Nam, Cheol Hwan;Kim, Ki Soo;Park, Man Ho;Yun, An A;Park, Jong Ho;Han, Ouk Kyu;Kim, Won Ho;Sun, Sang Soo
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
This study was conducted to establish spring sowing techniques in preparation for the impacts of climate change on sowing time and wintering rates of winter forage crops such as barley, oat and IRG. Oat showed the highest yield in 2017 which had relatively dry climate condition. And when sowing in late Febrnary 2017 yielding 9,408kg/ha were obtained, yielding 4,011kg/ha more than IRG's sown in the same period. In 2018 which had relatively wet climate condition, four barley species decreased in the production from the previous year. Oat also had decreased by 70% from 9,408kg/ha to 2,851kg/ha. On the other hand, IRG maintained the production in the mid-5,000kg/ha range. It was also found that IRG had the least variability due to external influences regardless of seeding period for 2 years. Mixed sowing with IRG and oat in 50:50 ratio was the highest dry matter, 6,584kg/ha, and IRG was 18.5% and Oat was 2.3 times higher than single planting.
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
A barley(Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar 'Youjin' with hooded spike type having good silage quality was developed at National Institute of Crop Science, RDA in 2016. 'Youjin' showed both high yielding and cold resistance through the preliminary and advanced yield trials(PYT, AYT) from 2012 to 2013. We conducted regional yield trials(RYT) of 'Youjin' in six locations around Korea for three years from 2014 to 2016. It had erect plant type, growth habit of II, the green leaf and hooded awn type. In the paddy field its heading date was April 24 and the maturing date was May 25. Plant height was 99 cm and the number of spikes per ㎡ was 696. It has high rate of leaf blades, resistance to BaYMV(Barley Yellow Mosiac Virus) and good winter hardiness. The average dry matter of Youjin was about 17.2 MT ha-1 in the field. And feed quality of 'Youjin' was 10.6% of crude protein content, 24.8% of ADF(Acid Detergent Fiber), 43.5 % of NDF(Neutral Detergent Fiber), 69.1% of TDN(Total Digestible Nutrients). And also 'Youjin' had grade I of silage quality.
Webtoon is a Korean-style digital comics platform that distributes comics content produced using the characteristic elements of the Internet in a form that can be consumed online. With the recent rapid growth of the webtoon industry and the exponential increase in the supply of webtoon content, the need for effective webtoon content recommendation measures is growing. Webtoons are digital content products that combine pictorial, literary and digital elements. Therefore, webtoons stimulate consumer sentiment by making readers have fun and engaging and empathizing with the situations in which webtoons are produced. In this context, it can be expected that the sentiment that webtoons evoke to consumers will serve as an important criterion for consumers' choice of webtoons. However, there is a lack of research to improve webtoons' recommendation performance by utilizing consumer sentiment. This study is aimed at developing consumer sentiment pattern maps that can support effective recommendations of webtoon content, focusing on consumer sentiments that have not been fully discussed previously. Metadata and consumer sentiments data were collected for 200 works serviced on the Korean webtoon platform 'Naver Webtoon' to conduct this study. 488 sentiment terms were collected for 127 works, excluding those that did not meet the purpose of the analysis. Next, similar or duplicate terms were combined or abstracted in accordance with the bottom-up approach. As a result, we have built webtoons specialized sentiment-index, which are reduced to a total of 63 emotive adjectives. By performing exploratory factor analysis on the constructed sentiment-index, we have derived three important dimensions for classifying webtoon types. The exploratory factor analysis was performed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using varimax factor rotation. The three dimensions were named 'Immersion', 'Touch' and 'Irritant' respectively. Based on this, K-Means clustering was performed and the entire webtoons were classified into four types. Each type was named 'Snack', 'Drama', 'Irritant', and 'Romance'. For each type of webtoon, we wrote webtoon-sentiment 2-Mode network graphs and looked at the characteristics of the sentiment pattern appearing for each type. In addition, through profiling analysis, we were able to derive meaningful strategic implications for each type of webtoon. First, The 'Snack' cluster is a collection of webtoons that are fast-paced and highly entertaining. Many consumers are interested in these webtoons, but they don't rate them well. Also, consumers mostly use simple expressions of sentiment when talking about these webtoons. Webtoons belonging to 'Snack' are expected to appeal to modern people who want to consume content easily and quickly during short travel time, such as commuting time. Secondly, webtoons belonging to 'Drama' are expected to evoke realistic and everyday sentiments rather than exaggerated and light comic ones. When consumers talk about webtoons belonging to a 'Drama' cluster in online, they are found to express a variety of sentiments. It is appropriate to establish an OSMU(One source multi-use) strategy to extend these webtoons to other content such as movies and TV series. Third, the sentiment pattern map of 'Irritant' shows the sentiments that discourage customer interest by stimulating discomfort. Webtoons that evoke these sentiments are hard to get public attention. Artists should pay attention to these sentiments that cause inconvenience to consumers in creating webtoons. Finally, Webtoons belonging to 'Romance' do not evoke a variety of consumer sentiments, but they are interpreted as touching consumers. They are expected to be consumed as 'healing content' targeted at consumers with high levels of stress or mental fatigue in their lives. The results of this study are meaningful in that it identifies the applicability of consumer sentiment in the areas of recommendation and classification of webtoons, and provides guidelines to help members of webtoons' ecosystem better understand consumers and formulate strategies.
The micronutrients and flavor compounds of three new native chicken strains (A, C, and D) being developed in a breeding program (Golden Seed Project) were compared with a commercial native chicken strain (H) and the Baeksemi (W, white semi broiler). After 100 male chicks in each strains were reared for 5 weeks, the breast muscles from randomly selected 40 birds were analyzed at 8 replications. Native chicken strain A had greater amounts of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol compared with strain W. Native chicken strains showed higher contents of vitamin B12 than Stain W. Stain H strain had the highest values of cholesterol content and strain D did the lowest. There was no different content of most minerals between native chickens (A, C, D, and H) and W, but Cu were more contained in native chicken strains compared with W. In terms of nucleotide-related flavor compounds, Stain A had the lowest content of hypoxanthine and strain D had highest inosine monophosphate. Native chicken strains had higher contents of umami-related free amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) than W. Among native chickens, strain A had more amounts in the contents of taurine, tasty flavor compounds, and certain vitamins, despite of the relatively low growth productivity. This result will provide information to select a strain with characteristic meat quality in a chicken breeding program.
This study investigated the effects of various stocking densities on the growth performance of Korean native ducks. Twelve hundred day-old ducklings were reared for 50 days in a duck house (windowless, plastic wire-floor pen). Two weeks later, 852 of these ducks (350±30 g) were selected for at least 80% uniformity per stocking treatment (six treatments, four replications/treatment, depending on a stocking density of 4~9 birds m-2). Experimental diets were corn-soybean-based and broiler ducks were grouped based on age [0~21 days of age (CP 21%, ME 2,900 kcal/kg) and 21~50 days of age (CP 17%, ME 3,100 kcal/kg)]. Body weight (BW) did not significantly differ among different aged treatment groups (P>0.05); however, uniformity decreased with higher stocking densities (P<0.05). Feed intake and feed conversion ratio of ducks aged 42~50 days significantly decreased in the T4-6 treatments compared with the T1-3 treatments (P<0.05). In all experimental periods, BW gain was not significantly different among treatments, but feed intake decreased significantly as the stocking density increased (P<0.05), and feed conversion ratio was significantly different among six treatments with stocking density (P<0.05). In conclusion, we found that the stocking density of Korean native ducks in a plastic wire-floor pen was approximately 7 birds m-2 in consideration of productivity and uniformity.
A recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected that the global average surface temperature will increase by a value 1.5℃ from 2030 to 2052. In this study, we used a temperature gradient chamber that mimicked field conditions to evaluate the effect of increased air temperature on phenology, yield components, protein content, and oil content, to assess soybean growth. In 2017 and 2018, 'Deawonkong', 'Pungsannamulkong', and 'Deapungkong' cultivars were grown in three temperature gradient chambers. Four temperature treatment groups were established by dividing the rows along temperature regimes: ambient temperature + 1℃ (aT+1), ambient temperature + 2℃ (aT+2), ambient temperature + 3℃ (aT+3), ambient temperature + 4℃ (aT+4). Year, cultivar, and temperature treatments significantly affected yield components and seed yield. In 2017, the flowering stage of 'Deawon' and 'Pungsannamul' cultivars in the aT+4 group was delayed compared to the flowering stage of those in the aT+1 group. In 2018, the flowering stage of 'Deawon' and 'Pungsannamul' was delayed at all temperature gradients, owing to high temperature stress, whereas 'Deapung' was regularly flowering in 2017 and 2018. The duration of the grain filling period was six days shorter in 2018 than in 2017 because of high temperature stress. The total number of pods per ㎡ for 'Deawon' and 'Pungsannamul' was 48.8 and 41.5% lower in 2018 than in 2017, respectively, whereas 'Deapung' increased by 6.3%. The 100-seed weight of 'Deawon' and 'Deapung' was 29.2 and 32.1% lower, respectively. However, 'Pungsannamul' decreased by 14.7%. The protein and oil content was lower during the grain filling period in 2018 than in the same period in 2017 because of high temperature stress. In contrast, the oil content in 'Deapung' was higher in 2018 than in 2017. Our results showed that increased temperature during the grain filling period was significantly and negatively correlated with pod number, 100-seed weight, protein content, and oil content.
Lee, Bae Hun;Kim, Ji Yung;Park, Hyung Soo;Sung, Kyung Il;Kim, Byong Wan
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
This study was conducted to suggest the new grassland grade system on evaluating the grassland status. The grassland status has been evaluated based on the forage yield (good, fair and poor) by municipal authorities. The grassland grades by current system were 19 good, 11 fair and 11 poor among the 41 grassland farms from 6 provinces. This evaluation result differed greatly from the result of actual measurement of forage yields which showed all poor. The big difference was resulted from failing the reflection of the various characteristics, such as different seasonal growth and harvest frequency. Furthermore, the lack of consistent examining date and method added the inaccuracy of current grassland grade system. The new grassland grade system based on the grassland vegetation ratio (grass, weed and bare soil) was initially designed into 6-grade system (1st; 100~80%, 2nd; 79~60%, 3rd; 59~40%, 4th; 39~20%; 5th; 19~1% and 6th; 0% on the basis of grasses proportion), but later was changed into 4-grade system (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades are 70% or more, 50% or more, 50% or less, and 0% of forage proportion, respectively) after reflecting the opinion of grassland farms and municipal authorities. Re-evaluation on the grassland status using the 4-grade system resulted in the total 80% consisted of 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade which means most grasslands needs the partial reseeding or the rehabilitation of entire grassland. Pictures and schematic diagrams depicting the 4-grade system were presented to improve the objectivity of evaluation. The optimal time for assessing grassland status is fall when plant height 20~30 cm. Conclusively, the 4-grade system is an efficient method for all non-professionals including grassland farms or municipal authorities in assessing the grassland status. To apply this system to the field, the institutional arrangements such as amendment of grassland act should take place in advance.
Kang, Yang-Soon;Kim, Wan Joong;Hwang, Duck Sang;Kim, Hee Kyu
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
A new silicate coating technology was developed which reduces the impact of dust and loosening during seeding compared to existing silicate-coatings (Seed/Si/Zeolite), and therefore can lower the production costs of rice cultivation. In this method, 100 g of rice seed is coated with 18 mL of liquid silicic acid and then dressed with a mixture containing 80 g of dolomite and 5 g of iron. To determine the most effective method of application and ensure that seedlings developed healthily, a series of experiments were carried out. Infected seeds scattered in seedling boxes and pots (soil and hydroponic) were coated dry, without disinfection. In comparison to the seed which were not treated with the silicate-coating, the new seed (A) were 1.84 times heavier in weight, and were also improved in terms of coating strength and coating color. Compared to the seedlings grown from the non-coated seed, those grown from the new silicate-coated seed were of significantly higher quality (weight/length) and had erect, dark greenish leaves, which are ideal plant characteristics. This was most likely due to increased silicate uptake. The symptoms of bakanae disease in the non-coated seed peaked after 38 days to 54.2%, whereas the control value was 68.8% in the new silicate-coated seed (A). In the infected seedlings grown from the new silicate-coated rice seed, subnormal macro-conidia, namely, a sickle shape spore without a septum; a straight oblong shape spore without a septum and with a thick cell wall; and inter-septal necrosis of a normal spore were detected. It is believed that the strong alkalinity of silicic acid have acted as unfavorable conditions for pathogenicity. In seedlings grown from the new silicate coated rice seed under hydroponic conditions without nutrients, normal root activity and growth was maintained without leaf senescence. Therefore, it was possible to reduce the rate of fertilization. In the future, a new silicate-coated rice seed was required for the study of minimal nutrition for anti-aging of seedlings.
Kang, Won Sik;Kim, Min Geun;Kim, Soo Young;Han, Sim Hee;Kim, Du Hyun
Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
In this study, the effect of seed pre-treatments and pellet coating materials to enhance the efficiency of large-scale propagation of Aster koraiensis seeds were investigated. Seeds were immersed in water for one day, and only those that sank were used for pre-treatment to use filled seeds. Pre-treatments were divided into hormone treatments, with gibberellic acid (GA3; 200 and 500 ppm) and 24-epibrassinolide (10-6, 10-7, and 10-8M), and priming with potassium nitrate (100 mM of KNO3). To produce pellet-coated seeds, pellet materials (DTCS or DTK) were applied to control (unprimed) and primed seeds with binders (PVA or CMC). The maximum germination percent (GP) of seeds before pellet coating was 65% (with the priming treatment), and there was no difference in the GP of seeds among hormone treatments. For seeds sown in a growth chamber on filter paper, GP was 41% for control (unprimed/uncoated) seeds, 65% for uncoated primed seeds, 71% for DTCS/PVA-pellet-coated seeds, and 42% for DTK/CMC-pellet-coated seeds. Seeds that were primed first and then pellet-coated showed greatly improved GP, mean germination time (MGT), and germination rate than seeds that were only pellet-coated. For seeds sown in commercial soil in a greenhouse, control seeds had a GP of 27%, whereas primed seeds had the highest GP (58%), and their MGT and GT were 9.4 days and 7.0%·day, respectively. In addition, DTK/PVA-pellet-coated seeds (40%) also had a GP higher than the control (27%), and their MGT was 15-27 days. For seeds sown in sandy-loam soil in a greenhouse, unprimed-pellet-coated seeds and primed-pellet-coated seeds both had GPs ranged of 39%, which were lower than that of control seeds. In general, the seeds that were pellet-coated with DTK had a higher GP than those pellet-coated with DTCS. Furthermore, the MGT of unprimed-pellet-coated seeds was 15.0-19.8 days, which was longer than the MGT of primed-pellet-coated seeds. These results suggest that priming enhances seedling emergence of Aster koraiensis seeds. Moreover, when priming is combined with pellet coating, DTK is a more suitable pellet material than DTCS, and PVA and CMC are equally suitable adhesives.
The Samgwang deposit has been one of the largest deposits in Korea. The deposit consists of series of host rocks including Precambrian metasedimentary rocks and Jurassic Baegunsa formation, which unconformably overlies the Precambrian metasedimentary rocks. The deposit consists of eight lens-shaped quartz veins which filled fractures along fault zones in Precambrian metasedimentary rock, which feature suggest that it is an orogenic-type deposit. Laminated quartz veins are common in the deposit which contain minerals including quartz, ankerite, white mica, chlorite, apatite, rutile, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. The structural formulars of white micas from laminated quartz vein and wallrock alteration are determined to be (K1.02-0.82Na0.02-0.00Ca0.00)(Al1.73-1.58Mg0.26-0.16Fe0.23-0.10Mn0.00Ti0.03-0.01Cr0.01-0.00)(Si3.35-3.22Al0.79-0.65)O10(OH)2 and (K0.75-0.67Na0.01Ca0.00) (Al1.78-1.74Mg0.16-0.15Fe0.15-0.13Mn0.00Ti0.04-0.02Cr0.01-0.00)(Si3.33-3.26Al0.74-0.67)O10(OH)2, respectively. It suggest that white mica from laminated quartz vein has higher interlayer cation (K+Na+Ca) and Fe+Mg+Mn+Ti content in octahedral site compared to the white mica from the wallrock alteration. Compositional variations in white mica from laminated quartz vein can be caused by phengitic or Tschermark substitution ((Al3+)VI+(Al3+)IV <-> (Fe2+ or Mg2+)VI)+(Si4+)IV) and (Fe3+)VI <-> (Al3+)VI substitution. Ankerite from laminated quartz vein has compositional variations of FeO and MgO contents along crystal growth direction. The geochemical and textural features suggest that laminated quartz vein from the Samgwang gold-silver deposit was formed during ductile shear stage, which is an important main gold-silver ore-forming event in orogeinc deposit.
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