• Title, Summary, Keyword: HLB value

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Effects of HLB value on oil-in-water emulsions: Droplet size, rheological behavior, zeta-potential, and creaming index

  • Hong, In Kwon;Kim, Su In;Lee, Seung Bum
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.67
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2018
  • Using mixed nonionic surfactants Span/Tween, we investigated the effects of HLB value on the O/W emulsion stability and rheological behaviors. In this study, MS-01 (Span 60 & Tween 60) and MS-02 (Span 80 & Tween 80) was used as mixed nonionic surfactants. We considered required HLB value 10.85 and selected corresponding HLB value range 8-13. The droplet size distributions, droplet morphology, rheological properties, zeta-potential and creaming index of the emulsion samples were obtained to understand the mechanism and interaction of droplets in O/W emulsion. The results indicated that optimal HLB number for O/W emulsions was 10.8 and 10.7, while using MS-01 surfactant and MS-02 surfactant respectively. MS-01 (HLB = 10.8) sample and MS-02 (HLB = 10.7) sample showed smallest droplet size and highest zeta-potential value. Rheological properties are measured to understand rheological behaviors of emulsion samples. All emulsion samples showed no phase separation until 30 days storage time at $25^{\circ}C$.

Emulsion Stability of Cosmetic Facial Cream O/W Emulsions Prepared by Brij Type Non-ionic Emulsifie (Brij계 비이온성 혼합유화제를 이용하여 제조된 화장용크림 O/W 유화액의 유화안정성)

  • Park, Bo Ra;Lee, Seung Min;Choi, Junho;Lee, Seung Bum
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.440-445
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the stability of O/W cosmetic facial cream emulsions according to HLB values was evaluated by mixing nonionic surfactants, such as Brij 78&72 and Brij 98&92. Brij 78&72 (steareth-20&steareth-2, EMS-01), saturated fatty acid, and Brij 98&92 (oleth-20&oleth-2, EMS-02), unsaturated fatty acid, were used as mixed surfactants. The stability of the O/W emulsion was evaluated by using the emulsion viscosity, particle size, particle size distribution, and zeta-potential. The viscosity of the emulsion increased with the increase of time for EMS-01 while that of EMS-02 decreased with the increase of HLB value. The particle size of both EMS-01 and EMS-02 increased with time. The emulsifier with a HLB value of 10.8, which is the most similar to the required HLB value of mineral oil, 10.5, had the smallest particle size and highest density and also showed the highest emulsion stability. The zeta-potential of both emulsions tended to increase with the HLB value. No significant changes were observed in emulsions of the HLB value of 10.8 or more. The saturated fatty acid system, EMS-01, exhibited a higher zeta-potential value than that of the unsaturated fatty acid EMS-02 and also was superior in the stability.

The Effects of HLB Value of the Surfactants Added in the Silicon Oil Emulsion Antifoamer on the Antifoaming Ability (실리콘오일 에멀젼 소포제 조성에 있어서 유화제의 HLB가 소포성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2010
  • The effects of HLB value of nonionic mixed surfactants on the stability and antifoaming ability for silicon oil type emulsions were studied. To obtain a stable silicone emulsions, a higher HLB values and higher content of surfactants were preferred. To obtain a good antifoaming ability, however, a lower HLB value (more hydrophobic) and a lower content of the surfactants were preferred. It was observed, at lower HLB values(8 or 9), that the silicone oil drops were spreaded on the foam surface and effectively reduced the surface tension. And the spreading phenomena presumably acted as an antifoaming mechanism. Therefore, a higher hydrophobicity of the silicone oil emulsion resulted in a higher ability of antifoaming action.

Evaluation of Coconut Oil-based Emulsion Stability Using Tween-Span Type Nonionic Mixed Surfactant (Tween-Span계 비이온성 혼합계면활성제를 이용한 Coconut Oil 원료 유화액의 유화안정성 평가)

  • Hong, Seheum;Zhu, Kaiyang;Zuo, Chengliang;Lee, Seung Bum
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.453-459
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    • 2019
  • In this study, the influence factors on the stability of the O/W (oil in water) emulsions prepared with coconut oil and the nonionic mixed surfactant (Tween 80-Span 80) were evaluated. The concentration and HLB value of the nonionic mixed surfactant, and the degree of agitation were used as manufacture factors. The stability of prepared O/W emulsions were measured with the mean droplet size, zeta-potential, emulsion stability index (ESI), and thermal instability index (TII). The mean droplet size of the prepared O/W emulsions was from 100 to 200 nm. As the concentration of mixed surfactant and the homogenization speed increased, the droplet sizes decreased, while the zeta-potential values increased. The effect of HLB values increased in the order of 6.0, 10.0 and 8.0, and at the HLB value of 8 the smallest mean droplet size as 120 nm was obtained whereas the largest value of the zeta-potential between 10 and 60 mV. From the results of ESI and TII, the stability of prepared O/W emulsions increased in order of 6.0, 10.0 and 8.0 of HLB values, and ESI and TII values were above 80% and below 20% respectively at HLB value of 8.0.

Relationship between Emulsion Stability Index and HLB Value of Emulsifier in the Analysis of W/O Emulsion Stability (W/O형 유화계의 유화안정성 분석에 있어서의 유화안정지수와 HLB값과의 관계 규명)

  • Chang, Pahn Shick;Shin, Myung Gon;Lee, Won Myo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 1994
  • The stability of W/O emulsions (milk fat : water=4 : 1, w/w) containing various emulsifiers was compared to determine the effect of different chemical types of emulsifiers in relation to the change of HLB value caused by emulsifier type and the influence of single vs. binary emulsifier systems. These variables were compared at emulsifier HLB values of 0.5~16.7 and at emulsifier concentrations of 1.0~3.0%(w/w). Eleven emulsifiers used as 11 different single mixtures and 16 different binary mixtures were evaluated in W/O type emulsion systems containing 20.0%(w/w) of water in milk fat. This W/O emulsion was stable (more than 90.0 of ESI value) in the range of low value of emulsifier HLB (less than 4.7 of HLB value). All the ESI values of binary emulsifier systems were higher than those of single emulsifier systems. But, the influence pattern of emulsifier HLB on this emulsion stability in single emulsifier systems was very similar to the trend in binary emulsifier systems.

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A Study on Emulsion Stability of O/W and W/S Emulsion according to HLB of Emulsifier (유화제의 HLB에 따른 O/W 및 W/S 에멀젼의 유화 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Yeon, Jae Young;Shin, Bo Ram;Kim, Ta Gon;Seo, Jeong Min;Lee, Cheong Hee;Lee, Sang Gil;Pyo, Hyeong Bae
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2014
  • In this study, O/W and W/S emulsions were prepared by combining oils having different required hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) values under the diverse conditions of HLB values composed of a hydrophilic surfactant and a lipophilic surfactant and their stability was investigated. Results showed that the higher the viscosity of O/W emulsions was as the lower the HLB value of emulsifier and emulsion particle showed a tendency to be a smaller and compact and stabler in centrifugal filtration. W/S emulsions also showed a similar tendency to be a smaller and compact as HLB values of emulsifier was higher and stabler in centrifugal filtration. However, the viscosity of W/S emulsion tended to get lower in HLB conditions of all emulsifiers as the time passed. This indicated that the emulsions had an unstable feature in long-term stability. In conclusion, the results showed opposite to the known theory that O/W emulsion is proper to be applied by nonionic surfactant with a high HLB value and W/S emulsion to be applied by nonionic surfactant with a low HLB value and provide useful information for the cosmetics research and related areas.

Optimization of the Conditions for the O/W Emulsion Containing ${\omega}3$ Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (${\omega}3$계 고도불포화지방산을 함유한 고안정성 수중유적형 유화계의 확립)

  • Chang, Pahn-Shick;Cho, Gye-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1114-1119
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    • 1998
  • The stabilities of O/W emulsions (lipophilic core material:lipophobic wall material=3:2, w/w) containing various kinds of emulsifiers were compared to determine the optimal conditions of the HLB (hydrophilic lipophilic balance) value, the concentration and composition of emulsifier, the ratio of core material to the wall material, and the concentration and composition of polymers in the wall material. The effect of different chemical types of emulsifiers and the influence of single vs. binary emulsifier systems were compared with 13 kinds of emulsifier HLB values of $0.6{\sim}16.7$ at the concentration of 0.50%(w/w). The emulsion system was stable (more than 99.0 of ESI value) when the HLB value of the emulsifier was more than 11.0 or less than 2.8 of emulsifier HLB value. But it was unstable (less than 40.0 of ESI value) at the HLB value of the emulsifier between 3.4 and 8.6. Especially, we could find out the emulsion containing the emulsifier of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, HLB 0.6) became stable creamy state. And, the ESI value of binary emulsifier system containing 0.25%(w/w) of PGPR and 0.25%(w/w) of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (PSML, HLB 16.7) was higher than that of any single emulsifier system at the concentration of 0.50%(w/w). The highest emulsion stability was obtained in the liquefied wall material composed of 0.25%(w/v) of waxy corn starch and 0.50%(w/v) of agar.

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Stability of the Oil-in-water Type Triacylglycerol Emulsions

  • Hesson Chung;Kim, Tase-Woo;Kwon, Ich-Chan;Jeong, Seo-Young
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.284-288
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    • 2001
  • Lipid emulsions with saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) with 4 to 10 carbons in each acyl chain were prepared to study how the oil component alters the stability of the lipid emul-sions when phosphatidylcholines were used as emulsifiers. The average droplet size of the emul-sions became smaller as the chain length of the TAG increased. For a given oil emulsion with smaller droplets was formed with an emulsifier having higher HLB value. The influence of HLB values on the droplet size was biggest for the tributyrin (C4) emulsion. For the tricaprylin(C8) emulsions, droplet size was identical at given emulsifier concentrations regardless of HLB values. The HLB value and the concentration of the emulsifiers also affect the droplet size of the emul-sions. The emulsions with smaller average droplet size were more stable than with bigger size for 20 days. The oil and water (o/w) interfacial tension in inversely proportional to the initial droplet size of the emulsion.

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Emulsification of O/W Emulsion Using Non-ionic Mixed Surfactant: Optimization Using CCD-RSM (비이온성 혼합계면활성제를 이용한 O/W 유화액의 제조 : CCD-RSM을 이용한 최적화)

  • Lee, Seung Bum;Li, Guangzong;Zuo, Chengliang;Hong, In Kwon
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.606-614
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    • 2019
  • A mixing ratio of the oil in water (O/W) emulsion of palm oil and the non-ionic surfactant (Tween-Span type) possessing different hydrophile-lipophilie balance (HLB) values was evaluated in this work. An optimum condition was determined through analysis of main and interaction effects of each quantitative factor using central composite design model-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM). Quantitative factors used by CCD-RSM were an emulsification time, emulsification speed, HLB value and amount of surfactant. On the other hand, the reaction parameters were the viscosity and mean droplet size of O/W emersion. Optimized conditions obtained from CCD-RSM were the emulsification time of 12.7 min, emulsification speed of 5,551 rpm, HLB value of 8.0 and amount of surfactant of 5.7 wt.%. Ideal experimental results under the optimized experimental condition were the viscosity of 1,551 cP and mean droplet size of 432 nm which satisfy the targeted values. The average error value from our actual experiment for verifying the conclusions was below to 2.5%. Therefore, a high favorable level could be obtained when the CCD-RSM was applied to the optimized palm oil to water emulsification.

Evaluation of Cleanness and Physical Properties of W/O Microemulsion (W/O Microemulsion 세정제의 물성 및 세정성 평가)

  • Lee, Myung Jin;Han, Ji Won;Lee, Ho Yeol;Han, Sang Won;Bae, Jae Heum;Park, Byeong Deog
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.769-777
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    • 2002
  • Using four components - nonionic surfactants, water, hydrocarbon oil and an alcohol as cosurfactant, 12 types of cleaning agents were prepared, and their physical properties such as surface tension, viscosity, electroconductivity and phase stability were measured. As the formulated cleaning agents have low surface tensions(30.5-31.1 dyne/cm) and low viscosities (1.6-7.2 c.p.), they are satisfied with the general physical properties of water-in-oil(W/O) microemulsions for their industrial use. They showed a tendency that their temperature range for stable one-phase microemulsion decreased in accordance with the increase of alcohol/surfactant(A/S) ratio in the formulations. However, the temperature range of one-phase microemulsion was much more affected by hydrophilic lipophillic balance(HLB) value of the nonionic surfactant which increased its temperature range and it increased in accordance with the higher HLB value in the formulations. And the maximum content of water which can keep stable one-phase W/O microemulsion was measured at each sample. In addition, their temperature range for stable one-phase microemulsion was also measured. It was confirmed that the selection of surfactant type was very important for formulating a cleaning agent, since the W/O microemulsion system with the nonionic surfactant of the lower HLB value showed better cleaning efficacy that of the higher HLB value for abietic acid as a soil, which was used for preparing a rosin-type flux. In the formulated cleaning agents with the increase of A/S ratio in the formulations, however, there was no significant difference in cleaning efficacy. It was investigated that the differences of their cleaning efficacy was affected by the change of the condition of temperature and sonicating frequency as important factors in the industrial cleaning. That is, the higher, their cleaning temperature and the lower, their sonicating frequency, the more increased, their cleaning efficacy. Furthermore, using optical instruments like UV/Visable Spectrophotometer and FT-IR Spectrometer, their cleaning efficacy for abietic acid was measured. The removal of soil from the contaminated rinse water was measured by gravity separation method in the rinse bath. As a result, the cleaning agent system having the nonionic surfactant of HLB value 6.4 showed over 85% water-oil separation efficacy at over $25^{\circ}C$. Therefore, it was demonstrated in this work that the formulating cleaning agents were very effective for cleaning and economical in the possible introduction of water recycling system.