Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
Livestock manures have a potential to be a valuable resource with an efficient treatment. In Korea, 42 million tons of livestock manure were generated in 2008, and 84 % of them were used for compost and liquid fertilizer production. Recently recycling of livestock manure for biogas production through anaerobic digestion is increasing, but its utilization in agriculture is still uncertified. In this study, there was applied co-digestate to the paddy for rice cultivation based on N supplement. Co-digestate was fertilizer fermented with pig slurry and food waste combined with the ratio of 70:30(v:v) in its volumetric basis. For assessing the safety of co-digestate, it was monitored the contents of co-digestate for seasonal variation, resulted in no potential harm to the soil and plant by heavy metals. The results showed that soil applied with co-digestate was increased in exchangeable potassium, copper and zinc mainly due to the high rate of pig slurry in co-digestate applied. Considering high salt content due to the combination with food waste, strict quality assurances are needed for safe application to arable land though it has valuable fertilizer nutrient. Leachate after treatment showed that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen washed out within two weeks. Considering the salt accumulation results in soil, it is highly recommended that the application rate of co-digestate should not exceed the crop fertilization rate based on N supplement. With these results, it was concluded that co-digestate could be used as an alternative fertilizer for chemical fertilizer. More study is needed for the long-term effects of co-digestate application on the soil and water environment.
Ha, Jimyeong;Lee, Jeeyeon;Oh, Hyemin;Shin, Il-Shik;Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Kwon-Sam;Yoon, Yohan
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
This study investigated the probability of foodborne illness caused by raw oyster consumption contaminated with high risk Vibrio species such as V. vulnificus and V. cholerae. Eighty-eight raw oyster samples were collected from the south coast, west coast and Seoul areas, and examined for the prevalence of high risk Vibrio species. The growth patterns of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae in raw oysters were evaluated, and consumption frequency and amounts for raw oyster were investigated from a Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. With the collected data, a risk assessment simulation was conducted to estimate the probability of foodborne illness caused by intake of raw oysters, using @RISK. Of 88 raw oysters, there were no V. vulnificus- or V. cholerae-positive samples. Thus, initial contamination levels of Vibrio species in raw oysters were estimated by the statistical methods developed by Vose and Sanaa, and the estimated value for the both Vibrio spp. was -3.6 Log CFU/g. In raw oyster, cell counts of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae remained unchanged. The incidence of raw oyster consumers was 0.35%, and the appropriate probabilistic distribution for the consumption amounts was the exponential distribution. A risk assessment simulation model was developed with the collected data, and the probability of the foodborne illness caused by the consumption of raw oyster was 9.08×10-15 for V. vulnificus and 8.16×10-13 for V. cholerae. Consumption frequency was the first factor, influencing the probability of foodborne illness.
MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
The investigation of air fungal population in the storages to keep papers and textiles that are designated as important folk life materials or treasures was carried out from Dec. 17 to. 23, 1980. Isolation media was used for malt extract agar with chloramphnicol to prevent bacterial contamination. Isolation and identification of air fungi from the four preserved rooms were Cladosporium cladosporioides, Alternaria chlamydospora, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, Eurotium chevalieri, Penicillium charlesii var. rapidum, P. oxalicum. P. viridicatum, Trichoderma viride, Acremomium sp., Mucor sp. and Yeast. It was found that nine species in eight genera was isolated. Among them, underscribed species in Korea was two species ; Eurotium chevalieri and Penicillium visidicatum. The fungal population of four storages was showed to be dominant species such as Cladosporium cladosporioides and the order was Acremonium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Alternaria and Eurotium. Eurotium chevalieri was ascomycetous fungi including distinctive ascospores in cleistothecia, the filamentous fungi was directly isolated from the papers and cellulose materials showing to be fourteen species in eight genera. The most species of the fungi isolated was also Cladosporium cladosporioides and the other fungi were found as Acremonium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Trichoderma. It was confirmed that underscribed fungi were two species ; Mucor racemosus and Penicillium spinulosvm. The effect of four antifungal agents, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid and thymol was also examined on eight species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium. and Tricoderma. this results were shown that more than 0.5% concentration of thymol inhibited the grow of all fungalspecies and other three chemicals appeared various inhibition zones of fungal growth depending in their different concentrations.
Kim, Suk Woo;Chun, Kun Woo;Seo, Jung Il;Lim, Young Hyup;Nam, Sooyoun;Jang, Su Jin;Kim, Yong Suk;Lee, Jae Uk
Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
This study aims to provide reference material for effective forest management techniques at the catchment scale, based on the field investigation of large woody debris (LWD) in 11 streams within a third-order forest catchment in Gangwon Province, Korea. To achieve this aim, we analyzed the morphological features of LWD pieces, and the storage and distribution status of LWD by stream order throughout the entire investigation. As a result, a total of 1,207 individual pieces of LWD were categorized into three types as follows: (ⅰ) 1,142 pieces (95%) as only trunk and 65 pieces (5%) as a trunk with root wad, (ⅱ) 1,015 pieces (84%) as non-thinned and 192 pieces (16%) as the thinned, and (ⅲ) 1,050 pieces (87%) as conifer and 157 pieces (13%) as broadleaf. Additionally, in-stream LWD loads (㎥/ha) decreased with increasing stream order, yielding 105.4, 71.3, and 35.6 for first-, second-, and third-order streams, respectively. On the other hand, the ratio of LWD jams to the total LWD volume increased with increasing stream order, yielding 11%, 43%, and 49% for first-, second-, and third-order streams, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the in-stream LWD load with previous studies in several countries around the world indicated that in-stream LWD load was positively correlated with forest stand age even though the climate, topography, forest soil type, forest composition, stand growth rate, disturbance regime, and forest management practices were different. These results could contribute to understanding the significance of LWD as a by-product of forest ecosystems and an indicator of riparian forest disturbance. Based on this, we conclude that advanced forest management techniques, including treatment of thinning slash and stand density control of riparian forest by site location (hillslope and riparian zone, or stream order), should be established in the future, taking the forest ecosystem and the aquatic environment from headwater streams to low land rivers into consideration.
Sediments from rivers, lakes and marine ports serve as end points for pollutants discharged into the water, and at the same time serve as sources of pollutants that are continuously released into the water. Until now, the contaminated sediments have been landfilled or dumped at sea. Landfilling, however, was expensive and dumping at sea was completely banned due to the London Convention. Therefore, this study applied contaminated sedimentation soil of 'Royal Palace Livestock Complex' as soil purification method. Soil remediation methods were applied to pretreatment, composting, soil washing, electrokinetics, and thermal desorption by selecting overseas application cases and domestically applicable application technologies. As a result of surveying the site for pollutant characteristics, Disolved Oxigen (DO), Suspended Solid (SS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) exceeded the discharged water quality standard, and especially SS, COD, TN, and TP exceeded the standard several tens to several hundred times. Soil showed high concentrations of copper and zinc, which promote the growth of pig feed, and cadmium exceeded 1 standard of Soil Environment Conservation Act. In the pretreatment technology, hydrocyclone was used for particle size separation, and the fine soil was separated by more than 80%. Composting was performed on organic and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils. TPH was treated within the standard of concern, and E. coli was analyzed to be high in organic matter, and the fertilizer specification was satisfied by applying the optimum composting conditions at 70℃, but the organic matter content was lower than the fertilizer specification. As a result of continuous washing test, Cd has 5 levels of residual material in fine soil. Cu and Zn were mostly composed of ion exchange properties (stage 1), carbonates (stage 2), and iron / manganese oxides (stage 3), which facilitate easy separation of contamination. As a result of applying acid dissolution and multi-stage washing step by step, hydrochloric acid, 1.0M, 1: 3, 200rpm, 60min was analyzed as the optimal washing factor. Most of the contaminated sediments were found to satisfy the Soil Environmental Conservation Act's standards. Therefore, as a result of the applicability test of this study, soil with high heavy metal contamination was used as aggregate by applying soil cleaning after pre-treatment. It was possible to verify that it was efficient to use organic and oil-contaminated soil as compost Maturity after exterminating contaminants and E. coli by applying composting.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The purpose of this study was to develop and study an experiential natural education program that could emphasize the importance of the natural environment by providing natural experience opportunities using the natural resources of the urban forest parks using Youngheung Park in Suwon, Gyeonggi Province as a target site. The research target was limited to Suwon Yeongheung Park, which had the potential to become a place for education, where urban forest conservation and sustainable use already coexist. The natural education resources derived by surveying and analyzing the basic environment and the ecology of plants and animals in Suwon Yeongheung Park were organized to establish program goals, directions, and themes. Suwon Yeongheung Park is a water-rich forest that forms an ecological system of wetlands, including rice paddies, muknon wetlands, and dungbun, near a valley area. The U-shaped walkway was smoothly formed along the ridge and includes Doran-gil, which is among the Palochrome Road, designated by the city of Suwon. The soil is acidic, with a pH 4.40, due to urban pollution and acid rain, and is not good for plant growth. Most of the artificial forests, natural forests, and arable land were found using land use and extant life surveys. Old trees were distributed in artificial forests, the oak clusters in natural forests, and the fields and darrinones were distributed in the arable areas. As the forest vegetation declined, the cedar forest was underway, and the cedar trees and red bean pear trees were cultivated due to their adaptability to the urban environment. There are 13 large of 180 sacks, one being 109 centimeters in diameter, the largest silvery tree, and 105 oak trees, provide food and shelter for animals. Six species of waterfowl that used the 22 kinds of forest wetlands, while four species of amphibians and two species of reptiles reside in the wetlands. Natural Monument No. 327, Mauryuk, Class II Endangered Wildlife, was also observed in the wetlands. Eight other species of surface dragonflies and three species of butterflies were observed. By systemizing the resources, members, and characteristics of the forest ecosystems in Suwon Yeongheung Park based on five criteria, the program for a hands-on natural education was presented with the aim of understanding the urban forest ecosystem in Suwon Yeongheung Park, having an affinity with the city, and recognizing its relationship with the community and society. However, further research is needed as there are limitations of research on programs characterized by different ages and classes.
This study presents the production characteristics and physiological characteristics of five Korean native chicken (KNC) breeds consisting of Hwanggalsaek Jaeraejong (HJ), Korean Rhode Island Red (KR), Korean White Leghorn (KL), Korean Brown Cornish (KC), and Korean Ogye (KO). We investigated their production performances, vitalities, and stress responses. We measured the survival rate, body weight, age at first egg-laying, hen-day egg production, egg weight, amount of telomeric DNA, heterophil-lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio), and heat shock protein (HSP)-70, HSP-90α and HSP-90β gene expression levels for 493 KNCs. The survival rate was highest in KR, and lowest in KO. Body weights were steadily high in the order of KC, KR, HJ, KO and KL. Average hen-day egg production was highest in KL, and lowest in KC. While the amount of telomeric DNA was highest in KR, and lowest in KC. Furthermore, both the H/L ratio and the HSP-90β gene expression level were highest in KC, and lowest in KR. These results indicated that the KR breed was highly resistant to stress, whereas KC was more susceptible to stress. Taken together, it is considered that with improvements the KC breed would be more suited to be used as a Korean broiler breed while KL would be more appropriately used as a Korean layer breed. In addition, it is considered that the KR breed is appropriate to be used as a maternal chicken breeder based on good production capacity and excellent robustness, while the HJ breed is desirable to be improved as a high-quality Korean meat breed based on its excellent meat quality.
This study aims at listing up those manufacturing activities sensitive to regional characteristics by analyzing locational hierarchy designed on the urban rank-size rule. This locational hierarchy by manufacturing activities is expected to provide a ground for the proper supply of an industrial complex. The analysis of the locational hierarchy by manufacturing activities can work as a method of observing the characteristics of the distribution of location for each economic activity by analyzing the trend in the change of manufacturing location. Consequently, it can be used to determine the appropriate manufacturing activities for the industrial complex of a particular region. Here, the locational hierarchy is analyzed depending on the base of the basic local government such as Gun(district level) and Si(city level), and manufacturing activities are categorized by Korea Standard Industry Code. Those activities demonstrating growth pattern are Manufacture of Electronic Equipment(KSIC 26), Manufacture of Medical Precision Optical Instruments Watch(KSIC 27), Manufacture of Motor Vehicles (KSIC 30, 31), etc. With proper infrastructures, these activities can be located everywhere. Those sectors on the decline pattern in the locational hierarchy can be summarized as Manufacture of Tobacco Products(KSIC 12), Manufacture of wearing apparel Fur Articles(KSIC 14), etc. Those sectors scattered widely in the locational hierarchy are Manufacture of Food Products(KSIC 10), Manufacture of Coke Petroleum Products(KSIC 19), Manufacture of Chemical Products(KSIC 20), Manufacture of Electronic Equipment(KSIC 26). These particular manufacturing activities can be operated in those regions in a sufficient supply of unskilled workers regardless of proper infrastructures. Those activities that have a tendency to reconcentrate on larger cities are Manufacture of Textiles(KSIC 13), Manufacture of Wearing Apparel Clothing Fur Articles(KSIC 14), Manufacture of Other Transport Equiptmen(KSIC 31). In most cases, these sectors tend to favor their existing agglomerated areas and concentrate around large cities. Therefore, it is inefficient to promote these sectors in small or medium-sized cities or underdeveloped regions. The establishment of developmental strategies of an industrial complex can gain greater competitiveness by observing such characteristics of the locational hierarchy.
Kim, Kanghee;Hwang, Junghye;Choi, Jin Soo;Heo, Yunwi;Park, June-Woo
Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
Microplastics are one of the substances threatening the marine ecosystem. Here, we summarize the status of research on the effect of microplastics on marine life and suggest future research directions. Microplastics are synthetic polymeric compounds smaller than 5 mm and these materials released into the environment are not only physically small but do not decompose over time. Thus, they accumulate extensively on land, from the coast to the sea, and from the surface to the deep sea. Microplastic can be ingested and accumulated in marine life. Furthermore, the elution of chemicals added to plastic represents another risk. Microplastics accumulated in the ocean affect the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and death of marine life. However, the properties of microplastics vary widely in size, material, shape, and other aspects and toxicity tests conducted on several properties of microplastics cannot represent the hazards of all other microplastics. It is necessary to evaluate the risks according to the types of microplastic, but due to their variety and the lack of uniformity in research results, it is difficult to compare and analyze the results of previous studies. Therefore, it is necessary to derive a standard test method to estimate the biological risk from different types of microplastics. In addition, while most of the previous studies were conducted mostly on spheres for the convenience of the experiments, they do not properly reflect the reality that fibers and fragments are the main forms of microplastics in the marine environment and in fish and shellfish. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on additives and POPs (persistent organic pollutants) in plastics, but little is known about their toxic effects on the body. The effects of microplastics on the marine ecosystems and humans could be identified in more detail if standard testing methods are developed, microplastics in the form of fibers and fragments rather than spheres are tested, and additives and POPs are analyzed. These investigations will allow us to identify the impact of microplastics on marine ecosystems and humans in more detail.
Lee, Minji;Kim, Yun-Bae;Kang, Jung Hoon;Park, Chan Hong;Baek, Seung Ho
Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
To assess the characteristics of phytoplankton community structures related to environmental factors, seasonal surveys were conducted in the vicinity of Dokdo. In 2019, phytoplankton of four phyla and 69 species were observed. During winter, unidentified nanoflagellates dominated, with an average of 3.19×104 cells L-1. In spring, unidentified nanoflagellates occupied about 50% of the composition and a variety of dinoflagellates appeared. The summer phytoplankton population showed very low abundance. In autumn, various species of Chaetoceros appeared, along with diatoms, such as Bacteriastrum spp., Guinardia striata, and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. In addition, tropical species Amphisolenia sp. and Ornithocercus sp. were observed in both 2018 and 2019. The diversity was high in the summer of 2018 and the winter of 2019 and the characteristics of each index varied. Cluster analysis was divided into four groups according to species and population characteristics regardless of the season. The stratification of spring was particularly weak. In the autumn of 2018, the water mass was stabilized in the same way as in the summer, which is considered a suitable condition for phytoplankton growth. However, in 2019, the water masses were mixed, resulting in a low population. In a phytoplankton comparison, the dominant group showed seasonal differences, except for summer when the population was low, and the difference was most pronounced in autumn. Therefore, the waters surrounding Dokdo have different environmental and ecological characteristics from the East Sea, but the seasonal characteristics of each year are considered to be different depending on the topography, various currents, the island effect, and other factors.
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