• Title, Summary, Keyword: Growing Pigs

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Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid and hydrochloric acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal score of growing pigs

  • Ding, Zhenyu;Kim, Inho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.489-496
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    • 2019
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal score in growing pigs. Ninety Duroc ${\times}$ (Landrace ${\times}$ Large Yorkshire) growing pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of $25.51{\pm}1.63kg$ were randomly allotted to three treatment groups with 6 replications of 5 pigs per replicate pen for each treatment in a 6-week trial period. The treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON); 2) basal diet with 0.05% GABA and 3) basal diet with 1% of a 10% HCl solution. The results showed that GABA supplementation significantly increased the average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.05) compared with the control during week 4 and the overall experiment period (0 to 6 weeks). However, HCl supplementation had a numerical increase in the ADG compared with the control. The total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) was greater in GABA group than the CON (p < 0.05). The supplementation of GABA and HCl in the diet of growing pigs had no significant effect on the fecal scores compared with the CON. Experimental results show that supplementation of 0.05% GABA in the diet of growing pigs had a positive effect on the ADG and DM digestibility in growing pigs.

The Effect of Automatic Environmental Control by Image Analysis System on the Performance of Pigs in Different Seasons

  • Chang, D.I.;Park, C.S.;Lee, H.S.;Lee, B.D.;Chang, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.681-685
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    • 2000
  • A computer software was developed in our laboratory to automatically control the pigs environment by the image analysis system (IAS), which monitors and analyzes the pig's behavior and feeds the results back to the computer hardware. Three feeding trials were conducted with growing pigs ($L{\times}Y$) to test the effectiveness of the IAS under various seasons. In all three trials, the open-sided conventional pens with half-slatted floor were used as controls; for the IAS treatment, fully-slatted floors were used in the windowless pens. Experiment 1 was conducted in the winter for 30 d with 24 growing pigs. There were two treatments (Conventional vs. IAS), and three pens (replicates) per treatment. During the growing period, the feed efficiency was significantly (p<0.05) improved by the IAS. In addition, the pigs reared under the IAS during the growing period displayed better growth rate during the finishing period than did the pigs reared under the conventional conditions. Experiment 2 was conducted in the summer for 30 d with 24 growing pigs. The experimental design was the same as Experiment 1. During the finishing period, all the pigs were kept in conventional open-sided pens until their market weights to evaluate their carcass characteristics. During the growing period, the growth rate and feed efficiency of the pigs in the IAS was better than those of the control pigs. In addition, various carcass characteristics were significantly improved by the IAS rearing during the growing period. Experiment 3 was conducted with 30 growing pigs for 30 d in the spring. The experimental design was the same as Experiment 1. No difference was found in growing performance between the control and IAS pigs. It could be concluded that the IAS is effective in providing optimum conditions for the growing pigs in summer and winter seasons. In addition, providing an optimum environment during the growing period results in improved growth rate, feed efficiency, and carcass qualities for the finishing pigs.

Effects of Environmental Factors on Performances and Behavioural Patterns of Growing Pigs (環境條件이 育成豚의 增體와 行動에 미치는 影響)

  • 김두환;김철욱;송영민;진상근
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of non-climatic environmental factors on performances and behavioural patterns of growing pigs. Two hundred and seventy growing pigs were confined and administered with three levels of spaces per pig(0.33, 0.44 and 0.66$m^2$) and three different numbers of pigs per pen(12, 15 and 18 pigs) from 30kg to 60kg body weight. This study was designed by using 3 $\times$ 3 factorial arrangement(three levels of spaces $\times$ three different numbers of pigs) and investigated the effects of main factors and the relationship between each factors. The result of this study were summarized as follows; 1. The 0.44$m^2$ of floor space per pig improved(p<0.01) the weight gain and the feed/gain during the growing phase. 2. The 15 pigs per pen showed the faster gain and improved feed/gain than the 12 or 18 pigs per pen during the growing phase(p<0.05). 3. The reduction of floor space of growing pigs caused the reduction of resting, non-aggressive social behaviour but eating, aggressive behaviour was increased(p<0.01). 4. Group size affected the behavioural patterns significantly(p<0.01) of growing pigs. The aggressive and eating behaviour increased but resting behaviour decreased by crowding in the growing pigs. 5. Therefore we concluded that growing pigs need 0.44$m^2$ per pig and 15 pigs per pen for the better raising condition.

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Effects of multi-enzyme supplementation in a corn and soybean meal-based diet on growth performance, apparent digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbes and noxious gas emission in growing pigs

  • Yin, Jia;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of multi-enzyme supplementation in a corn and soybean meal-based diet on the growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbes and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 80 crossbred [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] growing pigs with an average body weight (BW) of $25.04{\pm}1.44kg$ were used in a 6-week experiment. The experimental treatments were as follows: CON, basal diet and; T1, basal diet + 100 mg/kg multi-enzyme. During the experiment, the pigs fed the diet with multi-enzyme supplementation had a higher gain to feed ratio (G/F) (p < 0.05) than the pigs fed the diet without multi-enzyme supplementation. On day 42, the pigs fed the diet with multi-enzyme supplementation had decreased $H_2S$ and $NH_3$ emissions (p < 0.05) than the pigs fed the diet without multi-enzyme supplementation. However, no effect was observed on nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and fecal microbes among the treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is suggested that multi-enzyme supplementation in a corn and soybean meal based diet can partly improve the growth performance and noxious gas emission of growing pigs.

Effect of supplementation with brewer's yeast hydrolysate on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood profiles and meat quality in growing to finishing pigs

  • Zhang, Jian Ying;Park, Jae Won;Kim, In Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1565-1572
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the effects of brewer's yeast hydrolysate (YH) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood profiles and meat quality of growing pigs. Methods: A total of 200 growing pigs ($[Landrace{\times}Yorkshire]{\times}Duroc$) (initial body weight, $25.31{\pm}1.29kg$) were allotted to 5 treatments as follow: CON, basic diet; and YH treatment, CON+0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% of YH, respectively. Results: On wk 11, 16 and overall phase, pigs fed YH diet showed a linear improvement in average daily body gain and gain/feed (p<0.05). The pigs that received YH linearly increased the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy on wk 11 and 16. The concentration of serum urea nitrogen was linearly increased in YH treatments on wk 16. However, the carcass weight, back fat and lean muscle percentage of pigs receiving YH had no significant change. Besides, no difference was observed in creatinine and total protein in the blood among treatments. Conclusion: The pigs fed a graded YH diet had improved growth performance and nutrient digestibility, meanwhile, the YH increased the serum urea nitrogen in the growing pigs.

Development of antibodies after foot and mouth disease vaccination in pigs (돼지에서 구제역 백신 접종 후 항체가 변화 조사)

  • Ahn, Gil-Ho;Bae, Jin-Gyu;Jung, Kwang;Wang, Young-Il;Jung, Jun-Yong;Kang, Soon-Keun;Kwon, Hyuk-Moo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2013
  • Three serotypes (O+A+Asia1 type) of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine were injected into cloven-hoofed animals in Korea after the nationwide spread of FMD at the end of 2010. This study was conducted to investigate FMD antibody development after FMD vaccination, and to determine whether there was a significant correlation between the antibody titer of the sow and the antibody titer of the growing pigs. The antibody titer (percentage inhibition [PI] titer) of the sow (gilt) after FMD vaccination was maintained at a level higher than 50 (P<0.05) for 5 months. A higher PI titer for the 1-month-old growing pigs corresponded with greater inhibition of the PI titer of the vaccinated growing pigs (P<0.05). A negative correlation (P<0.05) between the PI titer of the 1-month-old growing pigs and the PI titer of 3-month-old growing pigs, 4-month-old growing pigs after FMD vaccination at 2 months, 3months was identified, with a coefficient of determination ($R^2$) of 0.274. Thus the PI titer of the growing pigs was inhibited to a greater degree when vaccination was performed at 2 months of age than at 3 months. However, many other factors likely influence growing pigs' PI titer in addition to the PI titer of the sow and age at vaccination, given that the coefficient of determination was somewhat lower.

Changes in growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune blood profiles, fecal microbial and fecal gas emission of growing pigs in response to zinc aspartic acid chelate

  • Jiao, Yang;Li, Xinran;Kim, In Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.597-604
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc aspartic acid chelate (Zn-ASP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial and fecal gas emission in growing pigs. Methods: A total of 160 crossbred ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc) growing pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.56±2.22 kg were used in a 6-wk trial. Pigs were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their sex and BW (8 replicates with 2 gilts and 3 barrows per replication pen). Treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet, ii) TRT1, CON+0.1% Zn-ASP, iii) TRT2, CON+0.2% Zn-ASP, and iv) TRT3, CON+0.3% Zn-ASP. Pens were assigned in a randomized complete block design to compensate for known position effects in the experimental facility. Results: In the current study, BW, average daily gain, and gain:feed ratio showed significant improvement as dietary Zn-ASP increased (p<0.05) in growing pigs. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter was increased linearly (p<0.05) in pigs fed with Zn-ASP diets. A linear effect (p<0.05) was detected for the Zn concentration in blood with the increasing levels of Zn-ASP supplementation. Lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria were affected linearly (p<0.05) in pigs fed with Zn-ASP diets. However, no significant differences were observed in the ATTD of nitrogen, energy and Zn. And dietary Zn-ASP supplementation did not affect fecal ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and total mercaptans emissions in growing pigs. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Zn-ASP of diet exerted beneficial effects on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and fecal microbes in growing pigs.

Effects of Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance for Weanling, Growing and Finishing Pigs

  • Li, D.F.;Guan, W.T.;Yu, H.M.;Kim, J.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 1998
  • Four feeding trials with 260 pigs were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet with different amino acids on growth performance and blood metabolites for weanling, growing and finishing pigs. One hundred twenty weanling pigs (Exp. 1, BW 8 kg), eighty growing pigs (Exp. 2. BW 20 kg), thirty growing pigs (Exp. 3, BW 29 kg) and thirty finishing pigs (Exp. 4, BW 50 kg) were randomly allotted to different dietary treatments according to sex and body weight. Pigs weight and feed consumption were measured at initiation and termination of each trial with 4 weeks. At the end of trial, blood samples from three pigs selected in each pen (Exp. 1) and each pig (Exp. 2) were obtained to determine the level of blood urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and cortisol in the serum. In Exp. 1, pigs fed diet supplemented both with lysine and methionine had the best feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05), but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in ADG and ADFI. Pigs receiving control diet obtained the obtained the optimal ADG (p < 0.05), ADFI (p < 0.05) and F/G for the whole period. No differences were detected in serum glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations. In Exp. 2, pigs receiving the control diet exhibited the lowest serum urea nitrogen (p < 0.05), ADG, F/G and serum insulin concentration increased linearly (p < 0.05) with the inclusion of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan in diets. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected for glucose and cortisol content in pigs serum among dietary treatments. In Exp. 3 and 4, pigs growth rate increased linearly (p < 0.01), and feed conversion efficiency was also improves by addition of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan. In conclusion, pigs fed diets supplemented with lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan together obtained optimal growth performance in growing and finishing periods.

Effects of Processed Barley on Growth Performance and Ileal Digestibility of Growing Pigs

  • Chu, K.S.;Kim, J.H.;Chae, B.J.;Chung, Y.K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 1998
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of processing of barley on the growth performance and ileal and fecal digestibility of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 20 cannulated pigs (10.80 kg BW) were allotted to four treatments. Treatments were coarse ground barley as a control (CON), finely ground barley (FINE), extruded barley (EXT) and enzyme supplemented coarse ground barley (ENZ). In Exp. 2, a total of 100 growing pigs (36.50 kg BW) were allocated to the same treatments in completely randomized block design based on sex and body weight. In the first trial, pigs fed extruded barley showed significantly higher crude protein digestibility over pigs fed finely ground barley (p < 0.05). Pigs fed finely ground barley generally showed lower nutrients digestibility. Extrusion and ${\beta}$-glucanase supplementation showed a trend to improve nutrients digestibility. However, fine grinding rather reduced nutrients digestibility. The similar trend was found in the digestibility of essential amino acids. Fine grinding of barley significantly reduced amino acids digestibility. Extrusion and enzyme supplementation were found to improve amino acids digestibility of barley in growing pigs. In the growth trial, pigs fed extruded barley grew significantly faster than any other processed barley fed pigs. And extrusion of barley significantly improved feed/gain of pigs (p < 0.05). Fine grinding of barley and enzyme supplementation did not improve growth performance of pigs. In conclusion, fine grinding and enzyme supplementation does not appear to be an economical feed processing for growing pigs when barley is employed in the diets, while extrusion can be recommended as an effective feed processing technique for barley.

Development of Environmental Control Systems for Windowless Pig-housing (II) - Growth Performance of Weaned Piglets and Growing Pigs - (무창돈사의 환경제어 시스템 개발 (II) - 자돈과 육성돈의 사양성적 -)

  • 장동일;장홍희;임영일;박창식;이봉덕;이형석
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.425-430
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    • 1999
  • Complex environmental control systems were developed, which control properly the pig's environment in windowless pig-housing based on the thermoregulatory behaviors of pigs and concentrations of noxious gases (CO2 and NH3). The this study was conducted to assess the performance of complex environmental control systems by raising weaned piglets and growing pigs under different seasonal conditions. Average daily gain of pigs in the experimental pig-housing was slightly higher than that of pigs in the conventional pig-housing. Average daily gain was not significantly different in winter and spring(P>0.05), but was significantly different in summer(P<0.05). Feed conversion rate of pigs in the experimental pig-housing was smaller than that of pigs in the conventional pig-housing. Feed conversion rate was not significantly different in environment for weaned piglets and growing pigs resulted in the improved daily gain, feed conversion rate, and carcass quality of the finishing pigs. These results showed that the performance of the complex environmental control systems in windowless pig-housing was excellent for weaned piglets and growing pigs.

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