• Title, Summary, Keyword: Green strength

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Quantitative Analysis of Roughness of Powder Surface Using Three-Dimensional Laser Profiler and its Effect on Green Strength of Powder Compacts (분말 표면 조도의 3차원 레이저 분석기를 이용한 정량화와 압분성형체 강도에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Lee, Dong-Jun;Yoon, Eun-Yoo;Kim, Ha-Neul;Kang, Hee-Soo;Lee, Eon-Sik;Kim, Hyoung-Seop
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.406-410
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    • 2011
  • Green strength is an important property of powders since high green strength guarantees easy and safe handling before sintering. The green strength of a powder compact is related to mainly mechanical and surface characters, governed by interlocking of the particles. In this study, the effect of powder surface roughness on the green strength of iron powders was investigated using a transverse rupture test. Three-dimensional laser profiler was employed for quantitative analyses of the surface roughness. Two different surface conditions, i.e. surface roughness, of powders were compared. The powders having rough surfaces show higher green strength than the round surface powders since higher roughness leads increasing interlocked area between the contacting powders.

Quadrant Analysis in Correlation between Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Low-Temperature Conductive Film Bonded Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

  • Baek, Su-Wung;Choi, Kwang-Il;Lee, Woo-Hyoung;Lee, Suk-Ho;Cheon, Chan-Hyuk;Hong, Seung-Min;Lee, Kil-Song;Shin, Hyun-Woo;Yan, Yeon-Won;Lim, Cheolhyun
    • Current Photovoltaic Research
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we analyzed the correlation between mechanical and electrical properties of low-temperature conductive film (LT-CF) bonded silicon solar cells by a quadrant analysis (horizontal axis (peeling strength), vertical axis (power loss)). We found that a series of points with various bonding parameters such as bonding temperature, pressure and time were distributed in the different three regimes; weak regime (Q2: weak bonding strength and high power loss), moderate regime (Q4 : strong bonding strength and low power loss) and hard regime (Q3 : weak bonding strength and low power loss). Using this analogous technique, it was possible to fabricate the LT-CF bonded silicon solar cells with the various conditions displayed in Q3 of the quadrant plots, possessing the peeling strength of ~ 1N/mm and power loss of 2~3%.

Shear Strength and Erosion Resistance Characteristics of Stabilized Green Soils (토양안정재를 혼합한 녹생토의 전단강도 및 침식저항특성)

  • Oh, Sewook;Jeon, Jinchul;Kim, Donggeun;Lee, Heonho;Kwon, Youngcheul
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2015
  • With the rising interest in the environment, more attention on ecological restoration for damaged slope surface to restore its original state has been drawn. Generally, the most useful method is vegetation based spray work. This method uses green soil including sewage sludge, sawdust, paper sludge, and weathered granite soil. However, because there are neither accurate information nor test values about green soil, green soil is often lost by environmental factors such as rainfalls and strong winds. To solve the problem of green soil, it is necessary to prepare design standards about green soil, and conduct studies to deal with green soil loss in consideration of various variables including basic material property, soil quality of slope surface, and weather. This study was conducted in the mixture of green soil and eco-friendly soil stabilizer. With green soil, basic material property test and compaction test were conducted for the analysis on the basic characteristics of green soil. In the mixture with soil stabilizer at a certain ratio, we conducted shear strength test depending on the ratio in order to analyze the maximum shear strength, cohesion and the change in internal friction angles. Furthermore, in the mixture ratio of green soil and soil stabilizer, which is the same as the ratio in the shear strength test, an inclination of slope surface was made in laboratory for the analysis on erosion and germination rate. Finally, this study evaluated the most effective and economic mixing ratio of soil stabilizer to cope with neighboring environmental factors. According to the test, the shear strength of green soil increased up to 51% rely onto the mixing ratio of and a curing period, and its cohesion and internal friction angle also gradually increases. It is judged that the mixture of soil stabilizer was effective in improving shear strength and thereby increased the stability of green soil.

The Effect of Hot Water Soluble Extract from Green Tea on Metabolism of Calcium and Bone Strength in rats fed Soy Protein Diet (녹차 열수 추출물이 콩단백질을 급여한 흰쥐의 칼슘대사와 골격강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Won Hyang Rye
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2005
  • This study is to find out effects of hot water soluble extract from green tea, one of the Korean favorites, on the calcium metabolism and bone strength in body. To do so, calcium, phosphate, creatinine concentration and ALP activity in blood and the content of calcium and ash in the organ, the length, weight, strength in bone were measured. In addition, to find the calcium metabolism, the level of calcium intake, excretion, retention were measured. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and isoloated soy protein was provided as the source of protein and CaCO₃ was provided as the source of calcium. 0.5% hot water soluble extract from green tea was provided to the green tea groups and for the control group deionized water was provided. The results are as follows ; 1. There is no difference between the experimental groups in diet intake, weight gain, and the feed intake. 2. Feed efficiency ratio was low in the group which hot water soluble extract from green tea was provided. 3. There is no difference between groups the level of calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and ALP activity in serum. 4. There is no difference between groups weight, contents of ash and calcium in kidney and liver. 5. There is no difference between groups in calcium intake, absorption, excretion, and retention. 6. There is no difference between groups weight, length and strength in bone. In summary, when hot water soluble extract from green tea was provided with the amount of 150-200mg, which is taken when people generally drink as favorite tea, weight gain was reduced due to the decrease of feed efficiency ratio. However, it did not affect the availability of calcium in body at all. Thus, even if a big quantity of green tea powder or solid of hot green tea extract is not provided, the quantity obtained when people drink green tea lowers the feed efficiency ratio without reducing availability of calcium in body.

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A Study on the Characteristics of ALC Material with Melamine Resin (멜라민 수지를 혼합한 ALC 소재의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Sung-Kwan;Chu, Yong-Sik;Song, Hun;Lee, Jong-Kyu;Im, Du-Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.595-599
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    • 2011
  • ALC(Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete) is produced using quartz sand, lime and cement and water. And aluminum powder is used for blowing agent. ALC is manufactured by autoclave chamber under high-temperature and high-pressure. Generally, ALC is 1/4 levels lighter than concrete and mortar, because it has a lot of pores. So density of ALC is about 0.45~0.65 g/$cm^3$. But, ALC has a weakness, typically low strength, with its porous structure. So, it is necessary to excellent strength properties for extensive apply of ALC materials in high porosity. In this study, melamine resin was used to improve the strength characteristics of ALC materials. We performed compressive and bending strength measurements. Compressive strength of ALC with 2% melamine resin increased 26.88% than 'melamine-free' ALC. Also we performed functionality evaluation such as thermal conductivity, sound absorption, and flame-resistance.

Effect of the Forming Condition on Flexural Strength of Green and Sintered Bodies of Tungsten Carbide for Cutting Tool (절삭공구용 초경합금의 성형체 및 소결체의 강도에 미치는 성형조건의 영향)

  • 이재우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.796-799
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    • 2004
  • The effects of forming presure, organic binder content and moisture on flexural strength were investigated. As moisture content increased in the granules during compaction, the density and strength of the green body were increased. Green strengths were found to improve more strongly with increasing forming pressure in the case of using the granules of higher organic content. The sintered strength was the highest with the organic content of 0.2wt% under all forming pressures.

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Advanced 'green' composites

  • Netravali, Anil N.;Huang, Xiaosong;Mizuta, Kazuhiro
    • Advanced Composite Materials
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.269-282
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    • 2007
  • Fully biodegradable high strength composites or 'advanced green composites' were fabricated using yearly renewable soy protein based resins and high strength liquid crystalline cellulose fibers. For comparison, E-glass and aramid ($Kevlar^{(R)}$) fiber reinforced composites were also prepared using the same modified soy protein resins. The modification of soy protein included forming an interpenetrating network-like (IPN-like) resin with mechanical properties comparable to commonly used epoxy resins. The IPN-like soy protein based resin was further reinforced using nano-clay and microfibrillated cellulose. Fiber/resin interfacial shear strength was characterized using microbond method. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were characterized as per ASTM standards. A comparison of the tensile and flexural properties of the high strength composites made using the three fibers is presented. The results suggest that these green composites have excellent mechanical properties and can be considered for use in primary structural applications. Although significant additional research is needed in this area, it is clear that advanced green composites will some day replace today's advanced composites made using petroleum based fibers and resins. At the end of their life, the fully sustainable 'advanced green composites' can be easily disposed of or composted without harming the environment, in fact, helping it.

Effect of different grinding burs on the physical properties of zirconia

  • Lee, Kyung-Rok;Choe, Han-Cheol;Heo, Yu-Ri;Lee, Jang-Jae;Son, Mee-Kyoung
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSE. Grinding with less stress on 3Y-TZP through proper selection of methods and instruments can lead to a long-term success of prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the phase transformation and physical properties after zirconia surface grinding with 3 different grinding burs. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty disc-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated. Each Ten specimens were ground with AllCeramic SuperMax (NTI, Kahla, Germany), Dura-Green DIA (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan), and Dura-Green (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). Ten specimens were not ground and used as a control group. After the specimen grinding, XRD analysis, surface roughness test, FE-SEM imaging, and biaxial flexural strength test were performed. RESULTS. After surface grinding, small amount of monoclinic phase in all experimental groups was observed. The phase change was higher in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The roughness of surfaces increased in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs than control groups and ground with Dura-Green. All experimental groups showed lower flexural strength than control group, but there was no statistically significant difference between control group and ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green showed the lowest strength. CONCLUSION. The use of dedicated zirconia-specific grinding burs such as Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs decreases the grinding time and did not significantly affect the flexural strength of zirconia, and therefore, they may be recommended. However, a fine polishing process should be accompanied to reduce the surface roughness after grinding.

Reduction of cement consumption by producing smart green concretes with natural zeolites

  • Trung, Nguyen Thoi;Alemi, Nima;Haido, James H.;Shariati, Mahdi;Baradaran, Seyedata;Yousif, Salim T.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.415-425
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the natural zeolite in producing green concrete as an effort to prevent global warming and environmental impact problems of cement industries. To achieve this target, two types of natural zeolites applied to study physical, chemical and compressive strength of concrete containing different percentages of zeolites. The results in comparison with control samples indicate that compressive strength of zeolites mixes increases with the 15% replacement of zeolite instead of cement in all types of samples. In the water-cement ratio of 0.6, results showed an increase in the compressive strength of all percentages of replacement. This results indicate that using natural zeolites could be produced a green concrete by a huge reduction and saving in the consumption of cement.

Seismic behaviour of concrete columns with high-strength stirrups

  • Wang, Peng;Shi, Qingxuan;Wang, Feng;Wang, Qiuwei
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2020
  • The seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) columns made from high-strength materials was investigated experimentally. Six high-strength concrete specimen columns (1:4 scale), which included three with high-strength stirrups (HSSs) and three with normal-strength stirrups (NSSs), were tested under a combination of high axial and reversed cyclic loads. The effects of stirrup strength and the ratio of transverse reinforcement on the cracking patterns, hysteretic response, strength, stiffness, ductility, energy dissipation and strain of transverse reinforcement were studied. The results indicate that good seismic behaviour of an RC column subjected to high axial compression can be obtained by using a well-shaped stirrup. Stirrup strength had little effect on the lateral bearing capacity. However, the ductility was significantly modified by improving the stirrup strength. When loaded with a large lateral displacement, the strength reduction of NSS specimens was more severe than that of those with HSSs, and increasing the stirrup strength had little effect on the stiffness reduction. The ductility and energy dissipation of specimens with HSSs were superior to those with NSSs. When the ultimate displacement was reached, the core concrete could be effectively restrained by HSSs.