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Distributional Characteristics and Management Plan for the Floristic and Naturalized Plants of Yeongcheon River in Jinju City (진주시 영천강의 식물상 및 외래식물 분포와 관리방안)

  • Lee, Jae Sook;Park, Sam-Bong;Park, Jeong-Geun;An, Jong Bin;Song, Jin-Heon;Hwang, Jun;Kim, Bong-Gyu;Choo, Gab-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.108 no.4
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    • pp.493-512
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to provide the basic data necessary for establishing a vegetation management plan for the Yeongcheon River area by presenting a better understanding of the distribution and characteristics of naturalized plants through an investigation of the flora present in the Yeongcheon riverside, in Jinju, South Korea. Vascular plants were investigated for a total of 470 taxa, including 90 families, 282 genera, 425 species, one sub-species, 38 varieties, and six forms. Together, these accounted for 9.62% of the vascular plants (4,881 species) in Korea. Gramineae was the most abundant at 77 taxa (16.38%), followed by Cyperaceae at 56 taxa (11.91%), Leguminosae at 33 taxa (7.02%), Cyperaceae at 25 taxa (5.32%), and Rosaceae at 22 taxa (4.86%). Thirty species of indicator plants were surveyed and, among them, annual plants and hemicryptophytes accounted for a significantpercentage. Among ground plants, trees, shrubs, and sub-shrubs were surveyed to include 23 (4.89%), 17 (3.61%), and 14 taxa (2.97%), respectively. Furthermore, 36 aquatic plant taxa were found. Six rare plant taxa were surveyed including Penthorum chinense, Melothria japonica, Aristolochia contorta, Acorus calamus, Millettia japonica, and Magnolia kobus. Floristic special plants comprised 35 taxa,including 26 families, 34 genera, 34 species, and one variety. Plants endemic to Korea included six species. Naturalized plant species comprised 71 taxa, including 18 families, 53 genera, 68 species, and three varieties. The naturalization rate and urbanization index were 15.1% and 22.1%, respectively. Ecological disturbance species in Korea comprised nine taxa, including four families, eight genera, eight species, and one variety. These groups accounted for 64% of the ecological disturbance species in Korea. Ecological disturbance species in Korea tended to increase toward the downstream of Yeongcheon River. In particular, Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Sicyos angulatus, which cause human allergies and disrupt the habitats of plants and animals, must be removed artificially.

Yield characteristics and medium composition of winter mushroom in cultivation farms in Korea (국내 팽이버섯 재배농가의 배지조성 및 수량 특성)

  • Lee, Chan-jung;Lee, Eun-ji;Park, Hye-sung;Lim, Ji-hoon;Min, Gyeong-Jin;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.120-124
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to provide basic data for setting a standard medium for winter mushroom cultivation. Investigation of medium composition in winter mushroom farms in Korea revealed that the types of medium used for each farm were slightly different and that the mixing ratio of the medium also varied. All farmers used corncob, rice bran, and beet pulp as the main media, and calcium carbonate and ground oyster shells were used at 1.0~3.8% to adjust the pH of the medium. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of the mixed media showed nitrogen content of 1.28~1.52%, carbon content of 45.7~48.5%, and C/N ratio of 30.7~37.9. The content of inorganic components was significantly different in each farm, depending on the type and amount of minerals in the mixed medium. Mycelial growth was the fastest at Farm 2, reaching 6.5 cm within 34 days of culture, followed by Farm 4 at 5.7 cm, whereas Farm 1, 3, and 5 showed similar growth. Mycelial density was high without any significant difference between farms. Survey of yield according to medium composition in each farm showed the highest yield in Farm 2 at 173.4 g/bottle, followed by Farm 1 at 168.4 g/bottle, whereas Farm 3 and 4 showed similar yield. However, Farm 4 had the lowest yield at 145.4 g/bottle. Therefore, mushroom yield was different depending on the medium composition in the farm, and thus selection of a medium that can be used universally in multiple mushroom farms was considered possible.

Study on the Controlling Mechaniques of the Environmental Factors in the Mushroom Growing House in Chonnam Province (전남 지방에 있어서의 양송이 재배에 최적한 환경조건 조절법 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Byung-Jae;Lee, Eun-Chol
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.32-34
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    • 1974
  • The important results which have been obtained in the investigation can be recapitulated as follows. 1. As demonstrated by the experimental results and analyses concerning their effects in the on-ground type mushroom house, the constructions in relation to the side wall and ceiling of the experimental house showed a sufficient heat insulation on effect to protect insides of the house from outside climatic conditions. 2. As the effect on the solar type experimental mushroom house which was constructed in a half basement has been shown by the experimental results and analyses, it has been proved to be effective for making use of solar heat. However there were found two problems to be improved for putting solar house to practical use in the farm mushroom growing: (1) the construction of the roof and ceiling should be the same as for the on ground type house, and (2) the solar heat generating system should be reconstructed properly. 3. Among several ventilation systems which have been studied in the experiments, the underground earthen pipe and ceiling ventilation, and vertical side wall and ceiling ventilation systems have been proved to be most effective for natural ventilation. 4. The experimental results have shown that ventilation systems such as the vertical side wall and underground ventilation systems are suitable to put to practical use as natural ventilation systems for farm mushroom house. These ventilation systems can remarkably improve the temperature of fresh air which is introduced into the house by heat transfers within the ventilation passages, so as to approach to the desired temperature of the house without any cooling or heating operation. For example, if it is assuming that X is the outside temperature and Y is the amount of temperature adjustment made by the influence of the ventilation system, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following regression lines. Underground iron pipe ventilation system. Y=0.9X-12.8 Underground earthen pipe ventilation system. Y=0.96X-15.11 Vertical side wall ventilation system. Y=0.94X-17.57 5. The experimental results have 8hown that the relationships existing between the admitted and expelled air and the $CO_2$ concentration can be described with experimental regression lines or an exponent equation as follows: 5.1 If it is assumed that X is an air speed cm/sec. and Y is an expelled air speed in cm/sec. in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the regression lines shown below: 5.2 If it IS assumed that X is an admitted volume of air in $m^3$/hr. and Y is an expelled volume of air in $m^3$/hr. in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the regression lines shown below. 5.3 If it is assumed that expelled air speed in emisec. and replacement air speed in cm/sec. at the bed surface in a natural ventilation system are shown as X and Y. respectively, since the Y is a function of the X. the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following regression line: GE(100%)-CV (50%) ventilation system. Y=-0.54X+0.84 5.4 If it is assumed that the replacement air speed in cm/sec. at the bed surface is shown as X, and $CO_2$ concentration which is expressed by multiplying 1000 times the actual value of $CO_2$ % is shown as Y, in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following regression line: GE(100%)-CV(50%) ventilation system. Y=114.53-6.42X 5.5 If it is assumed that the expelled volume of air is shown as X and the $CO_2$ concencration which is expressed by multiplying 1000 times the actual of $CO_2$% is shown as Y in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following exponent equation: GE(100%)-CV(50%) ventilation system. Y=$127.18{\times}1.0093^{-x}$ 5.6 The experimental results have shown that the ratios of the cross sectional area of the GE and CV vent to the total cubic capacity of the house, required for providing an adequate amount of air in a natural ventilation system, can be estimated as follows: GE(admitting vent of the underground ventilation) 0.3-0.5% (controllable) CV(expelling vent of the ceiling ventilation) 0.8-1.0% (controllable) 6. Among several heating devices which were studied in the experiments, the hot-water boilor which wasmodified to be fitted both as hot-water boiler and as a pressureless steam-water was found most suitable for farm mushroom growing.

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A Rheological Study on Creep Behavior of Clays (점토(粘土)의 Creep 거동(擧動)에 관한 유변학적(流變學的) 연구(研究))

  • Lee, Chong Kue;Chung, In Joon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.53-68
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    • 1981
  • Most clays under sustained load exhibit time-dependent deformation because of creep movement of soil particles and many investigators have attempted to relate their findings to the creep behavior of natural ground and to the long-term stability of slopes. Since the creep behavior of clays may assume a variety of forms depending on such factors as soil plasticity, activity and water content, it is difficult and complicated to analyse the creep behavior of clays. Rheological models composed of linear springs in combination with linear or nonlinear dashpots and sliders, are generally used for the mathematical description of the time-dependent behavior of soils. Most rheological models, however, have been proposed to simulate the behavior of secondary compression for saturated clays and few definitive data exist that can evaluate the behavior of non-saturated clays under the action of sustained stress. The clays change gradually from a solid state through plastic state to a liquid state with increasing water content, therefore, the rheological models also change. On the other hand, creep is time-dependent, and also the effect of thixotropy is time-function. Consequently, there may be certain correlations between creep behavior and the effects of thixotropy in compacted clays. In addition, the states of clay depend on water content and hence the height of the specimen under drained conditions. Futhermore, based on present and past studies, because immediate elastic deformation occurs instantly after the pressure increment without time-delayed behavior, the factor representing immediate elastic deformations in the rheological model is necessary. The investigation described in this paper, based on rheological model, is designed to identify the immediate elastic deformations and the effects of thixotropy and height of clay specimens with varing water content and stress level on creep deformations. For these purposes, the uniaxial drain-type creep tests were performed. Test results and data for three compacted clays have shown that a linear top spring is needed to account for immediate elastic deformations in the rheological model, and at lower water content below the visco-plastic limit, the effects of thixotropy and height of clay specimens can be represented by the proposed rheological model not considering the effects. Therefore, the rheological model does not necessitate the other factors representing these effects. On the other hand, at water content higher than the visco-plastic limit, although the state behavior of clays is visco-plastic or viscous flow at the beginning of the test, the state behavior, in the case of the lower height sample, does not represent the same behavior during the process of the test, because of rapid drainage. In these cases, the rheological model does not coincide with the model in the case of the higher specimens.

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Investigation of Heavy Metal Safety for Exporting Rice to China (중국 수출용 쌀의 중금속 안전성 조사)

  • Park, Sang-Won;Kim, Gyeong-Jin;Yoon, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Beom;Choi, Buung;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Ro, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dan-Bi;Moon, Byeong-Chul;Kim, Uk-Han;Choi, Hoon
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.427-432
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    • 2017
  • Objective of this study was to investigate the residual levels of heavy metals in rice contract farming complex for exporting to China. Paddy soil, irrigation water and rice grain were taken from 20 fie1ds located in Icheon city, Cheorwon-gun, Cheongju city, Seocheon-gun, Gunsan city and Haenamgun. The elements of samples were analyzed using ion chromatography, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS after acid digestion. The arsenic (As) contents of paddy soil were ranged from 2.9 to 18.2 mg/kg, which were lower than 25 mg/kg as concern level of environmental pollution in Korea. Cadmium (Cd) was below the limit of quantitation (0.006 mg/kg) in all samples. The highest contents of copper (Cu) was detected to be 25.6 mg/kg in Seocheon-gun sample, but it was below 1/10 fold of the threshold levels 250 mg/kg for soil pollution. Also, the average contents of nikel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and hexavalent chrome ($Cr^{6+}$) were found to be lower than the criterion of soil pollution concern, and it was considered to be safe. The residual levels of arsenic in agricultural waters were relatively high, up to 24.3 ug/L in river water, but was detected as 1~2 ug/L level in the ground water. These levels are lower than the water quality standard, 0.05 mg/kg of agricultural water. The concentrations of mercury (Hg) and total chromium (Cr) in the white rice and brown rice were less than the limit of quantitation, and the levels of cadmium in the range of 0.004 to 0.068 mg/kg were less than safety criteria 0.2 mg/kg in Korea and China. In addition, the contents of lead (Pb) in white rice ranged from 0.002 to 0.136 mg/kg, which was safe to be 0.2 mg/kg for Korean white rice and 0.2 mg/kg for China brown rice. As a whole, the residual levels of heavy metals such as arsenic in rice was safely maintained as 1/10 to 1/20 of the residual limits of Korea and China. In conclusion, the heavy metals levels should not be worried in rice contract farming complex for exporting to China.

Study on the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine (景祐宮圖) (국립문화재연구소 소장 '경우궁도(景祐宮圖)'에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung Mee
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.196-221
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    • 2011
  • The Royal Private Shrines or the Samyo(私廟), were dedicated to members of Choseon's royal family who could not be enshrined at the (official) Royal Ancestral Shrine, the Jongmyo(宗廟). The Samyo were constructed at the national level and were systematically managed as such. Because these private Shrines were dedicated to those who couldn't belong to the Jongmyo but were still very important, such as the ruling king's biological father or mother. The details of all royal constructions were included in the State Event Manuals, and with them, the two-dimensional layouts of the Samyo also. From the remaining "Hyunsa-gung Private Tomb Construction Layout Record(顯思宮別廟營建都監儀軌)" of 1824, which is the construction record of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine(景祐宮) dedicated to Subin, the mother of King Sunjo(純祖), it became possible to investigate the so far unknown "The Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine", in terms of the year produced, materials used and other situational contexts. The investigation revealed that the "The Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine" is actually the "Hyunsa-gung Private Tomb Layout" produced by the Royal Construction Bureau. The bureau painted this to build Hyunsa-gung Private Shrine in a separately prepared site outside the court in 1824, according to the royal verdict to close down and move the temporary shrine inside the courtyard dedicated to Subin who had passed away in 1822. As the Construction Bureau must have also produced the Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine Layout, the painter(s) of this layout should exist among the official artists listed in the State Event Manual, but sadly, as their paintings have not survived to this day, we cannot compare their painting styles. The biggest stylistic character of the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine is its perfect diagonal composition method and detailed and neat portrayalof the many palace buildings, just as seen in Donggwoldo(東闕圖, Painting of a panoramic view for Changdeokgung and Changgyeonggung Palaces). A well-perceiving architectural painting employs a specific point of view chosen to fit the purpose of the painting, or it can opt to the multi-viewpoint. Korean traditional architectural paintings in early ages utilized the diagonal composition method, the bird-eye viewpoint, or the multi-viewpoint. By the 18th century, detailed but also artistic architectural paintings utilizing the diagonal method are observed. In the early 19th century, the peak of such techniques is exhibited in Donggwoldo(Painting of a panoramic view for Changdeokgung and Changgyeonggung Palaces). From the perfect diagonal composition method employed and the details of the palace buildings numbering almost two hundreds, we can determine that the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine also belongs to the same category of the highly technical architectural paintings as Donggwoldo(Painting of a panoramic view for Changdeokgung and Changgyeonggung Palaces). We can also confirm this hypothesis by comparing the painting techniques employed in these two paintings in detailthe way trees and houses are depicted, and the way ground texture is expressed, etc. The unique characteristic of the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine is, however, that the area surrounding the central shrine building(正堂), the most important area of the shrine, is drawn using not the diagonal method but the bird-eye viewpoint with the buildings lying flat on both the left and right sides, just as seen in the "Buildings Below the Central Shrine(正堂以下諸處)" in the State Event Manual's Painting Method section. The same viewpoint method is discovered in some other concurrent paintings of common residential buildings, so it is not certain that this particular viewpoint had been a distinctive feature for shrine paintings in general. On the other hand, when the diagonalmethod pointing to the left direction is chosen, the top-left and bottom-right sections of the painting become inevitably empty. This has been the case for the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine, but in contrast, Donggwoldo shows perfect screen composition with these empty margins filled up with different types of trees and other objects. Such difference is consistent with the different situational contexts of these two paintings: the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine is a simple single-sheet painting, while Donggwoldo is a perfected work of painting book given an official title. Therefore, if Donggwoldo was produced to fulfill the role of depiction and documentation as well as the aesthetic purpose, contrastingly, the Painting of Gyeongwoo-gung Shrine only served the purpose of copying the circumstances of the architecture and projecting them onto the painting.

An Study on Cognition and Investigation of Silla Tumuli in the Japanese Imperialistic Rule (일제강점기의 신라고분조사연구에 대한 검토)

  • Cha, Soon Chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.39
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    • pp.95-130
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    • 2006
  • Japanese government college researchers, including Sekino Tadashi(關野貞), have conducted research studies and collected data, on overall Korean cultural relics as well as Silla tumuli(新羅古墳) in the early modern times under the Japanese imperialistic rule. They were supported by the Meichi government in the early stage of research, by the Chosun government-general, and by their related organizations after Korea was coIonialized to carry out investigations on Korean antiquities, fine arts, architecture, anthropology, folklore, and so on. The objective for which they prosecuted inquiries into Korean cultural relics, including Silla tumuli, may be attributed to the purport to find out such data as needed for the theoretical foundation to justify their colonialization of Korea. Such a reason often showed locally biased or distorted views. Investigations and surveys had been incessantly carried out by those Japanese scholars who took a keen interest in Korean tumuli and excavated relics since 1886. 'Korea Architecture Survey Reports' conducted in 1904 by Sekino in Korea gives a brief introduction of the contents of Korean tumuli, including the Five Royal Mausoleums(五陵). And in 1906 Imanishi Ryu(今西龍) launched for the first time an excavation survey on Buksan Tumulus(北山古墳) in Sogeumgangsan(小金剛山) and on 'Namchong(南塚)' in Hwangnam-dong, which greatly contributed to the foundation of a basic understanding of Wooden chamber tombs with stone mound(積石木槨墳) and stone chambers with tunnel entrance(橫穴式石室墳). The ground plan and cross section of stone chambers made in 1909 at his excavation survey of seokchimchong(石枕塚) by Yazui Seiyichi(谷井第一) who majored in architecture made a drawing in excavation surveys for the first time in Korea, in which numerical expressions are sharply distinguished from the previous sketched ones. And even in the following excavation surveys this kind of drawing continued. Imanishi and Yazui elucidated that wooden chambers with stone mound chronologically differs from the stone chambers with tunnel entrance on the basis of the results of surveys of the locational characteristics of Silla tumuli, the forms and size of tomb entrance, excavated relics, and so forth. The government-general put in force 'the Historic Spots and Relics Preservation Rules' and 'the Historic Spots Survey Council Regulations' in 1916, establishing 'Historic Spots Survey Council and Museum Conference. When museums initiated their activities, they exhibited those relics excavated from tumuli and conducted surveys of relics with the permission of the Chosun government-general. A gold crown tomb(金冠塚) was excavated and surveyed in 1921 and a seobong tomb(瑞鳳塚) in 1927. Concomitantly with this large size wooden chamber tombs with stone mound attracted strong public attention. Furthermore, a variety of surveys of spots throughout the country were carried out but publication of tumuli had not yet been realized. Recently some researchers's endeavors led to publish unpublished reports. However, the reason why reports of such significant tumuli as seobong tomb had not yet been published may be ascribed to the critical point in those days. The Gyeongju Tumuli Distribution Chart made by Nomori Ken(野守健) on the basis of the land register in the late 1920s seems of much significance in that it specifies the size and locations of 155 tumuli and shows the overall shape of tumuli groups within the city, as used in today's distribution chart. In the 1930s Arimitsu Kyoichi(有光敎一) and Saito Tadashi(齋藤忠) identified through excavation surveys of many wooden chamber tombs with stone mound and stone chambers with tunnel entrance, that there were several forms of tombs in a tomb system. In particular, his excavation survey experience of those wooden chamber tombs with stone mound which were exposed in complicated and overlapped forms show features more developed than that of preceding excavation surveys and reports publication, and so on. The result of having reviewed the contents of many historic spots surveyed at that time. Therefore this reexamination is considered to be a significant project in arranging the history of archaeology in Korea.

Study on the Technological System of the Cooperative Cultivation of Paddy Rice in Korea (수도집단재배의 기술체계에 관한 연구)

  • Min-Shin Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.129-177
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    • 1970
  • For the purpose of establishing the systematized technical scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation which has most significant impact to improve rice productivity and the farm management, the author have studied the cultivation practices, and the variation of rice growth and yield between the cooperative rice cultivation and the individual rice cultivation at random selected 18 paddy fields. The author also have investigated through comparative method on the cultivation practices, management, organization and operation scheme of the two different rice cultivation methods at 460 paddy fields. The economic feasibility has been ana lysed and added in this report. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows; 1. In the nursery, the average amount of fertilizer application, especially, phosphate and potassium, and the frequency of chemicals spray for the disease, insect and pest control at the cooperative rice cultivation are significantly higher than those of the individual rice cultivation. 2. The cultivation techniques of the cooperative rice farming after the transplanting can be characterized by a) the earlier transplanting of rice, b) the denser hills per unit area and the lesser number of seedlings per hill, c) the application of larger quantities of fertilizer including nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, d) more divided application of fertilizers, split doses of the nitrogen and potassium, e) the increased frequencies of the chemicals spray for the prevention of disease, insect and pest damages. 3. The rate of lodging in the cooperative rice cultivation was slightly higher than that of the individual rice cultivation, however, the losses of rice yield owing to the occurrence of rice stem borer and grass leaf roller in the cooperative rice cultivation were lower than that of the individual rice cultivation. 4. The culm length, panicle length, straw weight and grain-straw ratio are respectively higher at the cooperative rice cultivation, moreover, the higher variation of the above factors due to different localities of the paddy fields found at the individual rice cultivation. 5. The number of panicles, number of flowers per panicle and the weight of 1, 000 grains, those contributing components to the rice yield were significantly greater in the cooperative rice cultivation, however, not clear difference in the maturing rate was observed. The variation coefficient of the yield component in the cooperative cultivation showed lower than that or the individual rice cultivation. 6. The average yield of brown rice per 10 are in the cooperative rice cultivation obtained 459.0 kilograms while that of the individual rice cultivation brought 374.8 kilograms. The yield of brown rice in the cooperative rice cultivation increased 84.2 kilogram per 10 are over the individual rice cultivation. With lower variation coefficient of the brown rice yield in the cooperative rice cultivation, it can be said that uniformed higher yield could be obtained through the cooperative rice cultivation. 7. Highly significant positive correlations shown between the seeding date and the number of flowers per panicle, the chemical spray and the number of flowers per panicle, the transplanting date and the number of flowers per panicle, phosphate application and yield, potassium application and maturing rate, the split application of fertilizers and yield. Whilst the significant negative correlation was shown between the transplanting date and the maturing rate 8. The results of investigation from 480 paddy fields obtained through comparative method on the following items are identical in general with those obtained at 18 paddy fields: Application of fertilizers, chemical spray for the control of disease, insects and pests both in the nursery and the paddy field, transplanting date, transplanting density, split application of fertilizers and yield n the paddy fields. a) The number of rice varieties used in the cooperative rice cultivation were 13 varieties while the individual rice cultivation used 47 varieties. b) The cooperative rice cultivation has more successfully adopted improved cultivation techniques such as the practice of seed disinfection, adoption of recommended seeding amount, fall ploughing, application of red soil, introduction of power tillers, the rectangular-type transplanting, midsummer drainage and the periodical irrigation. 9. The following results were also obtained from the same investigation and they are: a) In the cooperative rice cultivation, the greater part of the important practices have been carried out through cooperative operation including seed disinfection, ploughing, application of red soil and compost, the control of disease, insects and pests, harvest, threshing and transportation of the products. b) The labor input to the nursery bed and water control in the cooperative rice cultivation was less than that of the individual rice cultivation while the higher rate of labor input was resulted in the red soil and compost application. 10. From the investigation on the organization and operation scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The size of cooperative rice cultivation farm was varied from. 3 ha to 7 ha and 5 ha farm. occupied 55.9 percent of the total farms. And a single cooperative farm was consisted of 10 to 20 plots of paddies. b) The educational back ground of the staff members involved in the cooperative rice cultivation was superior than that of the individual rice cultivation. c) All of the farmers who participated to the questionaires have responded that the cooperative rice cultivation could promise the increased rice yield mainly through the introduction of the improved method of fertilizer application and the effective control of diseases, insects and pests damages. And the majority of farmers were also in the opinion that preparation of the materials and labor input can be timely carried out and the labor requirement for the rice cultivation possibly be saved through the cooperative rice cultivation. d) The farmers who have expressed their wishes to continue and to make further development of the cooperative rice cultivation was 74.5 percent of total farmers participated to the questionaires. 11. From the analysis of economical feasibility on the two different methods of cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The value of operation cost for the compost, chemical fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and labor input in the cooperative rice cultivation was respectively higher by 335 won, 199 won, 288 won and 303 won over the individual rice cultivation. However, the other production costs showed no distinct differences between the two cultivation methods. b) Although the total value of expenses for the fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, labor input and etc. in the cooperative rice cultivation were approximately doubled to the amount of the individual rice cultivation, the net income, substracted operation costs from the gross income, was obtained 24, 302 won in the cooperative rice cultivation and 20, 168 won was obtained from the individual rice cultivation. Thereby, it can be said that net income from the cooperative rice cultivation increased 4, 134 won over the individual rice cultivation. It was revealed in this study that the cooperative rice cultivation has not only contributed to increment of the farm income through higher yield but also showed as an effective means to introduce highly improved cultivation techniques to the farmers. It may also be concluded, therefore, the cooperative rice cultivation shall continuously renovate the rice production process of the farmers.

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TECHNICAL STUDY ON THE CONTROLLING MECHANIQUES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE MUSHROOM GROWING HOUSE IN CHONNAM PROVINCE (전남지방(全南地方)에 있어서의 양송이 재배(栽培)에 최적(最適)한 환경조건(環境條件) 조절법분석(調節法分析)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Eun Chol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-44
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    • 1969
  • The important results which have been obtained in the investigation can be recapitulated as follows. 1. As demostrated by the experimental results and analyses concerning their effects in the on-ground type mushroom house, the constructions in relation to the side wall and ceiling of the experimental houses showed a sufficient heat insulation on effect to protect insides of the houses from outside climatic conditions. 2. As the effect on the solar type experimental mushroom house which was constructed in a half basement has been shown by the experimental results and analyses, it has been proved to be effective for making use of solar heat. However there were found two problems to be improved for putting solar houses to practical use in the farm mushroom growing: (1) the construction of the roof and ceiling should be the same as for the on-ground type house, and (2) the solar heat generating system should be reconstructed properly. A trial solar heat generating system is shown in Fig. 40. 3. Among several ventilation systems which have been studied in the experiments, the underground earthen pipe and ceiling ventilation, and vertical side wall and ceiling ventilation systems have been proved to be most effective for natural ventilation. 4. The experimental results have shown that ventilation systems such as the vertical side wall and underground ventilation systems are suitable to put to practical use as natural ventilation systems for farm mushroom houses. These ventilation systems can remarkably improve the temperature of fresh air which is introduced into the house by heat transfers within the ventilation passages, so as to approach to the desired temperature of the house without any cooling or heating operation. For example, if it is assuming that x is the outside temperature and y is the amount of temperature adjustment made by the influence of the ventilation system, the relationships that exist between x and y can be expressed by the following regression lines. Underground iron pipe ventilation system ${\cdots}{\cdots}$ y=0.9x-12.8 Underground earthen pipe ventilation system ${\cdots}{\cdots}$y=0.96x-15.11 Vertical side wall ventilation system${\cdots}{\cdots}$ y=0.94x-17.57 5. The experimental results have shown that the relationships existing between the admitted and expelled air and the $Co_2$ concentration can be described with experimental regression lines or an exponent equation as follows: 1) If it is assumed that x is an air speed cm/sec. and y is an expelled air speed in cm/sec. in a natural ventilation system, since the y is a function of the x, the relationships that exist between x and y can be expressed by the regression lines shown below: 2) If it is assumed that x is an admitted volume of air in $m^3/hr$ and y is an expelled volume of air in $m^3/hr$ in a natural ventilation system, since the y is a function of the x, the relationships that exist between x and y can be expressed by the regression lines shown below. 3) If it is assumed that the expelled air speed in cm/sec and replacement air speed in cm/sec. at the bed surface in a natural ventilation system are shown as x and y, respectively, since the y is a function of the x, the relationships that exist between x and y can be expressed by the following regression line: G.E. (100%)- C.V. (50%) ventilation system${\cdots}$ y=0.54X+0.84 4) If it is assumed that the replacement air speed in cm/sec. at the bed surface is shown as x, and $CO_2$ concentration which is expressed by multiplying 1000 times the actual value of $CO_2$ % is shown as y, in a natural ventilation system, since the y is a function of the x the relationships that exist between x and y can be expressed by the following regression line: G.E. (100%)- C.V. (50%) ventilation system${\cdots}{\cdots}$ y=114.53-6.42x 5) If it is assumed that the expelled volume of air is shown as x and the $CO_2$ concentration which is expressed by multiplying 1000 times the actual of $CO_2$ % is shown as y in a natural ventilation system, since the y is a function of of the x, the relationships that exist between x and y can be expressed by the following exponent equation: G.E. (100%)-C.V. (50%) ventilation system${\cdots}{\cdots}$ $$y=127.18{\times}1.0093^{-X}$$ 6. The experimental results have shown that the ratios of the crass sectional area of the G.E. and C.V. vent to the total cubic capacity of the house, required for providing an adequate amount of air in a natural ventilation system, can be estimated as follows: G.E. (admitting vent of the underground ventilation)${\cdots}{\cdots}$ 0.30-0.5% (controllable) C.V. (expelling vent of the ceiling ventilation)${\cdots}{\cdots}$ 0.8-1.0% (controllable) 7. Among several heating devices which were studied in the experiments, the hot-water boilor which was modified to be fitted both as hot-water toiler and as a pressureless steam-water was found most suitable for farm mushroom growing.

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