• Title, Summary, Keyword: Growth

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Reappraisal of Regional Growth Charts in the Era of WHO Growth Standards

  • Moon, Jin Soo
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2013
  • After the WHO Growth Standards (WHOGS) was published in 2006, many countries in the world endorsed and adopted the new growth references as a standard measure for the growth of infants and young children. Certainly, the WHOGS has an impact on the global policy about obesity and underweight in children. Such WHOGS innovation has influenced many regional health authorities and academies, which have managed their own growth charts for a long time, in changing their strategies to develop and use regional growth charts. In Korea, along with the tradition to create a national growth chart every decade, we now face a new era of advancing with the WHOGS.

A study on the SiC single crystal growth conditions by the resistance heating method (저항가열 방식에 의한 SiC 단결정 성장 조건에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Seung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2016
  • 6H-SiC single crystals were grown by using a resistance heating system. It was recognized that the growth behavior was different according to the different growth temperatures. It was revealed that the temperatures at the source feeding and at the crystal growth position had to be controlled independently. In this report, the effect of growth temperature on the SiC crystal growth was discussed.

Effect of substrate pretreatment on the growth yield enhancement and growth temperature decrease of carbon nanotubes (탄소나노튜브의 합성수율 증대와 저온 합성에 미치는 기판 전처리의 영향)

  • Shin, Eui-Chul;Jo, Sung-Il;Jeong, Goo-Hwan
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2019
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNT) on metal substrates are definitely beneficial because they can maintain robust mechanical stability and high conductivity between CNT and metal interfaces. Here, we report direct growth of CNT on Ni-based superalloy, Inconel 600, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with acetylene feedstock in the growth temperature range of $400-725^{\circ}C$. Furthermore, we studied the effect of substrate pretreatment on the growth yield enhancement and growth temperature decrease of CNT on Inconel 600. Activation energy (AE) for CNT growth was estimated from the CNT height change with respect to the growth temperature. The AE values significantly decreased from 205.03 to 24.35 kJ/mol by the pretreatment of thermal oxidation of Inconel substrate at $725^{\circ}C$ under ambient. Higher oxidation temperature tends to have lower activation energy. The results have shown the importance of pretreatment temperature on CNT growth yield and growth temperature decrease.

Prediction of Crack Growth in 2124-7851 Al-Alloy Under Flight-Simulation Loading (비행하중하에서 2124-T851 알루미늄합금의 피로균열진전 예측)

  • Sim, Dong-Seok;Hwang, Don-Yeong;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1487-1494
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    • 2002
  • In this study, to propose the prediction method of the crack growth under flight-simulation loading, crack growth tests are conducted on 2124-7851 aluminum alloy specimens. The prediction of crack growth under flight-simulation loading is performed by the stochastic crack growth model which was developed in previous study. First of all, to reduce the complex load history into a number of constant amplitude events, rainflow counting is applied to the flight-simulation loading wave. The crack growth, then, is predicted by the stochastic crack growth model that can describe the load interaction effect as well as the variability in crack growth process. The material constants required in this model are obtained from crack growth tests under constant amplitude loading and single tensile overload. The curves predicted by the proposed model well describe the crack growth behavior under flight-simulation loading and agree with experimental data. In addition, this model well predicts the variability of fatigue lives.

Studies on Antler (II) Effect of Antler on the Growth of the Experimental Rats(part 1) (녹용에 관한 연구(제 2 보) 녹용이 실험용백서의 성장에 미치는 영향에 대하여 (기일))

  • 용재익
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 1960
  • In order to know the effect on the growth of experimental rats, this, this experimental rats, this experiment was carried out on two groups of rats-a rice-diet animal group and a stock-diet animal group. Results of the growth experiment are shown in the tables 3 and 4, and growth curves are shown in the figures 1 and 2. The growth curves are shown in the figures 3 and 4. Based on the statistical analysis of growth rats, the male group on stock-diet was stimulated significantly in its growth by adding antler. The female group on rice-diet was also significantly stimulated in growth by anter. The other groups are not significant but it seems likely that the growths wers stimulated. As shown in table 7, the numbers of days when the body weight of the animals in each group became two times, three times, three times, and four times are discussed. This method of analysis shows clearly the stimulation of growth by adding antler in each group in both sexes. It can be summarized that the antler stimulates the growth of the experimental rats but it is not discussed in this paper whether this stimulation in the growth might be due to calcium, vitamins and amino acids in antler or to an unknown growth factor.

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A STUDY ON CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH ANALYSIS OF KOREAN CHILDREN BY THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (한국아동의 악안면성장에 관한 유한요소법적 연구)

  • Tahk, Seon-Gun
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.343-366
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    • 1988
  • Craniofacial complex is influenced by numerical skeletal elements. Though the analysis of growth change has been done by various analytical methods, it was dependent on any method of registration and superimposition, based on reference plane and reference point. However, the craniofacial growth is composed of a number of local growth elements. Therefore, it will be necessary to use a clinically useful method for estimating craniofacial skeletal growth independently. The author analysed longitudinal cephalometric roentgenogram of 15 Korean males and 15 Korean females aged from 6 to 12 years by the finite element method and results were as follows : 1. The finite element method for craniofacial skeletal complex and soft tissue made it possible to analyze the independent local growth. 2. Regression equations from the value of each strain will make it possible to predict the craniofacial growth. 3. The growth of anterior cranial base was different from that of other facial bone. 4. The growth of posterior cranial base influenced the growth of upper pharyngeal region, midfacial region, maxilla and posterior region of mandible. 5. The growth of maxillary complex was vertical rather than horizontal. 6. The growth direction of ramus, mandibular body, alveolar bone was various. 7. The relation between hard tissue and soft tissue by finite element method was variant.

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Effect of Incubation Period, Temperature and pH on Mycelial Growth of Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten Causing Root-rot of Ginseng (배양기간, 온도, pH가 인삼 근부병균 Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten의 균사생육에 미치는 영향)

  • 조대휘;안일평
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 1995
  • Cylindvocarpon destmtalns isolate CY-92-01, pathogen of root-rot of Panax ginseng showed t the maximum mycelial growth on the Czapek solution agar among the thirteen kinds of media. Five isolates (Isolate CY-92-01, CY-92-03, CY-92-07, CY-94-01, CY-94-02) of C. destructan from various growth stages of p. ginseng recovered from several geographical sites also showed maximum growth in the Czapek-Dox broth compared with potato dextrose broth and V-8 juice broth. Rapid growth rate was maintained until 12 days after inoculation on the Czapek-Dox broth and mycelial weight was somewhat constant until 20 days. After 30 days of incubation, the mycelial weight began to decrease. The fungal growth occurred from 5$^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$ and optimum temperature for growth was 2$0^{\circ}C$. Mycelial weight orderly decreased at 15, 25, 10, and 5$^{\circ}C$. Quantitative measurement was impossible at 5$^{\circ}C$. No fungal growth was occurred at the temperature higher than 3$0^{\circ}C$. Growth was observed at all tested pH ranges from 2.8 to 8.0. Optimum pH for growth was 4.0~5.0 followed by pH 3.3~3.5 and 5.4~6.0. The least growth occurred at pH 2.8.

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Comparison of Models to Describe Growth of Green Algae Chlorella vulgaris for Nutrient Removal from Piggery Wastewater (양돈폐수의 영양염류 제거를 위한 녹조류 Chlorella vulgaris 성장 모형의 비교)

  • Lim, Byung-Ran;Jutidamrongphan, Warangkana;Park, Ki-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2010
  • Batch experiments were conducted to investigate growth and nutrient removal performance of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris by using piggery wastewater in different concentration of pollutants and the common growth models (logistic, Gompertz and Richards) were applied to compare microalgal growth parameters. Removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) by Chlorella vulgaris showed correlation with biomass increase, implying nutrient uptake coupled with microalgae growth. The higher the levels of suspended solids (SS), COD and ammonia nitrogen were in the wastewater, the worse growth of Chlorella vulgaris was observed, showing the occurrence of growth inhibition in higher concentration of those pollutants. The growth parameters were estimated by non-linear regression of three growth curves for comparative analyses. Determination of growth parameters were more accurate with population as a variable than the logarithm of population in terms of R square. Richards model represented better fit comparing with logistic and Gompertz model. However, Richards model showed some complexity and sensitivity in calculation. In the cases tested, both logistic and Gompertz equation were proper to describe the growth of microalgae on piggery wastewater as well as easy to application.

The effects of growth medium and partial shade on early growth of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) under drought stress

  • Taghvaei, Mansour;Kordestani, Mojtaba Dolat
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.343-349
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    • 2012
  • The use of growth medium is often recommended milkweed seedlings to grow and develop after emergence, and it is affected by growth medium and local habitat conditions. The effects of growth medium and partial shade on early growth of milkweed under drought stress (Calotropis procera L.) were studied in a field experiment. A split-split plot experimental design with three replications was carried out in the nursery. The main treatment plot was divided into two levels of shade; (no shading and partial shading). Sub treatment plot1 included growth medium at four levels (G1 = clay [suitable for milkweed growth], G2 = clay + sand, G3 = clay + perlite, G4 = clay + perlite + sand) and sub treatment plot2 included drought (irrigation intervals) at six levels (D1 = 2 [control], D2 = 4, D3 = 6, D4 = 8, D5 = 10, and D6 = 12 days per for three month). The results showed that drought stress significantly decreased emergence percentage, shoot length, shoot dry weight (SDW1), root dry weight (RDW), seedling dry weight (SDW2) and vigor index (VI). The use of growth medium increased all seedling characteristics. The G3 (clay + perlite) growth medium showed the highest performance, especially in terms of emergence percentage and seedling dry weight. Partial shade improved shoot length, shoot dry weight, and vigor index. Our results showed that the best treatment for high-vigor milkweed seedlings under drought stress was G3 (clay + perlite) growth medium and partial shade.

How Does Financial Development Impact Economic Growth in Pakistan?: New Evidence from Threshold Model

  • TARIQ, Rameez;KHAN, Muhammad Arshad;RAHMAN, Abdul
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2020
  • This study examines the nonlinear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan using the threshold regression model for the period 1980-2017. We also employed quantile regression with 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 quantiles of conditional distribution. The quantile regression is based on minimizing of sum of squared residuals. The result indicates that economic growth responds positively to financial development when the level of financial development surpasses the threshold value of 0.151. However, when financial development lies below the threshold value (that is, 0.151), its impact on economic growth is negative. Thus, when financial development of Pakistan surpasses the threshold level, it contributes more towards economic growth since greater level of financial development contributes more to boosts economic growth. This finding reveals that economic growth reacts differently to financial development, and the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped in Pakistan. Among the other variables, physical capital, labor force, and government expenditure exert a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, inflation rate and trade openness have an insignificant impact on economic growth. The results of quantile regression also confirm the non-linear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan. The finding of this study suggests revamping of financial sector policies in Pakistan.