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Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells via $G_0/G_1$ phase arrest and induction of differentiation

  • Cho, Seoung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2006
  • 1 The present work was performed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on proliferation, cell cycle-regulation and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms for these effects. 2 Ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in both a dose- and time-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$, $20{\mu}M$. 3 DNA flow-cytometry indicated that ginsenoside Rh2 markedly induced a $G_1$ phase arrest of HL-60 cells. 4 Among the $G_1$ phase cell cycle-related proteins, the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)4, 6 and cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 were reduced by ginsenoside Rh2, whereas the steadystate levels of CDK2 and cyclin E were unaffected. 5 The protein levels of a CDK inhibitor p16, $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ were markedly increased by ginsenoside Rh2. 6 Ginsenoside Rh2 markedly enhanced the binding of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ with CDK2 and CDK6, resulting in the reduced activity of both kinases and the hypophosphorylation of Rb protein. 7 We furthermore suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 is a potent inducer of the differentiation of HL-60 cells, based on observations such as a reduction of the nitroblue tetrazolium level, an increase in the esterase activities and phagocytic activity, morphology changes, and the expression of CD11b, CD14, CD64 and CD66b surface antigens. 8 In conclusion, the onset of ginsenoside Rh2-induced the $G_0/G_1$ arrest of HL-60 cells prior to the differentiation is linked to a sharp up-regulation of the $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ level and a decrease in the CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. This is the first report demonstrating that ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibits the proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells via the $G_1$ phase cell cycle arrest and differentiation induction.

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Cytotoxic Effects of Methanol Extract and Fractions from Echinacea angustifolia on Cancer Cells (암세포에 대한 Echinacea angustifolia 순차 용매 추출물의 세포독성 효과)

  • Lee, Joon-Kyoung;Koo, Sung-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2002
  • Echinacea is a North American native medicinal herb used traditionally for wounds, burns, snake or insect bites, colds, infections, and inflammation by indigenous Americans. We investigated the effects of the root and stem of fresh Korean-grown Echinacea angustifolia methanol extracts and fractionation extracts on the cytotoxicity against cancer cells (HL60, 3LL). The extracts were prepared by step-wise fractionation of methanol extracts of Echinacea angustifolia using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, buthanol, and water. From the tests, root and stem parts of Echinacea showed the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. The cytotoxie rate of the ethyl acetate fraction of the root parts showed 79% against HL60 cells at low concentration (0.125 mg/mL), and hexane fraction of the root and stem parts gradually increased as the concentration of samples increased, and the root parts showed 82% at 1.0 mg/mL concentration against HL60 cells, chloroform fraction of the root part showed 78.4% against HL60 cells and 68.4% on 3LL cells at 1.0 mg/mL concentration, water and butanol fraction of these results, it is considered that ethyl acetate fraction of the root and stem parts showed 60.1% to 77.1% against HL60 cells, after testing by MTT assay system. From these results, it is considered that ethyl acetate fraction of the Echinacea angustifolia root parts has stronger anticancer effects than any other fractions in vitro.

Inhibitory Effect of Carbamylated Staphylococcal Enterotoxins B on Inflammatory Response in HL-60 Cells

  • Chang, Jeong Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2014
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is bacterial toxin that induces the activation of immune cells. Because the inhibition of pro-inflammatory effect of SEB can resolve the inflammation, I determined the influence of functional or structural change of SEB on immune cells. The post translational modification of protein occurs through carbamylation. Carbamylation can change the structure of proteins and can modify the biological activity of protein. In the present study, I investigated the effect of carbamylated SEB (CSEB) on the inflammatory response mediated by LPS in HL-60 cells. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of CSEB, I produced carbamylated SEB using potassium cyanate (KCN) and then examined whether CSEB involved in cytokine releases and apoptosis of LPS-stimulated HL-60 cells. Although CSEB had not any effect on the LPS-stimulated HL-60 cells, the protein levels of IL-8, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ were significantly decreased by CSEB without cytotoxicity. CSEB also blocked Akt and NF-${\kappa}B$ activation. These results indicate that the suppressive effect of CSEB in LPS-stimulated cytokine releases is occurred by inhibition of Akt and NF-${\kappa}B$ activity. Through further studies, CSEB may be used as anti-inflammatory molecule that makes the immune system more efficient.

Effects of Inhibitors on the Function and Activity of Topoisomerase, and Gene Expression in HL-60 Human Leukemia Cells (HL-60 세포의 유전자 발현 및 topoisomerase의 기능 활성에 미치는 억제제의 영향)

  • Jeong, In-Cheol;Cho, Moo-Youn;Park, Jang-Su
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2008
  • This studies were designed to elucidate whether inhibitors of topoisomerase regulate function and activity of topoisomerase, and gene expression in HL-60 human leukemia cells. HL-60 cells were treated with 10-hydroxycamptothecin or doxorubicin, total RNA was isolated, and expressed genes were investigated with human oligonucleotide microarray containing 10K gene, respectively. Expression profiles of the human leukemia HL-60 cells treated with 10-hydroxycamptothecin (10-CIT) or doxorubicin associated with signal transduction,. cell adhesion, cell cycle, cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, transcription and immune response, especially genes related with transcription and cell growth. In HL-60 cells treated with 10-CPT, the expression of topoisomerase III${\alpha}$, III${\beta}$ and I gene from oligo chip microarray analysis were increased over, but the expression of topoisomerase II${\alpha}$ and II${\beta}$ gene were decreased over. In contrast, the expression of topoisomerase II${\alpha}$ and II${\beta}$ gene were increased over in HL-60 cells treated with doxorubicin, whereas the expression of topoisomerase III${\alpha}$ and III${\beta}$ mRNA remained no significant change. These results suggest that these data may be useful for novel therapeutic markers.

CDST, a Derivative of Tetrahydroisoquinoline, Induced Apoptosis in HL-60 Cells through Activation of Caspase-8, Bid Cleavage and Cytochrome c Release

  • Ju, Sung-Min;Kim, Kun-Jung;Lee, Jong-Gil;Lee, Chai-Ho;Han, Dong-Min;Yun, Young-Gab;Hong, Gi-Yun;An, Won-Gun;Jeon, Byung-Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.802-810
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    • 2005
  • The tetrahydroisoquinolines included potent cytotoxic agents that showed antitumor activity,antimicrobial activity, and other biological properties. We studied the effect of CDST, 1-Chloromethyl-6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-sulfonic acid amide, a newly synthesized anti-cancer agent. The cytotoxic activity of CDST in HL-60 cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner. CDST, tetrahydroisoquinolines derivative, was cytotoxic to HL-60 cells, with IC50 of $80{\mu}g/ml$. Treatment of CDST to HL-60 cells showed the fragmentation of DNA in a dose- and time dependent manner, suggesting that thesecells underwent apoptosis. Treatment of HL-60 cells with CDST was induced in a dose- and time-dependent activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In caspase activity assay, caspase-3 and -8 was activated after 12 h and 6 h posttreatment, respectively. CDST also caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. CDST-induced cytochrome c release was mediated by caspase-8-dependent cleavage of Bid and Bax translocation. These results suggest that caspase-8 induced Bid cleavage and Bax translocation, caused mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and induce caspase-3 activationduring CDST-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

Eudesmols Induce Apoptosis through Release of Cytochrome c in HL-60 Cells

  • Hoang, Duc Manh;Trung, Trinh Nam;He, Long;Ha, Do Thi;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Kim, Bo-Yeon;Luong, Hoang Van;Ahn, Jong-Seog;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 2010
  • We verified that the apoptosis activities were examined by DNA fragmentation, flow cytometric analysis with annexin V staining, activation of caspase-3, and cytochrome c release. In the result, $\alpha$- and $\beta$-eudesmol induced DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells at a concentration of $80\;{\mu}M$, respectively. Additionally, pro-apoptotic cells sorted by flow cytometry analysis were detected in HL-60 cells to 31.77 and 29.67% with $\acute{a}$- and $\beta$-eudesmol of $80\;{\mu}M$. Thus, both $\alpha$- and $\beta$-eudesmol exerted caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release at $80\;{\mu}M$ in HL-60 cells. These results are firstly reported that the sesquiterpenes, $\alpha$- and $\beta$-eudesmol are apoptosis inducers through mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade in HL-60 cells.

Mechanism of Apoptotic Cell Death by 2,4,3',5'-Tetramethoxystilbene in Human Promyelocytic Leukemic HL-60 Cells

  • Lee, Sang-Kwang;Chae, Ah-Reum;Chun, Young-Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.145-149
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    • 2007
  • We have previously shown that 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS), a synthetic trans-stilbene analogue acting as a potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1B1, induces apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells. In the present studies, we report the mechanisms of apoptotic cell death by TMS in human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. We found that treatment of HL-60 cells with TMS suppressed the cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner with $IC_{50}$ value of about 0.8 ${\mu}M$. Immunoblot experiments revealed that DMHS-induced apoptosis was associated with cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol was significantly increased in response to TMS. TMS caused activation of caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner and TMS-mediated caspase-3 activation was partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk. Interestingly, we found that the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, or etoposide was enhanced in the presence of TMS. Simultaneous treatment with TCDD also significantly increased cytotoxic effects of TMS alone or TMS and anti-cancer agents. Taken together, our present results indicated that TMS leads to apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells through activation of caspase-3 activity and release of cytochrome c into cytosol. The ability of TMS to increase cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs may contribute to its usefulness for cancer chemotherapy.

Ginseng radix induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells and its mechanism as little relation with TNF-α production

  • Koo, Hyun-Na;Shin, Soon-Shik;Park, Jin-Han;Kim, Na-Hyung;Hong, Seung-Heon;Kim, Hyung-Min
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2004
  • Ginseng radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a medicinal plant used world-widely and has been reported to have various biological effects. To investigate the effects of Ginseng radix on HL-60 cell apoptosis, MTT assay, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry were performed on HL-60 cells. Cells were treated with Ginseng radix at different concentrations $(10^{-4},\;10^{-3}\;and\;10^{-2};\;dilution\;rate)$. Ginseng radix significantly induced cells apoptosis with a time- and dose-dependent manner. To determine whether Ginseng radix-induced apoptosis is due to increase of tumor necrosis factor $(TNF-{\alpha})$ secretion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on HL-60 cells. Unexpectedly, Ginseng radix $(96\;{\pm}\;5\;pg/ml)$ significantly decreased the $TNF-{\alpha}$ secretion compared with control $(174\;{\pm}\;14\;pg/ml)$. Furthermore, Ginseng radix with $rIFN-{\gamma}$ synergistically increased nitric oxide production in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, our data indicate that Ginseng radix induce apoptosis on HL-60 cells without increase of $TNF-{\alpha}$ secretion and could be used for a supplementary remedy of cancer.

Apoptosis Induction in Human Leukemic Promyelocytic HL-60 and Monocytic U937 Cell Lines by Goniothalamin

  • Petsophonsakul, Ploingarm;Pompimon, Wilart;Banjerdpongchai, Ratana
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2885-2889
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    • 2013
  • Goniothalamin is an active compound extracted from Goniothalamus griffithii, a local plant found in northern Thailand. Goniothalamin inhibits cancer cell growth but is also toxic to normal cells. The aims of this study were to identify the cytotoxic effect of goniothalamin and the mechanism of cell death in human HL-60 and U937 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle profiles were demonstrated by staining with propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was confirmed by staining with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry. Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry and expression of Smac, caspase-8 and -9 was demonstrated by Western blotting. Goniothalamin inhibited growth of HL-60 and U937 cell lines. An increase of SubG1 phase was found in their cell cycle profiles, indicating apoptosis as the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was confirmed by the flip-flop of phosphatidylserine using annexin V-FITC/PI assay in HL60 and U937 cells in a dose response manner. Furthermore, reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was found in both cell types while expression of caspase-8, -9 and Smac/Diablo was increased in HL-60 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that goniothalamin-treated human leukemic cells undergo apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

Functional Gene Analysis to Identify Potential Markers Induced by Benzene in Two Different Cell Lines, HepG2 and HL-60

  • Kim, Youn-Jung;Song, Mi-Kyung;Sarma, Sailendra Nath;Choi, Han-Saem;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2008
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common constituents of cleaning and degreasing agents, paints, pesticides, personal care products, gasoline and solvents. And VOCs are evaporated at room temperature and most of them exhibit acute and chronic toxicity to human. Benzene is the most widely used prototypical VOC and the toxic mechanisms of them are still unclear. The multi-step process of toxic mechanism can be more fully understood by characterizing gene expression changes induced in cells by toxicants. In this study, DNA microarray was used to monitor the expression levels of genes in HepG2 cells and HL-60 cells exposed to the benzene on IC20 and IC50 dose respectively. In the clustering analysis of gene expression profiles, although clusters of HepG2 and HL-60 cells by benzene were divided differently, expression pattern of many genes observed similarly. We identified 916 up-regulated genes and 1,144 down-regulated genes in HepG2 cells and also 1,002 up-regulated genes and 919 down-regulated genes in HL-60 cells. The gene ontology analysis on genes expressed by benzene in HepG2 and HL-60 cells, respectively, was performed. Thus, we found some principal pathways, such as, focal adhesion, gap junction and signaling pathway in HepG2 cells and toll-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction in HL-60 cells. And we also found 16 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated commonly expressed total 30 genes that belong in the same biological process like inflammatory response, cell cycle arrest, cell migration, transmission of nerve impulse and cell motility in two cell lines. In conclusion, we suggest that this study is meaningful because these genes regarded as strong potential biomarkers of benzene independent of cell type.