$ kg) and reached puberty at 6-mo age a few months earlier than normal female does. The telomere length of the kid, which was similar to that of the donor fibroblast at 2-mo age, decreased 8% between 2- and 7-mo ages. Moreover, at 7-mo age, she had 21% shorter telomere than her age-matched goats. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a cloned animal born with a normal weight exhibited accelerated growth and development. The unusually rapid growth and development of the cloned goat may have resulted from SCNT-associated epigenetic reprogramming involving telomere shortening.

Influence of Dietary Phytoadditive as Polyherbal Combination on Performance of Does and Respective Litters in Cross Bred Dairy Goats

  • Mirzaei, F.;Prasad, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1386-1392
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    • 2011
  • The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a polyherbal supplement on cross bred does, starting from the last month of pregnancy to weaning, on milk yield, kid birth weight and growth rate. Thirty does were divided into three treatments of ten each in individual pens: low level supplementation (LS), high level supplementation (HS) and non-supplemented treatment (NS) as control. Low supplemented goats were given 125 mg/kg BW/d of polyherbal combination; high supplemented goats were given 250 mg/kg BW/d. The study was carried out in 2008. Fifty-nine kids were born from all the experimental animals. There was no difference on milk yield between supplemented groups and control (p>0.05), although polyherbal supplementation had positive effect on litter birth weight and growth rate compared to control. Weaning weights were higher (p<0.001) in LS and HS compared to NS does. In both supplemented treatments compared to control, mortalities and morbidities were also lower in kids born. It is concluded that pre-partum to weaning supplementation increases kids growth rates and weaning weights, as well as reduces kid mortalities, but it doesn't have significant effect on milk production.

Feeding Black Bengal Goat under Intensive Management : Milk Feeding in Pre-weaned Kids

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Faruque, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2004
  • Despite higher fecundity, Black Bengal goat generally has lower milk production, which is often insufficient for their multiple kids. However, milk requirement of Black Bengal kids is poorly defined. Present trial was thus designed to determine the requirement and intake of milk of pre-weaned Black Bengal kids in relation to their growth rate age and sex. Thirty, one month old Black Bengal kids of either sex divided into two groups were allocated to two groups, suckling alone (T1) or suckling along with teat-bottle feeding of milk (T2). Ten kids were allocated for the T1 and 20 kids were allocated for the T2. Digestibility of milk was also determined in T2 animals. Average daily consumption of milk, milk energy and milk N were 773 and 722 g, 1,170 and 1,093 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ and 1,552 and 1,462 mg N/kg $W^{0.75}/d$, respectively. During 9 weeks trial period, male kids had significantly higher live weight (4.32 vs. 4.20 kg; p<0.01) and intake of milk (773 vs. 722 g/d; p<0.05), energy (117 vs. 1,093 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}$/d; p<0.01) and N (1,552 vs.1,462 mg/k $W^{0.75}/d$; p<0.01) than the female. Milk consumption and the corresponding milk energy and milk N intake increased linearly up to 5th week of the trial, which, then decreased quadratically up to 9th week i.e., up to the weaning. Overall milk DM intake during this period was 2.58% (range 1.5-3.0%) of live weight or about 36 g/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ (range 29-45 g/kg $W^{0.75}/d$). Pre-weaned Black Bengal kids of about 4.5 kg weight, growing at the rate of 60 g weight daily requires at least 750 g milk daily. Daily live weight gain, estimated as the regression between the live weights over time, was 60 g ($r^2$=0.99) and 55 g ($r^2$=0.99), respectively, for the male and female kids. Efficiency of milk energy utilization for weight gain ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 (mean 0.81) for the male kid and 0.75 to 0.91 (mean 0.82) for the female kids. Efficiency of milk protein utilization for weight gain ranged from 0.46 to 0.70 (mean 0.61) for the male kid and 0.51 to 0.81 (mean 0.64) for the female kids. Additional teat-bottle feeding of suckling kids had no significant effect on their growth rate (54vs. 57 g/d). Average digestibility of milk DM, OM and N was 98.85, 98.99 and 98.69%, respectively and they were slightly (p>0.05) higher in the male than the female kids. Results suggest that the requirement of energy and protein and their utilization efficiency in Black Bengal kids is not different from that of the other breeds of goat.

Effects of Stomach Worm (Haemonchus contortus) Infection on The Kids Born of Infected Mother Goats

  • Howlader, M.M.R.;Capitan, S.S.;Eduardo, S.L.;Roxas, N.P.;Sevilla, C.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.435-438
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    • 1997
  • Twelve newborn goat kids born of philippine does (3.5 and 5 years old) were used in this study. Four mother (candidate) doe goats were randomly allocated to each group. The mother does were infected orally with three levels (0, 15,000 and 30,000 larvae) of infective Haemonchus contortus larvae. Before infection all animals were housed in individual pens with concrete floors. They were provided with a uniform management. Estrus of does were synchronized using PGF2 alpha. All the animals were bred naturally by the same buck. Baby goat born of infected mother goats were divided into three groups. $T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_3$), respectively, from mother treatment groups. Birth weight and growth of goat kids born from H. contortus infected mother goats were determined. Birth weights of kids of $T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_3$ were 1.9, 1.5 and 1.2 kg, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in birth weight of kids for the 3 treatment groups were found. However, significant (p < 0.05) effects of stomach worm infection and duration of infection on liveweight gain of kids were observed. After second and third week of birth, respectively, the kids of groups 3 and 2 registered lover liveweight gains than the kids in control group. However, no significant (p > 0.05) difference in liveweight gain was found between the kids of infected mother does. Fecal egg counts of the infected mother does showed patent infections which also indicated by postmortem worm counts. However, no worm egg was found in the feces of the test kids.

Lactation Performance of German Fawn Goat in Relation to Feeding Level and Dietary Protein Protection

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Rexroth, H.;Kijora, C.;Peters, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.222-237
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    • 2002
  • Effects of high and low levels of feeding with or without protected protein on the performance of lactating goats were studied. Twenty four German Fawn goats either from 1st ($43.37{\pm}3.937$ kg and 2 year old) or 3rd $62.64{\pm}6.783$ kg and 4-5 year old) parity were used for the trial. Feeding levels were 7.2 (I) and 5.2 (II) MJ ME/litre of milk of 3.5% fat in addition to that of the maintenance allowance. At each feeding level, diet had either unprotected (U) or formaldehyde protected (P) soya-meal. Thus, four diets were IU, IP, IIU and IIP, having six animals in each. The diets were composed of hay and pellet (10:4:1 of beet pulp : barley : soya-meal). Effect of feeding level, protein protection, parity, health status and kid number on intake, milk yield, milk composition, growth rate of goats were recorded across the 21 weeks of study. High feeding level resulted increase (p<0.001) in estimated metabolizable energy (ME) and metabolizable protein (MP) availability. Dietary inclusion of protected soya-meal increased (p<0.001) the estimated MP but not the ME availability. Animals in 1st parity ate more (p<0.001) DM (111 vs. 102 g/kg $W^{0.75}$/d) than those in 3rd parity. Animals with twin kids (110 g/kg $W^{0.75}$/d) had higher (p<0.001) DM intake than those with single kid (102 g/kg $W^{0.75}$/d). Fat (4%) corrected milk (FCM) yield was not effected by high (1,924 g/d) or low (1,927 g/d) feeding level but increased (p<0.001) with protected (2,166 g/d) compared with unprotected (1,703 g/d) soya-meal. FCM yield for four dietary combinations were 1,806, 2,078, 1,600 and 2,254 g/d for diets IU, IP, IIU and IIP, respectively. For unit increase (g) in estimated MP availability relative to ME (MJ) intake, FCM yield increased ($1,418{\pm}275.6$) g daily ($r^2$=0.58; p<0.001). Milk fat (3.14 vs. 3.54%; p<0.001) and protein (2.94 vs. 3.04% p<0.05) contents were lower at high than the low feeding level. Protected protein increased (p<0.001) the fat, lactose and net energy (NE) content of milk. Milk urea concentration of 175, 183, 192 and 204 mg/l for diets IU, IP, IIU and IIP, respectively indicated lower RDP content of these diets. The RDP contents were 6.97, 6.70, 7.30 and 6.83 g/MJ of ME for diets IU, IP, IIU and IIP, respectively. Live weight change over the experimental period were 41, 6, 17 and 19 g/d. Absence of any positive response of high feeding was probably due to inefficient rumen fermentation resulting from inadequate RDP supply. Protected protein improved production performance apparently by increasing MP:ME ratio in the absorbed nutrient.

Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

  • Bompadre, T.F.V.;Neto, O. Boaventura;Mendonca, A.N.;Souza, S.F.;Oliveira, D.;Fernandes, M.H.M.R.;Harter, C.J.;Almeida, A.K.;Resende, K.T.;Teixeira, I.A.M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1712-1720
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    • 2014
  • Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females ($5.0{\pm}0.1kg$ initial body weight (BW) and $23{\pm}5d$ of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females ($5.1{\pm}0.4kg$ BW and $23{\pm}13d$ of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was $205.6kJ/kg^{0.75}$ empty body weight gain (EBW) ($170.3kJ/kg^{0.75}$ BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was $294.34kJ/kg^{0.75}$ EBW and $k_m$ of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming $k_g=0.47$, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with different energetic content for intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids weighing from 5 to 15 kg.

PHENOTYPIC SELECTION ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BLACK BENGAL KIDS

  • Husain, S.S.;Horst, Peter;Islam, A.B.M. Mafizul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 1996
  • In the first step, birth weights and weights at 9 and 12 months were analysed and their variability were studied. Birth weight of kids had large within breed variation ranging from 0.50 to 1.60 kg. There were more than 100 kids with birth weights ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 kg. The birth weight of kids increased with the increase of kidding weight of dams. The weights of kids at 9 and 12 months also showed large within variation ranging from 5.0 to 18.0 kg and 16.0 to 19.0 kg respectively. In the second step, these existing large within breed variations were exploited selecting best animals for further mating. The birth weight of selected group($1.13{\pm}0.2kg$) was significantly(p<0.01) higher than the random group($0.93{\pm}0.05kg$). The weights in selected group for 3 and 6 months were $4.94{\pm}0.04$ and $8.40{\pm}0.05kg$ and that of random group was $3.99 {\pm}0.08$ and $7.07{\pm}0.11kg$ respectively and differences wee significant. Significantly higher average daily gains were noticed for selected group ($42.7{\pm}0.43g/day$) as against random group($33.3{\pm}0.81g/day$). From the results it may be concluded that selection and mating of best performing animals have some effect on the improvement of growth performance of kids which may be exploited for future planning and development in the field of goat production.

Cloning of Farm Animals in Japan; The Present and the Future

  • Shioya, Yasuo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2001
  • 1. About fifty thousand of cattle embryos were transferred and 16000 ET-calves were born in 1999. Eighty percents of embryos were collected from Japanese Black beef donors and transferred to dairy Holstein heifers and cows. Since 1985, we have achieved in bovine in vitro fertilization using immature oocytes collected from ovaries of slaughterhouse. Now over 8000 embryos fertilized by Japanese Black bull, as Kitaguni 7~8 or Mitsufuku, famousbulls as high marbling score of progeny tests were sold to dairy farmers and transferred to their dairy cattle every year. 2. Embryo splitting for identical twins is demonstrated an useful tool to supply a bull for semen collection and a steer for beef performance test. According to the data of Dr. Hashiyada(2001), 296 pairs of split-half embryos were transferred to recipients and 98 gave births of 112 calves (23 pairs of identical twins and 66 singletons). 3. A blastomere-nuclear-transferred cloned calf was born in 1990 by a joint research with Drs. Tsunoda, National Institute of Animal Industry (NIAI) and Ushijima, Chiba Prefectural Farm Animal Center. The fruits of this technology were applied to the production of a calf from a cell of long-term-cultured inner cell mass (1988, Itoh et al, ZEN-NOH Central Research Institute for Feed and Livestock) and a cloned calf from three-successive-cloning (1997, Tsunoda et al.). According to the survey of MAFF of Japan, over 500 calves were born until this year and a glaf of them were already brought to the market for beef. 4. After the report of "Dolly", in February 1997, the first somatic cell clone female calves were born in July 1998 as the fruits of the joint research organized by Dr. Tsunoda in Kinki University (Kato et al, 2000). The male calves were born in August and September 1998 by the collaboration with NIAI and Kagoshima Prefecture. Then 244 calves, four pigs and a kid of goat were now born in 36 institutes of Japan. 5. Somatic cell cloning in farm animal production will bring us as effective reproductive method of elite-dairy- cows, super-cows and excellent bulls. The effect of making copy farm animal is also related to the reservation of genetic resources and re-creation of a male bull from a castrated steer of excellent marbling beef. Cloning of genetically modified animals is most promising to making pig organs transplant to people and providing protein drugs in milk of pig, goat and cattle. 6. Farm animal cloning is one of the most dreamful technologies of 21th century. It is necessary to develop this technology more efficient and stable as realistic technology of the farm animal production. We are making researches related to the best condition of donor cells for high productivity of cloning, genetic analysis of cloned animals, growth and performance abilities of clone cattle and pathological and genetical analysis of high rates of abortion and stillbirth of clone calves (about 30% of periparutum mortality). 7. It is requested in the report of Ministry of Health, labor and Welfare to make clear that carbon-copy cattle(somatic cell clone cattle) are safe and heathy for a commercial market since the somatic cell cloning is a completely new technology. Fattened beef steers (well-proved normal growth) and milking cows(shown a good fertility) are now provided for the assessment of food safety.

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Caprine Dermatitis Caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes에 의한 염소의 피부염)

  • Pal Mahendra;Sukumaran K.;Sejra Anand Ram;Lee Chang Woo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 1991
  • Trichophyton mentagrophytes was described as a primary cause of mycotic dermatitis in two young goats housed together in a humid, ill-ventilated and unhygienic byre. The diagnosis in both the cases was established on the detection of fungal element in the skin scrapings by potassium hydroxide technique and isolation of the pathogen in pure growth on mycological medium at 30$^{\circ}C$. The lesions were found on the face of one kid and on the neck and ear of another one. Two adult goats housed in the same enclosure were found to be free from this disease. Further, there was no evidence of ringworm in the goat owner and his family members. Genetic crossing of both the isolates on modified sunflower seed medium indicated that they belonged to (―) mating type. Hair performation test revealed the keratolytic activity of both the strains of T. mentagrophytes. The public health significance and chemotherapy are also discussed. The question of source of infection could not be emphatically established.

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GRAZING MANAGEMENT STUDIES WITH THAI GOATS II. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF DOES GRAZING IMPROVED PASTURE WITH OR WITHOUT CONCENTRATE SUPPLEMENTATION

  • Kochapakdee, S.;Pralomkarn, W.;Saithanoo, S.;Lawpetchara, A.;Norton, B.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.563-570
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    • 1994
  • Fifty-one Thai Native (TN) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) $\times$ TN does were studied. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reproductive performances of different goat genotypes grazing improved pasture with or without supplementary feeding. The feeding regimes were: 1. no concentrate supplement (T1), 2. supplemented for 15 days before mating and 45 days during mating period (T2), 3. supplemented from 15 days before mating to 42 days after kidding (T3) and 4. supplemented for 30 days before kidding, followed by 42 days after kidding. Cross-bred does tended to have higher conception rates, kidding opportunities and higher multiple birth rates than TN does. However, these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05), and concentrate supplementation under the various regimes did not increase reproductive performance. TN kids had significantly (p<0.01) lower birth weights and lower weights at 3, 6 and 12 weeks of age than those of the cross-bred kids. However, there was no significant difference between the genotypes in growth rate (g/d or $g/kg^{75}/d$) of kids during these periods. Supplementary feeding did not significantly affect either kid birth weight or weight gain in the first 6 weeks after birth and during this period supplementary adequate in both quantity and quality, substantial reproductive performances were achieved from both TN and AN $\times$ TN does without concentrate supplementation.