• Title, Summary, Keyword: HLB value

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Synthesis of O/W Emulsion of Alkyd Resin for Reducing of VOC (VOC 절감을 위한 알키드 수지의 O/W 에멀젼 제조)

  • Lee, Young Sang;Lee, Euy Soo;Ha, Jin Kuk
    • Journal of Adhesion and Interface
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2010
  • O/W emulsions were prepared with the phase inversion emulsification methods. The emulsifiers were used the UNIQ-1 (isopropylamine alkyl aryl sulphonate) and UNIQ-2 (alkoxylated glycol ether). Investigated effect that HLB value, agitator velocity and manufacture temperature get in mean particle size of emulsions. Mean particle size receives much effect of HLB value. Also, estimated stability about storage temperature and light. Emulsion's mean particle size was 193 nm lastly, reduced VOC amount used 90% than existing alkyd resin.

The measurement of capacitance of W/O type emulsified fuel using by capacitance sensor (정전용량센서를 이용한 W/O형 유화연료의 정전용량 측정)

  • Cho, Seong-Cheol;Oh, Yang-Hwan;Im, Seok-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.377-382
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    • 2007
  • We designed capacitance sensor in order to examine characteristics of W/O type emulsified fuel, so it concluded the following conclusions. The capacitance value of emulsified fuel, using with capacitance sensor, increases as water content increases due to the coalescence. When surfactant increases, the capacitance value decreases, the condition of W/O type emulsified fuel was maintained stably. There was revealed the capacitance value difference of W/O type emulsified fuel in in according to water content. We checked the phase separation of emulsified fuel with the capacitance value difference. The surfactant(HLB=5.4) had better stable condition than surfactant(HLB=4.3). Also, we confirmed that two mixture surfactants were better than one surfactant.

A Study on the Emulsion Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate (Methyl Methacrylate의 Emulsion Polymerization에 關한 硏究)

  • Lee, Hyung-Kyoo;Min, Tae-Ik
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.4-11
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    • 1968
  • With the selected emulsifiers for the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate, the HLB of the emulsifier in the reaction system has been studied on the effect of the ratio of tetra sodium-N-(1,2-dicarboxy ethyl)-N-octadecyl sulfosuccinamate(Aerosol 22) to polyethylene glycol nonyl phenyl ether (Noigen EA 160), and also sodium lauryl sulfate(Quolac EX-UB), Disodium-N-octadecyl sulfosuccinamate (Aerosol 18) and Aerosol 22 as emulsifiers having various hydrophilic groups in the molecules have been studied. Results are as follows; 1) The viscosity of the emulsions and the molecular weight of the polymers have maximum values at a constant HLB value of emulsifiers, but their stabilities show minimum point at the value with the titration with the three kinds of mono, bi, tri-valent electrolytes. These results are agreed on the theory of Greth & Wilson in which the properties of polymer emulsions depend upon the HLB system of emulsifiers. 2) The viscosity of the emulsions and the molecular weights of the produced polymers increase more in the case of blending of Aerosol 22 to Noigen EA-160 than of the separate using. 3) The coagulation effects of the divalent electrolytes($ex,\;Ca^{++},\;Zn^{++}$) are contrast to the effects of monovalent($ex,\;Na^+$) and trivalent($ex,\;Al^{+++}$) in the emulsions with Aerosol 18 or Aerosol 22 which have more than two hydrophilic groups. It seems that the stability of the O/W emulsions by electrolytes is directly related to the parameters of surface physical chemistry such as surface geometry of surface chemical constitution of polymer particles.

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Characterization of Emulsion Properties for D-limonene (D-리모넨 오일의 유화특성)

  • 하윤식;장윤호;문현수;이정경;서무룡
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.875-881
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    • 1998
  • Microemulsion is prepared by the method of phase inversion emulsification with d-limonene that is environmental friendly substance and nontoxic to human body as dispersed phase. Emulsifier used for preparation of microemulsion is nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether. Stability of prepared microemulsion was estimated by the various method of ξ-potential, hydrodynamic diameter and electric conductivity. When d-limonene is emulsified by NP series, microemulsion is most stable and narrowly distributed at HLB value of 12.3(either one emulsifier or mixed emulsifiers). Stability of microemulsion is increased as the amount of emulsifiers is increased at same HLB value of 12.3. In the case of using the same amount of emulsifiers, number of produced micelle are relatively large as hydrodynamic diameter is small. Therefore, the state of microemulsion is stable and the electric conductivity is increased. One can determine that higher electric conductivity value means that microemulsion has more micelles and is more stable.

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Effect of Direct Emulsification Method and Invert Emulsification Method On Droplet Size of O/W Emulsion (O/W 에멀젼 입자의 크기에 미치는 Direct 유화법과 Invert유화법의 효과)

  • 김철훈;박재길
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.64-81
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    • 1994
  • O/W emulsions with mixed nonionic surfactants(polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monostearate/sorbitan sesquioleate), liquid paraffin, water prepared by direct inversion emulisification method and continuous inversion emulsification Method. The one-step, two-step and three-step phase inversion emulsification method were used in experiments. Effect of added water on droplet size of final O/W emulsions which is prepared by phase inversion emulsification method were investigated. In direct inversion emulsification method(two-step emulsification method), fine and homogeneous droplets of OIW emulsions were formed after phase inversion steps i.e. ,W/O - (W/O) If double emulsion - O/W emulsion. In continuous inversion emulsification method(three-step emulsification method), fine and homogeneous O/W emulsion were formed after phase inversion steps i.e., W/O - pseudomicroemulsion - O/W. By latter method, more Fine and homogenuous droplets were formed than former method. 10-10, 8 HLB region of mixed non-ionic surfactants could produce most fine droplets. This HLB region had maximum values of solubilization water and This HLB value of mixed nonionic surfactants produced fine and homogenuous droplets.

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The Factors Influencing Latent Fingermark Development on Adhesive Side of Iron Oxide Powder-based Small Particle Reagent (사삼산화철 기반의 소립자시약(Small Particle Reagent)의 접착면 잠재지문 현출 효과에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, Sun-Min;Go, Gang-Seok;Lee, Seul-Bi;Yu, Je-Seol
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2016
  • Latent fingerprint left on the adhesive sides of tapes can be easily found at a crime scene. Small Particle Reagents(SPR) based on iron oxide($Fe_3O_4$) is a technique for the detection of a latent fingerprint adhesive surface. In this study, found out that the causes affecting the quality of the fingerprints developed when used SPR based on iron oxide. To a suspension of 0.5g of iron oxide in 100ml of distilled water, 0.5ml or more surfactant were added can be developed latent fingerprints of good quality. In addition, using surfactants HLB(hydrophile-lipophile balance) value of 11~18 showed good contrast to the background and latent fingerprint.

The Flow Properties and Stability of O/W Emulsion Composed of Various Mixed Nonionic Surfactants 1. The Phase Behavior and Flow Properties of O/W Emulsion Prepared with the Inversion Emulsification Method (혼합비이온계면활성제의 조성에 따른 O/W 에멀젼의 유동특성 및 안정성 1. 반전유화법을 이용한 O/W 에멀젼의 상거동 및 유동특성)

  • Lee, Ho-Sik;Kim, Jum-Sik
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.196-203
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    • 1993
  • Emulsions were prepared with the inversion emulsification method which adopted the agent-in-oil method-dissolving the mixed surfactants composed of the glycerin monostearate, polyoxyethylene(100) monostearate, and polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monostearate into mixtures of liquid paraffin and beeswax, and adding the aqueous solution of propylene glycol, gradually-and then their phases and viscosities behaviors in the emulsifying process were investigated. The fine and homogeneous o/w emulsions were formed in the HLB region (HLB 10.1~12.3), showing liquid crystalline phase and white gel phase in the emulsifying process. The phase inversion steps in the emulsifying process appeared as follows, i.e., oil continuous phase${\rightarrow}$liquid crystalline phase${\rightarrow}$white gel phase${\rightarrow}$o/w emulsion. Shear rate-shear stress curves of the prepared emulsions had the yield values which pointed out the existence of inner structure between emulsion particles, and the hysteresis loop which showed that the inner structure wasbroken irreversibly by the shear. The area of hystersis loop, an index of breakdown of inner structure, was increased with the decreasing of the HLB value of emulsifier, Shear time-shear stress curves showed the time dependence of plastic viscosity, and the relaxation time in time thinning behavior(${\lambda}$) indicated that the stability of emulsions prepared with the inversion emulsification method was decreased with the increasing of HLB values of emulsifier and was higher than that of emulsions prepared by homomixer.

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Study on Polymerization Condition of Water-based Acrylic Adhesion (수분산성 아크릴계 점착제 중합 조건에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Haeng Ja;Jang, Suk Hee;Chang, Sang Mok;Kim, Jong Min
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.609-614
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    • 2010
  • In this study, emulsion polymerizations for synthesizing acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) were carried out using 2-ethylhexyl acrylate(2-EHA), n-butyl acrylate(n-BA), methyl metacrylate(MMA) as fundamental monomers and acrylic acid(AAc) as a functional monomer in the presence of anionic SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate). To obtain the optimized synthetic condition in the polymerization, we analyzed the polymerization variables such as the effect of surfactant concentration and hydrophilic lipophilic values(HLB). At the same time, the final adhesive properties were also analyzed by the function of the initiator concentration and buffer concentration. In the results, the most stable emulsion was obtained at the surfactant concentrations between 3 and 5 wt%. It was also determined the effect of HLB value of nonionic surfactant and the initiator concentrations on the gel content. Stable emulsion is obtained using the surfactant having HLB value of 12.3. The rate of emulsion polymerization was increased at the initiator concentration greater than 1 wt%, but the stability of the emulsion was decreased. Finally, the effect of the buffer concentrations on the pH and the conversion of the acrylic emulsion product were experimentally measured. At the sodium bicarbonate concentration above 0.4 wt%, the buffer infulence was apparent. The buffer effect was fully acceptable at the concentrations between 0.6 and 0.8 wt% regardless of the monomer composition.

The waste heat utilization in container greenhouse and smart farm related technology based on IOT (컨테이너 온실에서 폐열 활용 및 IOT 기반의 스마트 팜 연계 기술)

  • Hwang, Woo-jeong;Jung, Jung-hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.415-418
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the demand for energy efficiency improvement technology through the connection of waste heat energy and SmartGrid has been increasing. Thus, investments for the cultivation of high value crops and produce is increasing through research aimed at synthetic technology in real-time utilization of smart farms and waste heat energy with the concept of using container greenhouses and plant factories. In this aspect, we have carried out research on a practical application technology that will help farmers to increase the economic effectiveness of LED based plant factories in terms of energy efficiency. This can provide opportunities to connect with the large scale automated smart farms in the future. In this study, we focused on the economic effectiveness of crop cultivation using cooling technology in a container greenhouse through waste heat energy. Hereafter, in order to further advance the technology of real-time monitoring/control of the absorption chiller which is used through the container greenhouses and waste heat energy by using IOT, we would like to propose research on new ideas of agricultural technology that can maximize the utility of cooling energy by operating a mobile gateway based on Raspberry PI.

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Application of Nanoemulsions upon Type of Cosmetic Oils for Convergence Type of Cosmetics (화장품용 오일 타입에 따른 나노에멀젼의 융복합 화장품 적용)

  • Cho, Wan-Goo
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the formation potential and the stability of nano-emulsions were evaluated according to the structure of various cosmetic oils in Tween 80/Span 80 system using PIC method at 80 oC LP 70, Isopar H and Pripure 3759 of hydrocarbons were both form a stable nano-emulsion, particle size distribution of about 40 nm. A linear structure of silicone oil formed an unstable emulsion, but cyclic or short chain oil formed was a stable nano-emulsion. In ester oils, the particle size of emulsions increases with increasing molecular weight of oils and a stable nano-emulsion could not be obtained in the molecular weight of about 450. The particle size of the nano-emulsion against required HLB value for calculating in consideration of the lipophilic and hydrophilic oil was smaller in the HLB of 8-10.