• Title, Summary, Keyword: HLB value

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Preparation of Coconut Oil in Water Emulsions Using Tween-Span Type Mixed Surfactant : Optimization of CCD-RSM (Tween-Span계 혼합계면활성제를 이용한 Coconut Oil 원료 O/W 유화액의 제조 : CCD-RSM을 이용한 최적화)

  • Yoo, Bong-Ho;Zhu, Kaiyang;Zuo, Chengliang;Lee, Seung Bum
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the O/W emulsions prepared from coconut oil and the non-ionic mixed surfactant as Tween-Span system were evaluated and optimized in order to upgrade the stability of manufactured emulsions. For the optimization, a central composite design model-response surface methodology, so called as CCD-RSM was implemented. Quantitative factors were the hydrophile-lipophilie balance (HLB), amount of non-ionic mixed surfactant and emulsification speed while experimental results included the mean droplet size (MDS), emulsion stability index (ESI), and thermal instability index (TII). Optimized values of the HLB, amount of non-ionic mixed surfactant and emulsification speed obtained from CCD-RSM were 9.1, 8.7 wt.%, and 6,200.8 rpm, respectively. Expected experimental results for MDS, ESI, and TII under the optimized experimental condition were 151.0 nm, 99.86, and 3.17%, respectively. The average error from actual experiments which established for validation of the conclusions was lower than 3.5%. Therefore, a highly favorable level could be obtained when the optimized CCD-RSM was applied to manufacturing the O/W emulsion in this study.

Solution Properties of Polyglycerol Alkyl Ether Nonionic Surfactant (폴리글리세롤을 친수성기로한 비이온성 계면활성제의 용액성)

  • Yun, Y.K.;Nam, K.D.;Kang, T.J.
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 1992
  • The synthesis and solution properties of polyglycerol alkyl ether($R_{12}Gn$) are described. The phase behavior, surface tension, cloud point and HLB value of polyglycerol dodecyl ether in aqueous solution and in mixed solution of surfactant /water /oil have been investigated and compared with values of polyoxyethylene dodecyl ether. The surface tension showed that $R_{12}Gn$ have sufficiently low values of surface tension and cmc to serve as useful polyoxyethylene alkyl ether. The mesophases appearing in the $R_{12}Gn$ systems were more stable in a high temperature range than the mesophases of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether systems. The cloud point and HLB data indicated that addition of one glycerol group was equivalent to the addition of three oxyethylene group units, as far as the hydrophilic property was concerned. The phase diagrams of the polyglycerol alkyl ether /dodecane /water systems showed that the solubilizing and emulsifying powers of $R_{12}Gn$ were greater than those of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether. It is concluded that the polyglycerol chain can be even more useful as hydrophilic group of nonionic surfactants than the polyoxyethylene chain.

A Study on Remediation of Diesel-Contaminated Soil by Biosurfactant- Enhanced Soil Washing (생물계면활성제를 이용한 디이젤 오염토양세척기술에 관한 연구)

  • 문혜준;임영경;김윤관;주춘성;방기연;정욱진;이승우
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2002
  • Soil washing by surfactants is a technology to enhance mobilization and subsequent degradation of oil pollutants by reducing the surface tension of pollutants which is combined with soil. In this study, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid was produced from Pseudomonas aemginosa ATCC 9027 which had an excellent biodegradable activity in soil without causing secondary pollution. Effects of chemical surfactants on the removal of diesel from diesel-contaminated soil were compared to those of biosurfactants including rhamnolipid. Diesel removal efficiency by rhamnolipid extracted from P. aeruginosa culture broth was over 95% in both batch and column washing test in 5,000ppm diesel-contaminated soil with 1% surfactants after washing for 24 hours. On the contrary, the results of chemical surfactants were below 50∼80%, The chemical surfactants with HLB value(8∼15) showed more then 75% efficiency of diesel removal. But, when the HLB values were below 8 or over 15. their efficiency were observed as less then 60% of diesel removal. Rhamnolipid, biologically produced surfactants, may also be promising agent for enhancing diesel removal from contaminated soil.

Effects of Hydrophobic Chain Structure of Nonionic Surfactanets on Surfactant Adsorption and Diesel Removal from Kaolin Soil (비이온계 계면활성제의 소수성 구조가 카올린 토양에서 흡착 및 경유 제거에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종성;이기세
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1999
  • The effects of hydrophobic chain length and its structure of nonionic surfactants on surfactant adsorption and contaminated diesel removal were studied in kaolin soil. Hydrocarbon chain length and double bond in hydrophobic tail group of nonionic surfactants affected surfactant adsorption and diesel removal efficiency from kaolin soil. The degrees of surfactant adsorption and diesel removal were closely related each other. Among nonionic surfactants we studied, surfactants with shorter hydrophobic chain length and higher HLB value showed lower degree of adsorption and higher efficiency of diesel removal. The existence of unsaturated carbons in the structure of hydrophobic chain enhanced diesel removal by reducing surfactant adsorption to kaolin soil. The best diesel removal was obtained after adsorption saturation was reached. If surfactant concentration was higher than a critical value, diesel removal was reduced probably because of precipitation. liquid crystal formation, or coacervation of surfactants at high concentration.

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Studies on the Microencapsulation of ${\omega}-3$ Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (${\omega}-3$계 지방산의 미세캡슬화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chul-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Wook;Baick, Seung-Chun;Kwak, Hae-Soo;Kang, Jong-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.743-749
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to investigate the microencapsulatuion of ${\omega}-3$ fatty acid isolated from fish oil and to obtain fundamental information on the utilization of the ${\omega}-3$ fatty acid in the dairy foods field. To obtain the desirable microencapsulation efficiency, 1.5% agar and 0.5% gelatin were used as coating materials, and 0.5% SFAN 60 (HLB 4.5 value) was used to maintain the emulsion stability. The optimal mixing ratio of coating material to core material was 8:2 (w/w). The thermostability of microencapsulated product was not maintained above $60^{\circ}C$. Microencapsulation efficiency was kept at about 90% at $4^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$ for 7 days storage at various temperatures. At $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$, however, about 80% microencapsulatuion efficiency was obtained for 3 days storage. About 80.57% microcapsule was destroyed by 1%> pepsin solution at $37^{\circ}C$ for 10 min.

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Synthesis and Properties of N-Acyl Glycine Used Triglyceride (트리글리세라이드를 이용한 N-아실 글리신의 합성 및 물성)

  • Shin, Hye-Rin;Park, Ye-Won;Jeong, Noh-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.1058-1065
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    • 2017
  • Amino acid based surfactants as protein-surfactants is eco-friendly compound. So, amino acid based surfactants is expected as next generation surfactants. Amino acid based surfactants has high biodegradability, low toxicity and surface active properties. In this experiment, amino acid based surfactants, cocoyl glycine, was synthesized by glycine and triglyceride such as coconut oil and palm oil. And it was tested the surface tension, emulsifying properties, foam stability and HLB value. The synthesized surfactants was confirmed by FT-IR. Surface tension of surfactants synthesized by coconut oil on diluted aqueous solutions of surfactants was 31.2 dyne/cm at $1.0{\times}10^{-4}mol/L$. Surface tension of surfactants synthesized by palm oil on the diluted aqueous solutions of surfactants was 42.1 dyne/cm at $3.2{\times}10^{-5}mol/L$. Foam stability measured the foam height as time passed. Initial foam height of surfactants synthesized by coconut oil is 14.5 cm, and 10.7 cm after five minutes. Initial foam height of surfactants synthesized by palm oil is 3.0 cm, and 2.8 cm after five minutes. Foam height of surfactants synthesized by coconut oil was higher than surfactants synthesized by palm oil. But foam stability of surfactants synthesized by palm oil was better than surfactants synthesized by coconut oil. The emulsifying properties of synthesized surfactants are observed in benzene and soybean oil and emulsifying properties in organic solvent is better than in soybean oil.

Optimization of the process conditions for the emulsification of rice bran oil using response surface methodology (반응표면분석법을 이용한 현미유 유화 제조공정 최적화)

  • Baek, Jin Woo;Lee, Kwang Yeon;Lee, Hyeon Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.531-536
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    • 2019
  • In this study, the optimization of the manufacturing process for the oil-in-water emulsification of rice bran oil was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) using varying amounts of the emulsifier (0.05-0.25%), varying rotation speeds of the homomixer (4,000-8,000 rpm), and varying water to oil ratios (0.8-1.6%) as independent variables, and the emulsion stability index (ESI) as the dependent variable. The optimization conditions predicted by the RSM model were 0.2%g of the total amount of the rice bran oil emulsion, emulsified at the homomixer rotation speed of 6,700 rpm using a water to oil ratio of 1:3. The ESI of the rice bran oil emulsion prepared under the optimized conditions was 95.7%, which was similar to the predicted value of 94.4% obtained by the RSM model. The transmission stability and the backscattering values were found to agree with each other over time and the turbiscan stability index was less than 0.7, indicating that the aggregation and upper floatation were less while the dispersion stability was maintained.

Effect of pH, Chemical Composition and Additives on Stability of Soymilk Suspension (pH, 화학적 조성 및 첨가제가 두유(豆乳)의 현탁안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Soo;Chung, Seong-Soo;Jo, Jae-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 1990
  • The effects of pH, protein and fat content, addition of emulsifiers, stabilizer, sugar, salt and calcium salt on the stability of soymilk suspension were investigated by analyzing the cream separated and precipitates of soymilk which is prepared by various conditions. In the alkaline region of pH, soymilk showed a good stability of the suspension and particularly, above pH 10, precipitates were not formed. When 1.5% of palm oil with 0.4% of glycerine monostearate was added to soymilk in the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of 4 to 7, resulted maximal emulsion stability occured below H LB 6. The stability was decreased with increasing the fat concentration and soy oil showed better emulsion stability than that of palm oil. Among the commercial stabilizers, 0.03% of carrageenan was most effective. The stability was not decreased by addition of sugar up to 3% while it was decreased by addition of sodium salt and calcium salt at low level.

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The Study on the Preparation of the Silica Particles by the Reactive Crystallization (반응 결정화에 의한 실리카 미립자 합성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jun Ho;Lee, Chang Hwan;Lee, Choul Ho
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.12-15
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reaction conditions, solvents, and surfactants on the average size and size distribution of silica particles in preparing silica fine powders by sodium silicate. Silica fine particles were synthesized by varying kinds of solvents and surfactants using the emulsion method. Span 20, Span 40, Span 60, and Span 80 were used as nonionic surfactants, Dispersing solvents were n-Hexane, n-Heptane, iso-Octane, and n-Decane of the alkane group. In these experiments, it was known that the optimum dispersion stirring time to form the emulsion of the constant size was around 6 min. The mean sizes of silica particles, at a variety of the dispersion stirring speeds, decreased as the dispersion stirring speed increased. Also, in the case of the solvents, the size of the formed silica particles decreased when the molecular weight of the solvent increased. Lastly, in the case of the surfactants, the mean size of silica particles increased as the hydrophobic lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant decreased.