• Title, Summary, Keyword: H3 subtype

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Sero-prevalence against a H3 subtype isolate of swine influenza virus (돼지인플루엔자바이러스 A형 H3 국내 분리주에 대한 혈청학적 역학조사)

  • Kim, Jong-Rhan;Rhie, Jay-Young;Song, Dae-Sub;Oh, Jin-Sik;Park, Bong-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.523-529
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    • 2002
  • A Total of 703 swine sera from 55 swine farrns (Mar. 1998 through Feb. 2001) were nation-wide collected for the presence of the antibody to influenza A virus H3 subtype isolate. The presence of antibody was tested by hernagglutination inhibition with chicken red blood cells and seropositiveness was determined by HI titer ${\geq}1$: 40. Sero-prevalence was evaluated based on year, season, region and age, respectively. In consequence, there were seme differences by year, season and region, respectively. High susceptibility was routinely observed in 60 and 90 day-old piglets. Therefore, it seems that the sero-prevalence to swine influenza virus H3 subtype isolate is useful for the prevention and control of swine influenza in Korea.

Genetic Characterization of H7-subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (H7 아형 조류인플루엔자 바이러스의 유전자 특성)

  • Yeo, Jiin;Kwon, Hyuk-Moo;Sung, Haan-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.173-183
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    • 2019
  • Based on their virulence, the avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are classified into two pathotypes: low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Among the 16 HA subtypes of AIV, only the H5 and H7 subtypes are classified as HPAI. Some AIVs, including H5 and H7 viruses, can infect humans directly. Six H7 subtype isolates from wild birds of the H7N7 (n=4) and H7N1 (n=2) subtypes were characterized in this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that eight viral genes (HA, NA, PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) of the H7 isolates clustered in the Eurasian lineage, the genetic diversity of which is indicated by its division into several sublineages. The Korean H7 isolates had two motifs, PEIPKGR and PELPKGR, at the HA cleavage site, which have been associated with LPAI viruses. Six H7 isolates encoded glutamine (Q) and glycine (G) at positions 226 (H3 numbering) and 228 of HA, suggesting avian-type receptor-binding specificity. None of the Korean H7 isolates had the amino acid substitutions E627K in PB2 and I368V in PB1, which are critical for efficient replication in human cells. The Korean H7 isolates showed no deletions in the NA stalk region and in NS. These results suggest that the Korean H7 isolates from wild birds are different from the H7N9 influenza viruses isolated in China in 2013, which are capable of infecting humans.

Binding Profiles of Oxomemazine to the Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes (Oxomemazine의 Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes에 대한 결합성질)

  • Lee, Shin-Woong;Kim, Jeung-Gu
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 1994
  • The binding properties of oxomemazine to muscarinic receptors using the ability of oxomemazine to inhibit $[^3H]QNB$ binding in membrane fractions of rat cerebrum and guinea pig ventricle and ileum were investigated. $[^3H]QNB$ bound to a single class of muscarinic receptors with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 pM in three tissue preparations. Pirenzepine and oxomemazine inhibited $[^3H]QNB$ binding in cerebrum with a Hill coefficient lower than unity, and the inhibition data were best described by a two-site model. The relative densities of the high $(M_1)\;and\;low\;(M_2)$ affinity sites for pirenzepine were 60 and 40%, with corresponding Ki values of 16 and 431 nM, and those $(O_H\;and\;O_L)$ for oxomemazine 40 and 60%, with corresponding Ki values of 80 and 1350 nM. However, the inhibition data of both drugs vs $[^3H]QNB$ in ventricle and ileum appeared to obey the law of mass-action (Hill coefficient close to 1). The apparent Ki values of pirenzepine were 850 and 250 nM, and those of oxomemazine 1460 and 570 nM in ventricle and ileum, respectively. Thus, oxomemazine like pirenzepine has high affinity for cerebrum, moderate affinity for ileum and low affinity for ventricle. These results suggest that oxomemazine could recognize the muscarinic receptor subtypes with a high affinity for the $M_1$ sites.

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Direct Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Nested PCR Detection of Influenza Viruses Without RNA Purification

  • Song, Man-Ki;Chang, Jun;Hong, Yeong-Jin;Hong, Sung-Hoi;Kim, Suhng-Wook
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1470-1474
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    • 2009
  • This paper describes the development a of direct multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, devised for simultaneous detection and typing of influenza viruses. This method combines the direct reverse transcription reaction without RNA purification with the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR. The method successfully detected three major human influenza viruses: influenza virus A subtype 1 (H1N1) and subtype 3 (H3N2), and influenza B virus (B). The minimum number of virus particles (pfu/ml) necessary for detection in spiked saliva samples was 200 (H1N1), 140 (H3N2), and 4.5 (B). The method's sensitivity and simplicity will be convenient for use in clinical laboratories for the detection and subtyping of influenza and possibly other RNA viruses.

Estimating Influenza-associated Mortality in Korea: The 2009-2016 Seasons

  • Hong, Kwan;Sohn, Sangho;Chun, Byung Chul
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.308-315
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Estimating influenza-associated mortality is important since seasonal influenza affects persons of all ages, causing severe illness or death. This study aimed to estimate influenza-associated mortality, considering both periodic changes and age-specific mortality by influenza subtypes. Methods: Using the Microdata Integrated Service from Statistics Korea, we collected weekly mortality data including cause of death. Laboratory surveillance data of respiratory viruses from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After adjusting for the annual age-specific population size, we used a negative binomial regression model by age group and influenza subtype. Results: Overall, 1 859 890 deaths were observed and the average rate of influenza virus positivity was 14.7% (standard deviation [SD], 5.8), with the following subtype distribution: A(H1N1), 5.0% (SD, 5.8); A(H3N2), 4.4% (SD, 3.4); and B, 5.3% (SD, 3.7). As a result, among individuals under 65 years old, 6774 (0.51%) all-cause deaths, 2521 (3.05%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 1048 (18.23%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Among those 65 years of age or older, 30 414 (2.27%) all-cause deaths, 16 411 (3.42%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 4906 (6.87%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the major contributor to influenza-associated all-cause and respiratory or circulatory deaths in both age groups. However, influenza A(H1N1) virus-associated influenza or pneumonia deaths were more common in those under 65 years old. Conclusions: Influenza-associated mortality was substantial during this period, especially in the elderly. By subtype, influenza A(H3N2) virus made the largest contribution to influenza-associated mortality.

Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of V3 Region of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Strains Isolated from Korean Patients (한국인 인면역결핍 바이러스의 V3 Loop 염기서열 분석 및 계통발생학적 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Bong;Cho, Young-Keol;Lee, Hee-Jung;Chung, Koo-Hun;Kim, Jung-Woo;Kim, Yoo-Kyum;Yang, Jai-Myung
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 1996
  • The V3 loop, a hypervariable domain of envelope glycoprotein, has an essential role in viral infectivity and has a major epitope for type-specific neutralizing antibody. In order to investigate genetic diversity of V3 region of gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolated from Korean patients, DNA sequences encoding the C2 to V3 region were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 HIV-1 seropositive patients and nucleotide sequences were determined. All nucleotide sequences from fifteen patients were compared with 8 distinctive subtypes (A-H) and another subtype O. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with PHYLIP ver 3.5 (Dnapars) program. Of the 15 isolates, 14 HIV-1 subjects were clustered with subtype B, while one was clustered with subtype C. Intra-subtype B distance at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level were maximum 17.7% and 37.0%, respectively. Intra-patient distance at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level were maximum 7.3% and 17.8%, respectively. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed that Korean types have relatively well conserved sequences. These findings could be useful for assessing the source of infection and developing an AIDS vaccine.

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The cephalometric study of skeletal types in Cl III malocclusion with reduced lower anterior face height (전하안면 고경이 작은 III급 부정교합자의 골격유형에 관한 두부방사선 계측학적 연구)

  • Han, Dong-Hun;Cha, Kyung-Suk
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.205-218
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    • 1996
  • A given facial type can be considered as a syndrome in which various features are aggregated, so a single parameter is not sufficient to accurately identify a given facial type. This study was designed to identify & characterize the skeletal types that blend under the headline-'Cl III,deepbite'. Cephalograms of thirty-four untreated mixed dentition patients, selected mainly on the basis of clinical impression of Cl III with reduced lower face heights were studied. The following conclusion can be drawn. 1. Cl III malocclusion with reduced lower face height could be classified into three types. 2. Subtype 1 was identified by the following features : strong ramus, more anteriorly positioned upper molars without alveolar hypoplasia, acutely reduced Mn. plane angle. 3. Subtype 2 was characterized by a short ramus, sharply reduced postrior alveolar height, and normal Mn. plane angle. In general, this type had hypoplasia tendency in the vertical dimension. 4. In subtype 3, the AUFH occupying more percentage than ALFH was a outstanding feature. Ramal height was in normal range, alveolar hypoplasia and slightly reduced Mn. plane angle was observed. 5. The features of the subtypes were reflected in certain indices, which can be regarded as discriminative index. LAFH: if reduced, regardless of subtypes, indicates reduced lower ant. face height consistently. FHR: when this ratio is increased, it indicates subtype 1. FHI: when this ratio is in normal range, it indicates subtype 2. FPI: if reduced greatly, it indicates subtype 3.

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Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against an avian influenza virus (H9N2)

  • Lim, Yong Hwan;Phan, Le Van;Mo, In-Pil;Koo, Bon-Sang;Choi, Young-Ki;Lee, Seung-Chul;Kang, Shien-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 2017
  • In this report, fifteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an avian influenza virus (H9N2 subtype) were newly produced and characterized. These MAbs proved to react to the epitopes of nucleocapsid protein (NP), hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of Korean H9N2 strain, respectively. Two HA-specific MAbs showed the ability to inhibit the hemagglutination activity of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus when tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. All MAbs did not cross-react with other avian-origin viruses (Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus and avian rotavirus) by immunofluorescence test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs produced in this study could be useful as the materials for diagnostics and therapeutics against Korean-lineage H9N2 virus infections.

Development of Ultra-rapid Multiplex Real-time PCR for the Detection of Genes from Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 (조류인플루엔자 H5N1 바이러스 유전자의 신속 검출을 위한 초고속 다중 실시간 PCR법의 개발)

  • Kim, Eul-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Woo;Han, Sang-Hoon;Lim, Yoon-Kyu;Yoon, Byoung-Su
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 2007
  • Cause of high lethality and dissemination to human being, new development of rapid method for the detection of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is still necessary. For the detection of AIV subtype H5N1, typical pathogenic AIV, new method to confirm sub-typing of this virus is also needed. For the purpose of ultra-rapid detection and sub-typing of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of AIV, this study was planned. As the results we could demonstrate an ultra-rapid multiplex real-time PCR (URMRT PCR) for the detection of AIV In this study, the URMRT PCR were optimized with synthesized AIV H5- and AIV Nl-specific DNA templates and GenSpector TMC, which is a semiconductor process technology based real-time PCR system with high frequencies of temperature monitoring. Under eight minutes, the amplifications of two AIV subtype-specific PCR products were successfully and independently detected by 30 cycled ultra-rapid PCR, including melting point analysis, from $1{\times}10^3$ copies of mixed template DNA. The URMRT PCR for the detection of AIV H5N 1 developed in this study could be expected to apply not only detections of different AIVs, but also various pathogens. It was also discussed that this kind of the fastest PCR based detection method could be improved by advance of related technology in near future.

Rapid Detection Method of Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 using Quick Real-Time PCR (Quick Real-time PCR을 이용한 Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H5N1의 신속검출법)

  • Kim, Eul-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Woo;Han, Sang-Hoon;Kwon, Soon-Hwan;Yoon, Byoung-Su
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2007
  • The most rapid Real-time PCR based detection method for Avian influenza A virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 was developed. The target DNA sequence in this study was deduced from H5N1 subtype-specific 387 bp partial gene of hemagglutinin, and was synthesized by using PCR-based gene synthesis on the ground of safety. Real-Time PCR was performed by $GenSpector^{TM}$ using microchip-based, total $1{\mu}l$ of reaction mixture with extremely short time in each steps in PCR. The detection including PCR-amplication and analysis of melting temperature was totally completed within 13 min. The H5N1-specific 189 bp PCR product was correctly amplified until 2.4 molecules of hemagglutinin gene as minimum of templates. This kind of PCR was designated as Quick Real-Time PCR in this study and it could be applied to detect not only AIV H5N1, but also other pathogens using PCR-based detection.