• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gravity Potential Model

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Analysis of the Geological Structure of the Hwasan Caldera Using Potential Data (포텐셜 자료해석을 통한 화산칼데라 구조 해석)

  • Park, Gye-Soon;Yoo, Hee-Young;Yang, Jun-Mo;Lee, Heui-Soon;Kwon, Byung-Doo;Eom, Joo-Young;Kim, Dong-O;Park, Chan-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2008
  • A geophysical mapping was performed for Hwasan caldera which is located in Euisung Sub-basin of the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. In order to overcome the limitation of the previous studies, remote sensing technic was used and dense potential data were obtained and analyzed. First, we analyzed geological lineament for target area using geological map, digital elevation model (DEM) data and satellite imagery. The results were greatly consistent with the previous studies, and showed that N-S and NW-SE direction are the most dominant one in target area. Second, based on the lineament analysis, highly dense gravity data were acquired in Euisung Sub-basin and an integrated interpretation considering air-born magnetic data was made to investigate the regional structure of the target area. The results of power spectrum analysis for the acquired potential data revealed that the subsurface of Euisung Sub-basin have two density discontinuities at about 1 km and 3-5 km depth. A 1 km depth discontinuity is thought as the depth of pyroclastic sedimentary rocks or igneous rocks which were intruded at the ring vent of Hwasan caldera, while a 3-5 km depth discontinuity seems to be associated with the depth of the basin basement. In addition, three-dimensional gravity inversion for the total area of Euisung Sub-basin was carried out, and the inversion results indicated two followings; 1) Cretaceous Palgongsan granite and Bulguksa intrusion rocks, which are located in southeastern part and northeastern part of Euisung Sub-basin, show two major low density anomalies, 2) pyroclastic rocks around Hwasan caldera also have lower density when compared with those of neighborhood regions and are extended to 1.5 km depth. However, a poor vertical resolution of potential survey makes it difficult to accurately delineate the detailed structure caldera which has a vertically developed characteristic in general. To overcome this limitation, integrated analysis was carried out using the magnetotelluric data on the corresponding area with potential data and we could obtain more reasonable geologic structure.

Aerodynamic Analysis of the Blended Wing Body Type MAV using the Time-Domain Panel Method (시간영역 패널법을 이용한 융합익기 형상 초소형 무인기의 공력해석)

  • Park, Jin-Han;Cho, Lee-Sang;Cho, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.637-646
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    • 2010
  • A time-domain panel method based on the potential flow theory and the time-stepping method is developed to predict the steady/unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of FM07, which is the BWB (Blended-wing body) type MAV. In the aerodynamic analyses, we used two types of the initial model(Case I) and the improved model(Case II), which is moved the gravity center toward the rear and has larger aspect ratio. In the steady aerodynamic analyses, it is revealed that improved model has higher lift to drag ratio(L/D) and more stable pitch characteristic than those of the initial model. In the unsteady aerodynamic analyses for sudden acceleration motion similar to the launch phase of MAV, it seemed that there is a rapid increase of the lift coefficient after the launch and unsteady results are good agreed compare with steady results in just a few times. In the analysis for pitch oscillation motion, which is occurred at the cruise condition of the FM07, it shows that unsteady aerodynamic coefficients looped around steady results and the improved model has more sensitive aerodynamic characteristics.

The Developing Strategy for Supply Chain Economics in the East Asia by Center of Gravity Technique (무게중심기법을 이용한 동아시아 공급망 경제(Supply Chain Economics) 발전 전략)

  • Kim, Tae-Ho;Bae, Jung-Mi;Choi, Woo-Seok;Kim, Jin-Cheol;Kang, Kyung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.123-132
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    • 2011
  • Supply chain for the economic development of East Asian economic development model, the study's purpose is to establish. Korea, Japan, China, Russia and Asia, including North Korea and get the status of economic development by focusing on key issues and proposed solutions, within a few years of the coming of a new East Asian economic integration of new supply chain would like to prepare for the era. Weight The weight of the center to the center of East Asia, looking for techniques to approach the supply chain scenario, the economic development strategies and measures were studied. East Asia's economic potential value of the supply chain, identify and recognize the importance and benefits should be Presents detailed country-specific development strategies and leading Asian economies will have to pay the supply chain. Republic of Korea's leading East Asian economies in order to supply the industry, industry development strategy as detailed in the running to move. North and South Korea for economic integration, the era of supply-chain economy, you need to prepare calmly.

A Characterization of Oil Sand Reservoir and Selections of Optimal SAGD Locations Based on Stochastic Geostatistical Predictions (지구통계 기법을 이용한 오일샌드 저류층 해석 및 스팀주입중력법을 이용한 비투멘 회수 적지 선정 사전 연구)

  • Jeong, Jina;Park, Eungyu
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.313-327
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    • 2013
  • In the study, three-dimensional geostatistical simulations on McMurray Formation which is the largest oil sand reservoir in Athabasca area, Canada were performed, and the optimal site for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was selected based on the predictions. In the selection, the factors related to the vertical extendibility of steam chamber were considered as the criteria for an optimal site. For the predictions, 110 borehole data acquired from the study area were analyzed in the Markovian transition probability (TP) framework and three-dimensional distributions of the composing media were predicted stochastically through an existing TP based geostatistical model. The potential of a specific medium at a position within the prediction domain was estimated from the ensemble probability based on the multiple realizations. From the ensemble map, the cumulative thickness of the permeable media (i.e. Breccia and Sand) was analyzed and the locations with the highest potential for SAGD applications were delineated. As a supportive criterion for an optimal SAGD site, mean vertical extension of a unit permeable media was also delineated through transition rate based computations. The mean vertical extension of a permeable media show rough agreement with the cumulative thickness in their general distribution. However, the distributions show distinctive disagreement at a few locations where the cumulative thickness was higher due to highly alternating juxtaposition of the permeable and the less permeable media. This observation implies that the cumulative thickness alone may not be a sufficient criterion for an optimal SAGD site and the mean vertical extension of the permeable media needs to be jointly considered for the sound selections.

Regular Waves-induced Seabed Dynamic Responses around Submerged Breakwater (규칙파동장하 잠제 주변지반의 동적거동에 관한 수치해석)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Ryu, Heung-Won;Kim, Dong-Wook;Kim, Do-Sam;Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.132-145
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    • 2016
  • In case of the seabed around and under gravity structures such as submerged breakwater is exposed to a large wave action long period, the excess pore pressure will be generated significantly due to pore volume change associated with rearrangement soil grains. This effect will lead a seabed liquefaction around and under structures as a result from decrease in the effective stress. Under the seabed liquefaction occurred and developed, the possibility of structure failure will be increased eventually. In this study, to evaluate the liquefaction potential on the seabed quantitatively, numerical analysis was conducted using the expanded 2-dimensional numerical wave tank model and the finite element elasto-plastic model. Under the condition of the regular wave field, the time and spatial series of the deformation of submerged breakwater, the pore water pressure (oscillatory and residual components) and pore water pressure ratio in the seabed were estimated.

Validation of Sea Surface Wind Estimated from KOMPSAT-5 Backscattering Coefficient Data (KOMPSAT-5 후방산란계수 자료로 산출된 해상풍 검증)

  • Jang, Jae-Cheol;Park, Kyung-Ae;Yang, Dochul
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.6_3
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    • pp.1383-1398
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    • 2018
  • Sea surface wind is one of the most fundamental variables for understanding diverse marine phenomena. Although scatterometers have produced global wind field data since the early 1990's, the data has been used limitedly in oceanic applications due to it slow spatial resolution, especially at coastal regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is capable to produce high resolution wind field data. KOMPSAT-5 is the first Korean satellite equipped with X-band SAR instrument and is able to retrieve the sea surface wind. This study presents the validation results of sea surface wind derived from the KOMPSAT-5 backscattering coefficient data for the first time. We collected 18 KOMPSAT-5 ES mode data to produce a matchup database collocated with buoy stations. In order to calculate the accurate wind speed, we preprocessed the SAR data, including land masking, speckle noise reduction, and ship detection, and converted the in-situ wind to 10-m neutral wind as reference wind data using Liu-Katsaros-Businger (LKB) model. The sea surface winds based on XMOD2 show root-mean-square errors of about $2.41-2.74m\;s^{-1}$ depending on backscattering coefficient conversion equations. In-depth analyses on the wind speed errors derived from KOMPSAT-5 backscattering coefficient data reveal the existence of diverse potential error factors such as image quality related to range ambiguity, discrete and discontinuous distribution of incidence angle, change in marine atmospheric environment, impacts on atmospheric gravity waves, ocean wave spectrum, and internal wave.

DEVELOPMENT OF STATEWIDE TRUCK TRAFFIC FORECASTING METHOD BY USING LIMITED O-D SURVEY DATA (한정된 O-D조사자료를 이용한 주 전체의 트럭교통예측방법 개발)

  • 박만배
    • Proceedings of the KOR-KST Conference
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    • pp.101-113
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    • 1995
  • The objective of this research is to test the feasibility of developing a statewide truck traffic forecasting methodology for Wisconsin by using Origin-Destination surveys, traffic counts, classification counts, and other data that are routinely collected by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT). Development of a feasible model will permit estimation of future truck traffic for every major link in the network. This will provide the basis for improved estimation of future pavement deterioration. Pavement damage rises exponentially as axle weight increases, and trucks are responsible for most of the traffic-induced damage to pavement. Consequently, forecasts of truck traffic are critical to pavement management systems. The pavement Management Decision Supporting System (PMDSS) prepared by WisDOT in May 1990 combines pavement inventory and performance data with a knowledge base consisting of rules for evaluation, problem identification and rehabilitation recommendation. Without a r.easonable truck traffic forecasting methodology, PMDSS is not able to project pavement performance trends in order to make assessment and recommendations in the future years. However, none of WisDOT's existing forecasting methodologies has been designed specifically for predicting truck movements on a statewide highway network. For this research, the Origin-Destination survey data avaiiable from WisDOT, including two stateline areas, one county, and five cities, are analyzed and the zone-to'||'&'||'not;zone truck trip tables are developed. The resulting Origin-Destination Trip Length Frequency (00 TLF) distributions by trip type are applied to the Gravity Model (GM) for comparison with comparable TLFs from the GM. The gravity model is calibrated to obtain friction factor curves for the three trip types, Internal-Internal (I-I), Internal-External (I-E), and External-External (E-E). ~oth "macro-scale" calibration and "micro-scale" calibration are performed. The comparison of the statewide GM TLF with the 00 TLF for the macro-scale calibration does not provide suitable results because the available 00 survey data do not represent an unbiased sample of statewide truck trips. For the "micro-scale" calibration, "partial" GM trip tables that correspond to the 00 survey trip tables are extracted from the full statewide GM trip table. These "partial" GM trip tables are then merged and a partial GM TLF is created. The GM friction factor curves are adjusted until the partial GM TLF matches the 00 TLF. Three friction factor curves, one for each trip type, resulting from the micro-scale calibration produce a reasonable GM truck trip model. A key methodological issue for GM. calibration involves the use of multiple friction factor curves versus a single friction factor curve for each trip type in order to estimate truck trips with reasonable accuracy. A single friction factor curve for each of the three trip types was found to reproduce the 00 TLFs from the calibration data base. Given the very limited trip generation data available for this research, additional refinement of the gravity model using multiple mction factor curves for each trip type was not warranted. In the traditional urban transportation planning studies, the zonal trip productions and attractions and region-wide OD TLFs are available. However, for this research, the information available for the development .of the GM model is limited to Ground Counts (GC) and a limited set ofOD TLFs. The GM is calibrated using the limited OD data, but the OD data are not adequate to obtain good estimates of truck trip productions and attractions .. Consequently, zonal productions and attractions are estimated using zonal population as a first approximation. Then, Selected Link based (SELINK) analyses are used to adjust the productions and attractions and possibly recalibrate the GM. The SELINK adjustment process involves identifying the origins and destinations of all truck trips that are assigned to a specified "selected link" as the result of a standard traffic assignment. A link adjustment factor is computed as the ratio of the actual volume for the link (ground count) to the total assigned volume. This link adjustment factor is then applied to all of the origin and destination zones of the trips using that "selected link". Selected link based analyses are conducted by using both 16 selected links and 32 selected links. The result of SELINK analysis by u~ing 32 selected links provides the least %RMSE in the screenline volume analysis. In addition, the stability of the GM truck estimating model is preserved by using 32 selected links with three SELINK adjustments, that is, the GM remains calibrated despite substantial changes in the input productions and attractions. The coverage of zones provided by 32 selected links is satisfactory. Increasing the number of repetitions beyond four is not reasonable because the stability of GM model in reproducing the OD TLF reaches its limits. The total volume of truck traffic captured by 32 selected links is 107% of total trip productions. But more importantly, ~ELINK adjustment factors for all of the zones can be computed. Evaluation of the travel demand model resulting from the SELINK adjustments is conducted by using screenline volume analysis, functional class and route specific volume analysis, area specific volume analysis, production and attraction analysis, and Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) analysis. Screenline volume analysis by using four screenlines with 28 check points are used for evaluation of the adequacy of the overall model. The total trucks crossing the screenlines are compared to the ground count totals. L V/GC ratios of 0.958 by using 32 selected links and 1.001 by using 16 selected links are obtained. The %RM:SE for the four screenlines is inversely proportional to the average ground count totals by screenline .. The magnitude of %RM:SE for the four screenlines resulting from the fourth and last GM run by using 32 and 16 selected links is 22% and 31 % respectively. These results are similar to the overall %RMSE achieved for the 32 and 16 selected links themselves of 19% and 33% respectively. This implies that the SELINICanalysis results are reasonable for all sections of the state.Functional class and route specific volume analysis is possible by using the available 154 classification count check points. The truck traffic crossing the Interstate highways (ISH) with 37 check points, the US highways (USH) with 50 check points, and the State highways (STH) with 67 check points is compared to the actual ground count totals. The magnitude of the overall link volume to ground count ratio by route does not provide any specific pattern of over or underestimate. However, the %R11SE for the ISH shows the least value while that for the STH shows the largest value. This pattern is consistent with the screenline analysis and the overall relationship between %RMSE and ground count volume groups. Area specific volume analysis provides another broad statewide measure of the performance of the overall model. The truck traffic in the North area with 26 check points, the West area with 36 check points, the East area with 29 check points, and the South area with 64 check points are compared to the actual ground count totals. The four areas show similar results. No specific patterns in the L V/GC ratio by area are found. In addition, the %RMSE is computed for each of the four areas. The %RMSEs for the North, West, East, and South areas are 92%, 49%, 27%, and 35% respectively, whereas, the average ground counts are 481, 1383, 1532, and 3154 respectively. As for the screenline and volume range analyses, the %RMSE is inversely related to average link volume. 'The SELINK adjustments of productions and attractions resulted in a very substantial reduction in the total in-state zonal productions and attractions. The initial in-state zonal trip generation model can now be revised with a new trip production's trip rate (total adjusted productions/total population) and a new trip attraction's trip rate. Revised zonal production and attraction adjustment factors can then be developed that only reflect the impact of the SELINK adjustments that cause mcreases or , decreases from the revised zonal estimate of productions and attractions. Analysis of the revised production adjustment factors is conducted by plotting the factors on the state map. The east area of the state including the counties of Brown, Outagamie, Shawano, Wmnebago, Fond du Lac, Marathon shows comparatively large values of the revised adjustment factors. Overall, both small and large values of the revised adjustment factors are scattered around Wisconsin. This suggests that more independent variables beyond just 226; population are needed for the development of the heavy truck trip generation model. More independent variables including zonal employment data (office employees and manufacturing employees) by industry type, zonal private trucks 226; owned and zonal income data which are not available currently should be considered. A plot of frequency distribution of the in-state zones as a function of the revised production and attraction adjustment factors shows the overall " adjustment resulting from the SELINK analysis process. Overall, the revised SELINK adjustments show that the productions for many zones are reduced by, a factor of 0.5 to 0.8 while the productions for ~ relatively few zones are increased by factors from 1.1 to 4 with most of the factors in the 3.0 range. No obvious explanation for the frequency distribution could be found. The revised SELINK adjustments overall appear to be reasonable. The heavy truck VMT analysis is conducted by comparing the 1990 heavy truck VMT that is forecasted by the GM truck forecasting model, 2.975 billions, with the WisDOT computed data. This gives an estimate that is 18.3% less than the WisDOT computation of 3.642 billions of VMT. The WisDOT estimates are based on the sampling the link volumes for USH, 8TH, and CTH. This implies potential error in sampling the average link volume. The WisDOT estimate of heavy truck VMT cannot be tabulated by the three trip types, I-I, I-E ('||'&'||'pound;-I), and E-E. In contrast, the GM forecasting model shows that the proportion ofE-E VMT out of total VMT is 21.24%. In addition, tabulation of heavy truck VMT by route functional class shows that the proportion of truck traffic traversing the freeways and expressways is 76.5%. Only 14.1% of total freeway truck traffic is I-I trips, while 80% of total collector truck traffic is I-I trips. This implies that freeways are traversed mainly by I-E and E-E truck traffic while collectors are used mainly by I-I truck traffic. Other tabulations such as average heavy truck speed by trip type, average travel distance by trip type and the VMT distribution by trip type, route functional class and travel speed are useful information for highway planners to understand the characteristics of statewide heavy truck trip patternS. Heavy truck volumes for the target year 2010 are forecasted by using the GM truck forecasting model. Four scenarios are used. Fo~ better forecasting, ground count- based segment adjustment factors are developed and applied. ISH 90 '||'&'||' 94 and USH 41 are used as example routes. The forecasting results by using the ground count-based segment adjustment factors are satisfactory for long range planning purposes, but additional ground counts would be useful for USH 41. Sensitivity analysis provides estimates of the impacts of the alternative growth rates including information about changes in the trip types using key routes. The network'||'&'||'not;based GMcan easily model scenarios with different rates of growth in rural versus . . urban areas, small versus large cities, and in-state zones versus external stations. cities, and in-state zones versus external stations.

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Geophysical Study on the Geoelectrical Structure of the Hwasan Caldera in the Euisung Sub-basin Using Magnetotelluric Survey (자기지전류 탐사를 이용한 의성소분지 화산 칼데라의 지구물리학적 연구)

  • Yang, Jun-Mo;Kwon, Byung-Doo;Cho, In-Ky;Lee, Heui-Soon;Park, Gye-Soon;Um, Joo-Young
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2008
  • To extend our detailed knowledge for the Hwasan caldera, we carried out magnetotelluric (MT) survey, which is pretty sensitive to electrical property variation in both horizontal and vertical direction of subsurface, across the Hwasan caldera with the direction of EW. The 2-D inversion results of observed MT data lead to following conclusions. Firstly, the depth of the basin basement inferred by the MT inversion results matches well with that suggested by previous potential studies, but the basement resistivity seems fairly low when compared to that of general case. This feature might be related with the large-scaled, highly conductive layer beneath the Euisung Sub-basin suggested by the previous MT study. Secondly, the high resistivity zones reaching to 4000 $\Omega{\cdot}m$ are imaged around two external ring fault boundaries. These zones are thought of as the response of the rhyolitic dykes intruding along the ring fault, and in the previous gravity data correspond to relatively high density anomalies. Thirdly, low resistivity zone reaching to 200 $\Omega{\cdot}m$ is detected around a depth of 1km beneath the central part of the caldera, which has not been yet reported in korean geophysical literatures. If we take account of the evolution model of the Hwasan caldera, this zone is regarded as the past sedimentary layer that subsided during the period of forming external ring fault system. In addition, the relatively low density anomaly observed in the central part of the caldera may be attributed to this sedimentary layer.