• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gulbi

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Microbiological Changes and TBARS Values during Storage of Kochujang-Gulbi (고추장굴비의 저장성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • 신미진;강성국;김정목
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1137.1-1141
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    • 2001
  • Kochujang-gulbi, a traditional food in Chonnam province of Korea, was prepared with kochujang and dried gulbi slices. The crude lipid contents of kochujang and gulbi in the product were 3.08% and 15.6% at 0 day, respectively. After 7 days, the lipid contents were changed to 8.15% and 9.72%. The moisture content and VBN of kochujang and gulbi in the product were reached to the equilibrium after 7 days. In the kochujang-gulbi product, the TBARS value in gulbi was reduced because the lipid from gulbi permeated into kochujang, while the value in kochujang was increased. To prevent the growth of microorganisms and lipid oxidation from the kochujang-gulbi, 0.5% (w/v) garlic extract, citron essential oil, or ethanol was added to the product. The garlic extract and ethanol were very effective to inhibit the growth of mold and yeast at 2$0^{\circ}C$. The products treated with the garlic extract and citron oil were shown significantly lower microbial number than control for 30 days storage. The addition of citron oil to kochujang-gulbi showed lower TBARS value than other treatment.

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Quality Characteristics of Vacuum-Dried Gulbi Based on Temperature and Time (온도와 시간에 따른 진공건조 굴비의 품질특성)

  • Park, Hyun Su;Hyun, Myung-Taek;Lee, Ju-Hee;Kim, Dae Young;Lee, Khan;Kim, Hyun Jung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.316-324
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Gulbi is a salted and dried yellow corvenia that is popular in Korea. In this study, yellow corvenia was vacuum-dried under two different conditions, average temperatures of $48^{\circ}C$ for 12 and 15 h and $54^{\circ}C$ for 9 and 12 h. Quality characteristics of vacuum-dried Gulbi against fresh corvenia were investigated. Methods: Moisture content, water activity, salt concentration, pH, acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and fatty acid composition of Gulbi were evaluated. Results: Moisture contents of fresh corvenia and four types of vacuum-dried Gulbi were 67.37, 31.51, 13.62, 35.17, and 10.05%, respectively. The pH values were in the range of pH 6.70-6.98. The VBN values of Gulbi vacuum-dried at the higher temperature range were greater than those of Gulbi at the lower temperature range. The TBARS of Gulbi increased after vacuum drying (p<0.05). Palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were the main fatty acids of Gulbi. Conclusion: These results indicate that the quality of vacuum-dried Gulbi is dependent on the drying conditions including temperature and time.

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Gamma Irradiation on Quality and Microbiological Changes of Kochujang-Gulbi. (고추장굴비의 품질과 저장성에 미치는 초고압처리와 감마선 조사 효과)

  • Kang, Seong-Gook;Park, Nan-Hee;Ko, Do-Ock;Li, Jing-Lei;Kim, Bo-Sub;Park, Yang-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2011
  • Kochujang-gulbi, a Korean traditional food, was prepared with kochujang and freeze-dried gulbi slices. Kochujang-gulbi was treated with high hydrostatic pressure (200, 400 and 600 MPa) and gamma-irradiation (7, 10, 20 and 30 KGy) to improve its quality and shelf-life. The pH of high hydrostatic pressure and gamma-irradiation treated kochujang-gulbi samples did not significantly different compared to that of control. However, Hunter L value slightly increased, and Hunter a and b values decreased by high hydrostatic pressure and gamma-irradiation treatment. During storage, the pH and color of high hydrostatic pressure and gamma-irradiation treated kochujang-gulbi samples did not significantly changed. The VBN and TBA level decreased by the increase treatment of high hydrostatic pressure and then slowely increased during storage. The VBN and TBA level of kochujang-gulbi samples treated by the strong gamma ray emission slowely increased during storage. In particular, gamma-irradiation treatment was very effective to sterilize microorganisms when compared to that of high hydrostatic pressure in kochujang-gulbi products. In addition, the high hydrostatic pressure and gamma-irradiation treated kochujang-gulbi samples shown significantly lower total viable cell number than control for the 20 days of storage at room temperature with retort pouch packaging.

The Formation of N-nitrosamine in yellow Corvenia During its Processing (굴비 가공중 N-nitrosamine의 생성)

  • 성낙주;이수정;정미자
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 1997
  • Gulbi, salted and dried yellow corvenia, is a favorite diet food in Korea from the ancient times. A Few studies have dealt with sanitary concerns related to its products, while a number of investigators studied its taste compounds. This study attemps to establish the basic data for ensuring the safety of Gulbi. The contents of nitrate and nitrite were detected 1.2 and <0.1 mg/kg in raw sample, but their contents were detected 3.6~3.9 and 1.2~2.0 mg/kg during its processing and storage of Gulbi, respectively. TMAO contents decreased while betaine, TMA, DMA and formaldehyde increased in yellow corvenia during its processing and storage. Recovery from raw, salted, salt-dried and stored sample spiked with 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg for NDBA was 83.2~102.7% average 92.7%). N-nitrosamine such as NDMA, NDEA and NDPA was not detected in raw sample and drastically increased during Gulbi processing and storage. The levels of NDMA, NDEA and NDPA in Gulbi stored for 30 days were about 2.7,4.5 and 5.3 times higher than those in salted sample, respectively. Regardless of cooking methods, NDMA, NDEA and NDPA during cooking when sample were cooked using direct heating methods such as a gas and a briquet fire than when sample were cooked using indirect methods such as an microwave oven and a fried pan. Indirect cooking methods was effective to minimize the N-nitrosamine formation such as NDMA, NDEA and NDPA during cooking of Gulbi.

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The Effect of Processing Conditions of the Salted and Dried Yellow Corvenia(Gulbi) on n-Nitrosamine(NA) Formation during Its Processing 1. Changes of Amines, Nitrate and Nitrite in the Salted and Dried Yellow Corvenia during Its Processing and Storage (염건조기(굴비)의 가공조건이 n-Nitrosamine(NA)의 생성에 미치는 영향 -1보. 염건조기의 가공.저장중 아민류, 질산염 및 아질산업의 변화-)

  • 이수정;신정혜;김정균;성낙주
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.444-451
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    • 1998
  • The changes of amine, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen in yellow corvenia were studied during its processing and storage in order to clarify the precursors of N-nitrosamine(NA) formation in the salted and dried yellow corvenia(Gulbi), prepared y using the different salting method like dry and brine salting by pure and curde salt. As a result, during the processing and storage of Gulbi, DMA and TMA contents were significantly increased in the yellow corvenia. And after 40 days storage the increase rate showed 25.7∼45.7, 3.3∼5.6 times higher than those of 0.3, 2.4mg/kg, respectively, while nitrite contents, during its processing and storage, were scarcely changed in the salted and dried yellow corvenia. During the processing and storage, of Gulbi, DMA and TMA contents were less produced in brine salted and dried yellow corvenia using crude salt than in sample prepared using were scarcely changed in the salted and dried yellow corvenia. During the processing and storage of Gulbi, DMA and TMA contents were less produced in brine salted and dried yellow corvenia using crude salt than in sample prepared using pure salt, while the former were more effective than the latter in inhibiting the production of nitrate and nitrite. Therefore, it was revealed that reduction of NA precursors such as DMA, TMA, nitrate and nitrite were more effective in preparing with the brine salting method than with the dry salting method.

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Changes in Amines, Formaldehydes and Fat Distribution during Gulbi Processing (굴비 제조중 아민류, 포름알데하이드 및 지방분포의 변화)

  • Min, Ok-Rae;Shin, Mal-Shick;Jhon, Deok-Young;Hong, Youn-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 1988
  • Gulbis were made of raw Pseudosciaena manchurica by different salting methods and drying conditions. During the Gulbi processing, the contents of trimethylamine(TMA), dimethylamine(DMA) and formaldehyde(FA) were chemically analyzed and the distribution of fat was microscopically observed. The contents of TMA, DMA and FA in raw sample were 0.9mg, 3.19mg and 0.19mg per 100g, respectively. The TMA contents in Gulbi were rapidly increased to 24.82-76.32mg during drying, while the DMA contents in Gulbi were slowly increased and FA contents in Gulbi remained nearly unchanged. These changes were not influenced by the kinds of salt and salting methods. The formation rates of TMA and DMA were twice faster dried by the controlled condition than the natural condition. The fat in muscle moved to the skin layer through connective tissue with the laps of drying time. The extent of fat shifting was smaller salted by purified salt than by bay salt. The muscle tissue of Gulbi dried by the controlled condition had clearer spaces between white muscles than that of the natural condition. The muscle tissue of Gulbi salted with purified salt exsisted orderly, while the sample salted with bay salt was clumped.

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The Changes of Malonaldehyde and Fatty Acids Composition of Yellow Corvenia during Gulbi Processing and Storage (굴비의 가공.저장 중 Malonaldehyde 함량 및 지방산 조성 변화)

  • Shin, Jung-Hye;Kwon, O-Chen;Kang, Min-Jung;Choi, Sun-Young;Lee, Soo-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.374-380
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    • 2006
  • For the improvement of Gulbi processing, yellow corvenia was salted by 2 different time (5 hours, low salted and 5 days, high salted) and then dried in the sun and stored for 5 and 21 days, respectively. Malonaldehyde contents and fatty acid composition were analyzed during Gulbi processing. The moisture contents of yellow corvenia were significantly decreased during processing procedure. The salt contents were 10 folds higher in 5 day-salted sample than in 5 hour-salted one. The salt contents showed reversed tendency to moisture contents. There was little change in pH during storage. The contents of malonaldehyde in yellow corvenia were increased during Gulbi processing and storage. Its contents were higher in 5 day-salted sample and exterior parts than 5 hour-salted sample and interior parts of Gulbi. The fatty acids composition showed higher oleic acid $(C_{18:1})$, palmitic acid $(C_{16:0})$ and docosahexaenoic acid $(C_{22:6})$ than any other fatty acids in Gulbi. Saturated fatty acids were increased but unsaturated fatty acids were decreased during Gulbi processing. After 21 days storage, unsaturated fatty acids remaining ratio in 5 hour-and 5 day-salted sample were 1.39 and 0.99 respectively. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids were dramatically changed as salt concentration increased during storage than in processing.

Effect of Garlic and Onion Juice on Fatty Acid Compositions and Lipid Oxidation in Gulbi (salted and semi-dried Yellow croaker) (굴비의 지방산 조성과 지방산화에 마늘과 양파즙이 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Mee-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Mok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1337-1342
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    • 2004
  • To improve the quality of Gulbi, 10% garlic juice (GJ), 10% onion juice (OJ), and 10% garlic and onion juice mixture (GOJ) were added to the brine solution as a wet-salting method. The changes of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and trimethyl amine (TMA) production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, and total microbial numbers in Gulbi were analyzed during storage at room temperature for 12 days. The group treated with 10% GOJ showed the lowest values of 88.2 mg/l00 g in TVB-N, 14.13 mg/l00 g in TMA, and 3.1 $\mu$mol/kg in TBARS. The fatty acid profile of Gulbi was analyzed on 5, 15, and 30 days to investigate the effect of GOJ treatment. The group treated with GOJ showed higher C22:6 (9.91%) and C20:5 (4.25%) contents than control (7.37% and 3.71%, respectively), but had lower C18:1 (24.44%) content. The saturated fatty acid content in Gulbi was 32∼35% and the C16:0 (21∼23%) was predominant in it. Oleic acid was major unsaturated fatty acid in Gulbi. The contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:3, C20:5, C22:6) were decreased after 30 days but increased the saturated fatty acid (C16:0) and monoenes (C16:1 and C18:1). The Gulbi treated with GOJ by brine salting method showed higher DHA and EPA (9.91% and 4.25%, respectively) contents than the control group.

Changes in Free Amino Acids of Yellow Corvenia, Pseudosciaena manchurica, during Gulbi Processing (굴비 가공(加工)중의 유리아미노산의 변화)

  • Lee, Eung-Ho;Sung, Nak-Ju;Ha, Jin-Hwan;Chung, Seung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 1976
  • Gulbi, salted and dried yellow corvenia, is one of widely consuming fish foods in this country. This study was attempted to establish the basic data for evaluating the taste compounds of Gulbi. The free amino acids were analysed by amino acid autoanalyser. In the free amino acid composition of raw yellow corvenia, abundant amino acids were glutamic acid, alanine and lysine and then leucine, glycine, serine and threonine in order. Such amino acids like proline, valine, methionine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were poor in content. The changes of free amino acid composition in the extract of yellow corvenia during Gulbi processing was not observed. In the extract of Gulbi product, glutamic acid, lysine, leucine, alanine and valine were dominant holding 20.0%, 12.9%, 11.1%, 10.1% and 8.5% of total amino acids respectively. The amounts of total free amino acids of yellow corvenia increased more than 3.6 times as compared with that of raw sample during Gulbi processing. It is convinced that the characteristic flavor of Gulbi was attributed to such amino acids like lysine and alanine known as kweet compounds, as glutamic acid with meaty taste, and as leucine known as bitter taste.

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The Effect of Processing Condition of the Salted and Dried Yellow Corvenia (Gulbi) on n-Nitrosamine(NA) Formation during Its Processing 2. Changes of NA in Salted and Dried Yellow Corvenia during Its Processing and Storage (염건조기(굴비)의 가공조건이 n-Nitrosamine(NA)의 생성에 미치는 영향 -2보. 염건조기의 가공 및 저장중 NA의 변화-)

  • 이수정;신정혜;소명환;성낙주
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.452-459
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    • 1998
  • In 7 kinds of Gulbi purchansed from Yosu, Sunchon and Chinju, N-nitrosamine (NA) such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodipropylamine(NDPA), were detected and their content was 2.8∼78.3$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, trace and 0∼1.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, respectively. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of processing conditions on NA formation in the salted and dried yellow corvenia(Guibi), prepared by using the different salting method like dry and brine salting by pure and crude salt. NDMA, NDEA and NDPA were not detected in raw sample, but NDMA content increased in yellow corvenia during its salting (27.6∼37.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg), and then drastically decreased in Gulbi stored for 40 days, ranging from 2.8 to 4.3$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. Content of above NA was inhibited more effectively in the samples prepare with brine salting method than with the dry salting method during its processing and storage. Especially, NA in the sample prepared with brine salted and dried yellow corvenia using the pure salt was detected in the lower concentrations, and that of NDMA, NDEA and NDPA was 2.8∼27.6, trance and ND-2.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, respectively.

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