• Title, Summary, Keyword: Growth

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How Does Financial Development Impact Economic Growth in Pakistan?: New Evidence from Threshold Model

  • TARIQ, Rameez;KHAN, Muhammad Arshad;RAHMAN, Abdul
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2020
  • This study examines the nonlinear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan using the threshold regression model for the period 1980-2017. We also employed quantile regression with 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 quantiles of conditional distribution. The quantile regression is based on minimizing of sum of squared residuals. The result indicates that economic growth responds positively to financial development when the level of financial development surpasses the threshold value of 0.151. However, when financial development lies below the threshold value (that is, 0.151), its impact on economic growth is negative. Thus, when financial development of Pakistan surpasses the threshold level, it contributes more towards economic growth since greater level of financial development contributes more to boosts economic growth. This finding reveals that economic growth reacts differently to financial development, and the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped in Pakistan. Among the other variables, physical capital, labor force, and government expenditure exert a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, inflation rate and trade openness have an insignificant impact on economic growth. The results of quantile regression also confirm the non-linear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan. The finding of this study suggests revamping of financial sector policies in Pakistan.

A STUDY OF THE SUTURAL FACIAL BONE GROWTH OF RABBIT : SERIAL ROENTGENOGRAPHIC STUDY BY MEANS OF MEANS OF IMPLANTS (금속매식법(金屬埋植法)에 의(依)한 가토(家兎)의 봉합성(縫合性) 안면골성장(顔面骨成長)에 관(關)한 X-선학적(線學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Won Chul
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 1979
  • The present study has the purpose of investigating various growth and developmental aspects of rabbit snout with the aid of metallic implantation and of improving on the indirect method of growth and developmental studies of its skull. Sixty-eight growing albino rabbits were used. A head holder, film holder, cephalometer, metallic implanting device and implant materials were designed and constructed by the author. Eight metallic pins were implanted with a metallic implanting device in the rabbit snout under general anesthesia. Two metallic pins were implanted on each side of the interfrontal suture and another two were put on each side of the internasal suture near the frontonasal suture. Serial cephalograms were taken with a two-week interval, using the head holder, film holder and cephalometer. Eight items of linear measurement were obtained from the film. On the base of the results of the study, the following conclusions are obtained: 1. The metallic implant method is better than the other indirect methods for growth and developmental studies of the rabbit skull. 2. Most of the vertical growth of the rabbit snout is due to sutural growth at the frontonasal suture and the horizontal growth is at the interfrontal and the internasal suture. 3. The vertical growth of the rabbit snout is greater than the horizontal growth. 4. The horizontal growth of the rabbit snout is greater at the nasal bone than at the frontal bone. 5. The amount of vertical growth of the rabbit snout is almost same at inner and outer side of the interfrontal and internasal suture line, 6. Growth rate of the sutural growth of the rabbit snout tends to decrease by the growth of the rabbit. 7. Implant materials do not disturb growth and development of the rabbit snout, except a slight trauma effect during the first week of metallic implantation.

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Effects of Herbal Composition and Fermented Cervi Pantotrichum Cornu on Longitudinal Bone Growth in Adolescent Male Rats (한약혼합제제(韓藥混合製劑)와 녹용발효추출물(鹿茸醱酵抽出物)의 성장기(成長期) 흰쥐 장골(長骨) 길이 성장(成長)에 대한 효과)

  • Lee, Se-Na;Son, Jae-Bong;Sohn, Jong-Hee;Kim, Wan-Ki;Lee, Sang-Jun;Lee, Pyeong-Jae;Leem, Kang-Hyun
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2009
  • Objectives:This study was designed to investigate the effects of herbal composition and fermented Cervi Pantotrichum Cornu on the growth of longitudinal bone in the adolescent male rats. Methods: Longitudinal bone growth was measured by fluorescence microscopy. To examine the effects on the growth plate metabolism, the total height of growth plate and the induction of local insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were measured. Results: The herbal composition treatment enhanced longitudinal bone growth and total heght of growth plate and promoted the induction of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 of growth plate. Conclusions: This study showed that the herbal composition have the effect of bone growth in adolescent rats and might be used for the growth delayed adolescent and inherent growth failure patient.

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A Comparative Study on Effects of Kyungohkgo and Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong on Growth in Growth Deficiency Rat with Insufficient Nutrition Diet (성장장애 흰쥐에서 경옥고(瓊玉膏)와 경옥고가록용(瓊玉膏加鹿茸)의 성장효과 비교 연구)

  • Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2009
  • Objectives This study was designed to evaluate the difference of between Kyungohkgo and Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong effects of growth Methods We divided male Spraque-Dawley rats into 6 groups. They were Normal group, Growth deficiency rat with insufficient nutrition diet group, Growth deficiency rat with 0.1% Kyungohkgo group, Growth deficiency rat with 0.2% Kyungohkgo group, Growth deficiency rat with 0.1% Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group and Growth deficiency rat with 0.2% Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group. They were administered for 5 weeks. We measured body weight, serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor and thyroid stimulating hormone, RBC, concentration of Hb and PCV ratio, total WBC and its composition, the values of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) activities. Results 1. In body weight, Kyungohkgo 0.1%, Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong 0.1%, 0.2% groups were showed sighnificantly different than control group. But That groups were not showed significantly different than each others. 2. In serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor and thyroid stimulating hormone, we obtained the results of tendency to increase in Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group, however these values showed no significantly different. 3. In the counts of RBC, Kyungohkgo group and Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group were showed significantly different than control group. But these values showed no significantly different. In the concentration of Hb, Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong 0.2%group was showed significantly different than control group. Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong 0.2% group and Kyungohkgo 0.2% group were showed significantly different than control group. 4. The counts of total WBC and its composition showed no significantly different in all treatment groups. 5. The values of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) activities showed no significantly different in all treatment groups. Conclusions So Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong and Kyungohkgo have an effect of promoting growth of rats. And We know that the effect of Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong is better than Kyungohkgo.

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Study on the Single Bubble Growth During Nucleate Boiling at Saturated Pool (포화상태 풀비등시 단일기포의 성장에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Jeongbae;Lee Han Choon;Oh Byung Do;Kim Moo Hwan
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.169-179
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    • 2005
  • Nucleate boiling experiments on heating surface of constant wall temperature were performed using R113 for almost saturated pool boiling conditions. A microscale heater array and Wheatstone bridge circuits were used to maintain a constant wall temperature condition of heating surface and to measure the heat flow rate with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Bubble images during the bubble growth were taken as 5000 frames per second using a high-speed CCD camera synchronized with the heat flow rate measurements. The bubble growth behavior was analyzed using the new dimensionless parameters for each growth regions to permit comparisons with previous experimental results at the same scale. We found that the new dimensionless parameters can describe the whole growth region as initial and later (thermal) respectively. The comparisons showed good agreement in the initial and thermal growth regions. In the initial growth region including surface tension controlled, transition and inertia controlled regions as divided by Robinson and Judd, the bubble growth rate showed that the bubble radius was proportional to $t^{2/3}$ regardless of working fluids and heating conditions. And in the thermal growth region as also called asymptotic region, the bubble showed a growth rate that was proportional to $t^{1/5}$, also. Those growth rates were slower than the growth rates proposed in previous analytical analyses. The required heat flow rate for the volume change of the observed bubble was estimated to be larger than the heat flow rate measured at the wall. Heat, which is different from the instantaneous heat supplied through the heating wall, can be estimated as being transferred through the interface between bubble and liquid even with saturated pool condition. This phenomenon under a saturated pool condition needs to be analyzed and the data from this study can supply the good experimental data with the precise boundary condition (constant wall temperature).

Report of Oriental Medicine growth factor (한방성장촉진제(韓方成長促進劑)에 관(關)한 임상보고서(臨床報告書))

  • Park Seung-Man
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2001
  • 1. Purpose : Clinically I have studied efficacy of herb treatment and development of herb growth palpation about handicapped children for growth. 2. Methods : 165 patients who visited hospital from January, 2000 to January 2001 3. Results : Average growth of children who visited hospital was less than 4cm but boys have grown 9.8cm/year and girls grown 7.8cm/year at average after treatment by herb. 4. Conclusion : In case of decreasing growth to have get less growth hormone, it has confirmed positive effectiveness by herb treatment even if it is normal.

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Nutritional Reguirements for Growth of Cellulomonas flavigena on cellulosic substrates (Cellulose기질에서 cellulomonas flavigena의 생장에 대한 영양요구성)

  • 한윤우
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 1978
  • Nutritional requirements for the growth of Cellulomonas flavigena were studied. C. flavigena grew well on cellulose when 0.005% or more of yeast extract was present in the growth medium. The growth factor in yeast extrct was, in part, thiamine and biotin. Amino acids had little effect on the growth on the organism. The extent of growth on yeast extract was much higher than that obtained on those vitamins, which indicates the presence of growth factors in yeast extract besides the vitamins, among the carbohydrates tested, the organism grew best on glucose and galactose, and the optimum N/P ratio was within the range of 0.75~3.17.

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A Comparison of Technological Growth Models

  • Oh, Hyun-Seung;Moon, Gee-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.51-68
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    • 1994
  • Various growth models were each fitted onto the data sets in an attempt to determine which growth models achieved the best forecasts for differing types of growth data. Of six such models studied, some models do significantly better than others in predicting future levels of growth. It is recommened that Weibull and the Gompertz growth curve be considered along with Pearl model by those industries presently considering the implementation of substitution analysis in their life analysis. In the early stage of growth, linear estimation should suffice to give reasonable forecasts. In the latter stage, however, as more data become availavle, nonlinear estimation should be used.

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A Study on the Analysis Procedures of Nonlinear Growth Curve Models (비선형 성장곡선 모형의 분석 절차에 대한 연구)

  • 황정연
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.44-55
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    • 1997
  • In order to determine procedures for a, pp.opriate model selection of technological growth curves, numerous time series that were representative of growth behavior were collected according to data characteristics. Three different growth curve models were fitted onto data sets in an attempt to determine which growth curve models achieved the best forecasts for types of growth data. The analysis of the results gives rise to an a, pp.oach for selecting a, pp.opriate growth curve models for a given set of data, prior to fitting the models, based on the characteristics of the goodness of fit test.

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A Class of Discrete Time Coverage Growth Functions for Software Reliability Engineering

  • Park, Joong-Yang;Lee, Gye-Min;Park, Jae-Heung
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 2007
  • Coverage-based NHPP SRGMs have been introduced in order to incorporate the coverage growth behavior into the NHPP SRGMs. The coverage growth function representing the coverage growth behavior during testing is thus an essential factor of the coverage-based NHPP SRGMs. This paper proposes a class of discrete time coverage growth functions and illustrates its application to real data sets.