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Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction Characteristics of Indigenous Soybean Rhizobia Distributed in Korea Soils (한국에 분포되어 있는 토착대두 근류균의 질산 환원 특성)

  • Choi, Young-Ju;Choi, Yong-Lark;Yun, Han-Dae;Ryu, Jin-Chang;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Cho, Moo-Je
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 1986
  • Eightyseven strains of indigenous Rhizobia were isolated from the nodule of soybean cultivar, Danyup, cultivated in four different soils sampled from continuously soybean cultivated and newly reclaimed fields. The strains were grouped into Bradyrhizobium japanicum (slow-grower:55 strains) and Rhizobium fredii (fast-grower: 32 strains). The both groups could be divided into two sub-groups according to the denitrification characteristics, that is, denitrifying fast-grower (F-I), nitrate respiring fast-grower (F-II), denitrifying slow-grower (S-I). and nitrate respiring slow-grower (S-II). Among the 87 isolates, F-I, F-II, S-I and S-II sub-groups were 10, 22, 48 and 7 strains, respectively. The one-and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of the four sub-groups were compared and discernible difference was observed between fast and slow-grower, but the difference was not discernible between subgroups within the same growth rate group.

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Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Indigenous Soybean Rhizobia Distributed in Korea -IV. Dissimilartory Nitrate Reduction and Protein Characteristics of Indigenous Soybean Rhizobia (우리나라 토착대두근류균(土着大豆根瘤菌)의 분포상태(分布狀態)와 생리(生理) 및 생태학적(生態學的) 특성(特性) -제(第)IV보(報) 토착대두근류균(土着大豆根瘤菌)의 질산환원(窒酸還元) 및 균체단백질(菌體蛋白質) 특성(特性))

  • Ryu, Jin-Chang;Suh, Jang-Sun;Lee, Ju-Yeong;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Cho, Moo-Je
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 1987
  • In order to find out the effectiveness of nitrogen fixation in rhizobia-legume symbiotic relationship, ecological and physiological characteristics of indigenous rhizobia distributed in Korean soils, that is, dissimilatory nitrate reduction patterns of indigenous soybean rhizobia isolated from four different soils, and differences in one-and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of proteins among the each subgroups of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium fredii, were investigated. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The indigenous soybean rhizobia isolated from four different soils could be classified into 4 groups depending on growth rate and dissimilatory nitrate reduction pattern, that is, $S_1$ (slow-grower; Bradyrhizobium japonicum and nitrate denitrifier), $S_2$ (slow-grower; Bradyrhizobium japonicum and nitrate respirer), $F_1$ (fast-grower; Rhizobium fredii and denitrifier), and $F_2$ (fast-grower; Rhizobium fredii and nitrate respirer). 2. The population ratio of fast- to slow-growing R. japonicum was 39% to 61%, and the ratio of denitrifier to nitrate respirer was 31% to 69% and 89% to 11% in fast and slow-grower, respectively. Some differences were observed between fast- and slow-growing R. japonicum but no significant difference was observed between denitrifier and nitrate respirer within same growth type by one and two dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns.

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Prevalence of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens in Grower Pigs in Jeju-do (제주도 육성돈에서 세균성 소화기 병원체의 감염양상)

  • Park, Seok-Jun;Jung, Ji-Youl;Kang, Sang-Chul;Ko, Moon-Suck;Lee, Sung-Soo;Son, Won-Geun;Kim, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2011
  • In grower pigs, enteric diseases are major economic problem in swine industries. Enteric diseases are attributed to numerous bacterial agents, such as Lawsonia (L.) intracellularis, Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli and Salmonella spp. Therefore we investigated the prevalence of enteric pathogens and found out the correlation of infectious agents in enteric diseases of grower pigs in Jeju-do using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 509 fecal samples of grower pigs from 49 pig farms of Jeju-do were collected from May 2006 to June 2007. Diagnostic confirmation was performed based on the detection of bacterial DNA from fecal samples. Based on the PCR methods, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, L. intracellularis and Salmonella spp. were detected in 82 (16.1%), 38 (7.5%), 15 (2.9%), and 12 (2.4%) fecal samples from grower pigs in Jeju-do, respectively. Single infection of enteric pathogen and mixed infection with more than 2 pathogens were detected in 110 (86.6%) and 17 (13.4%) grower pigs, respectively. These results suggest that B. pilosicoli and B. hyodysenteriae are main pathogens of diarrheal disease among grower pigs in Jeju-do. Therefore, accurate control strategy for enteric pathogens should be warranted in Jeju-do.

Effect of Dietary Energy Levels for Egg-type Growing Puilets on Pullet Growth, Nutrient Consumption and Subsequent Laying Performance (난용계 육성기 사료의 에너지 수준이 육성계의 성장 및 영양소 섭취량과 산란능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 이규호;정연종
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.267-275
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    • 1994
  • Three dietary ME levels of 3,200, 2,900 and 2,600 kcal /kg in the same 13% single-stage low protein diet were compared to evaluate the effect of ME levels of grower diets on egg-type pullet growth and subsequent laying performance. As the ME levels of grower diets decreased, cumulative feed and protein consumptions increased(P<0.05), however, the ME intake and body weight at 18 wk of age decreased(P<0.05). Grower feed cost decreased as the dietary ME level was decreased, but no significant difference was found among dietary ME levels of grower diets. During the laying period, sexual maturity, hen-day egg production and average egg weight were not significantly affected by the ME levels of grower diet, however, daily feed intake and feed required per egg decreased as the dietary ME level of grower diet was reduced(P<0.05). Results of this study indicate that pullets can be reared on the low ME diet of 2,600 kcal /kg and it would he economical to utilize the low energy diet during the growing period when they are reared on a 13% single-stage low protein diet.

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THE EFFECTS OF PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE TOTAL SULPHUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF BROILERS DURING TWO GROWTH PERIODS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 1996
  • Studies on the effects of protein levels on the total sulphur amino acid (TSAA) requirements of chickens were conducted on the starter broilers by feeding four levels of crude protein(16, 18, 20 and 23%) at three levels of TSAA (0.83, 0.93 and 1.03%) and on the grower broilers by feeding three levels of crude protein (16, 18 and 20%) at three levels of TSAA(0.72, 0.79 and 0.86%). The metabolisable energy of the diets was maintained constant at 3,200 kcal/kg and the experiments were carried out for two growing periods: starter (0-3 wk) and grower (3-6 wk). The results showed that there were significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio under different protein levels of the starters. Crude protein, ME and TSAA intake were significantly affected by increasing the CP levels. The TSAA requirement of the starter broilers is recommended at 0.93% and it is not influenced by different protein levels used in the experiment. For the grower period, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio improved significantly at higher protein diets. Birds fed higher protein diet consumed greater quantities of protein. Responses to TSAA supplementation for body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio were not significant. The present results showed that the TSAA level of 0.79 to 0.86% was required for grower diets and that the protein levels of the diet did not influence the TSAA requirement.

THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY ENERGY ON THE TOTAL SULPHUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF BROILERS DURING TWO GROWTH PERIODS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 1996
  • There levels of dietary ME (3,000, 3,200 and 3,400 kcal/kg) and four levels of Total Sulphur Amino Acid (TSAA) (0.73, 0.83, 0.93 and 1.03%) were studied in the starter period (0-3 wks) of the broilers. Three levels of dietary ME (3,000, 3,200 and 3,400 kcal/kg) combined with four levels of TSAA (0.65, 0.72, 0.79 and 0.86%) were studied in the grower period (3-6 wks). The crude protein content of the diet of the starter period was 23% while the diet of the grower period was 20%. The performance data of the starter broilers indicated that the dietary energy levels had no significant effects on body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio. However, TSAA levels had a significant influence on the growth and feed parameters. The response pattern for the grower period was similar to the starter period. The present experiment showed that in the tropics the TSAA requirement for the starter period was between 0.83 to 0.93% which is similar to the values recommended by NRC while for the grower period the TSAA requirement was between 0.79 to 0.86% at all the three energy levels which is higher than the values recommended by NRC.

Automatic Diameter Control System with Long Time-Delay for Crystal Grower (FF - CZ150) (긴 시간지연을 갖는 단결정 실리콘 성장기(Crystal Grower - FF CZ150)의 자동 직경 제어 시스템)

  • Park, Jong-Sik;Kim, Jong-Hun;Yang, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Suk-Won
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2089-2092
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    • 2002
  • The PID controller have the simple structure and show the comparatively good control performance. Crystal Grower(FF-CZ150) melt polycrystalline silicon at the temperature of about 1450$^{\circ}C$, then grow it into a single crystalline ingot. The automatic diameter control system of the Crystal Grower has a good performance with only PD control. But it contain the integrator in the plant which has a long time delay. In this paper, we show the secondary approximate model and applies time delay controller which has good performance for the plant with long time delay. It will be able to improve the response characteristic against a standard input and a load disturbance.

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Fuzzy Controller Design and Its Application to MCZ Crystal Grower (단결정 실리콘 성장기를 위한 퍼지 제어기 구성 및 적용)

  • 김광대;한형석
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.71-71
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, the fuzzy system is applied to MCZ Crystal Grower using at industrial field. The existing controller, which is PID controller, has a fixed gain and as a result of it it can not have an adaptive control function against the error or disturbance. Hence, the machine operator should always check the process status and when the error is occurred, the quality and the productivity may be decreased by each personal capability. In order to remove this drawback, a fuzzy control system which is known to be adaptive and flexible is applied to the machine. After applying the fuzzy system, and compared with the existing system, the diameter deviation and the defects were decreased. we proved the possibility of application fuzzy system to single silicon crystal grower.

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The Diameter Control for improved performance of the Crystal Grower (단결정 실리콘 성장기의 성능향상을 위한 직경 제어)

  • 이석원;박종식;이진우
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2004
  • In this paper the automatic diameter control system of the CZ-150 Crystal Grower is proposed in order to achieve a good performance for the industry applications in MEMC Korea. The effectiveness of the design parameters is verified by means of the computer simulations and the proposed controllers showed the better performance than the conventional PD controllers which always have steady-state errors.

Biochemical Characterization of Fast-and Slow-Growing Rhizobium japonicum (Fast-growing과 Slow-growing Rhizobium japonicum의 생화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Chang Jin;Kim, Sung Hoon;Mheen, Tae Ick
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 1985
  • Rhizobium japonicum isolates from all around Korea could be classified into two groups, i.e., acid producing fast-growers with 2.4 hour mean generation time and non-acid producing slow-growers in yeast extract-mannitol medium with 13.1 hour mean generation time. Tested fast-growers were higher in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity than slow-growers were and used sucrose as carbon source whereas slow-growers did not. Fast-grower R4, R257, R278, showed tolerance even in 0.5M NaCl or above and the growth of all the strains tested were inhibited at below pH 4.5. Relative symbiotic activities of nitrogen fixation for these isolated with Glycine max cv. Jangyeobkong (commercial soybean cultivar mostly cultivated in Korea) ranged 0.1 to 2.0 comparing to that of R. japonicum L-259 (NRRL), without regard to their growth rate.

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