• Title, Summary, Keyword: HLB value

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Characteristics of Fine WO3 Powders Prepared by Emulsion Evaporation (에멀전증발법으로 제조된 미세 산화텅스텐 분말의 특성)

  • 안종관;신창훈;이만승;이충효
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2002
  • Spherical fine powders of tungsten oxide powders were prepared by the emulsion evaporation method. The characteristics of the powders prepared were examined by means of TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and image analysis. The emulsions were prepared by fast mixing of aqueous phase containing tugsten and the organic phase which composed of kerosene, surfactant, and paraffin oil. Precursors were made by evaporating the emulsionin the kerosene bath at $160^{\circ}C$, and then calcined at $650^{\circ}C$ in order to produce tungsten oxide powders. The average particle size of the tungsten oxide powders was $0.5\mutextrm{m}$ and their shapes were spherical at the both case of w/o and o/w type emulsions. As the HLB value of the surfactant increased and the concentration of tungsten ions decreased the mean particle siqe of tungsten oxide powders decreased whereas agglomerationsize increased. The optimum concentration of Span 80 was 8 percent by volume, and the optimum stirring speed in the emulsion formation was 5000 rpm in order to obtain fine and well dispersed $WO_3$ powders.

A Study on the Characteristics of Microemulsion Containing Isoflavone (이소플라본을 함유한 마이크로에멀젼의 물성 연구)

  • Jeong, Noh-Hee;Moon, Young-Jin;Lee, Hyang-Woo;Kim, Hong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2002
  • Microemulsion is stable to aggregation, sedimentation, fusion and has $3nm{\sim}200nm$ of particle size which is transparent and semitransparent. The isoflavone as a derivatives of Flavone is colorless crystalline compounds. It has similar basic structure to steroid materials which is hormone that acts to skin physiological phenomenon. On this study, we tried to search and demonstrate system content rate of dermal translocation system for cosmetics using O/W type microemulsion containing isoflavone. We manufactured O/W microemulsions by phase inversion emulsification method. It's was found that POE(20) monostearate with HLB value 14 caused microemulsion to be formed, which had $4nm{\sim}18nm$ of average diameter and $3nm{\sim}33nm$ of particle size distribution. Apparent viscosities of the microemulsions have increased in proportion to add surfactant dose.

Preparation of Durable Softeners for Nylon Fiber Using Fatty Polyamide and Alkyl Imidazoline (지방산 폴리아미드 및 알킬이미다졸린을 이용한 나일론 섬유용 내구성 유연제의 제조)

  • Jung, Choong-Ho;Kim, Sung-Rae;Park, Hyong-Jin;Hahm, Hyun-Sik;Kim, Tae-Ok;Park, Hong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 2002
  • Fatty polyamide that gives softness, lubrication and bulky property and alkyl imidazoline that gives durable softness and antistatic property were synthesized. then, an O/W-type durable softener (DSN) was prepared by the emulsion of the synthesized fatty polyamide and alkyl imidazoline. Emulsion stability of the DSN was good, and the mixed HLB value was 11.2. From the measurement of softness, lubrication, antistatic property, bending resistance, and color fastness, it was proved that the prepared DSN was a good durable softener for nylon.

Preparation of Tenoxicam Salt with Ethanolamine to Enhance the Percutaneous Absorption (테녹시캄의 피부 흡수율을 증진시키기 위한 에탄올아민염의 제조)

  • Gwak, Byung-Tae;Chun, Myung-Kwan;Choi, Hoo-Kyun
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this work was to prepare tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt with improved physicochemical properties for transdermal application. Tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt was prepared in methylene chloride and its physicochemical properties were investigated by DSC and FT-lR. The broad peak of tenoxicam around 3600-3200 $cm^-1$ was shifted to lower wavenumber and more broadened. The characteristic endothermic melting peak of tenoxicam appeared at $223^{\circ}C$. The melting peak of tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt was shifted to $159^{\circ}C$. In contrast to relatively small difference in the partition coefficients of tenoxicam and the tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt, large difference in aqueous solubility was observed. $Crovol^{\circledR}$ PK4O (PEG-12 palm kernel glycerides) provided the highest skin flux for both compounds. The order of the enhancing effect of the various vehicles tested was similar for tenoxicam and tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt, which indicated that their enhancing mechanism for tenoxicam and tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt is similar. Tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt had a higher skin flux than tenoxicam by 1.2- to 31.7-fold, depending on the vehicles used. It is suggested that the vehicles with medium HLB value, 1 double bond, and lower ethylene oxide chain length have a better ability to modify the permeability of the stratum corneum and to promote the effective penetration of tenoxicam and tenoxicam-ethanolamine salt.

Characteristics of Separation of Water/Bitumen Emulsion by Chemical Demulsifier (화학적 항유화제에 의한 물/비튜멘 에멀젼의 분리특성)

  • Park, Kuny-Ik;Han, Sam-Duck;Noh, Soon-Young;Bae, Wi-Sup;Rhee, Young-Woo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.54-59
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the separation of water/bitumen emulsion was investigated by chemical demulsification method. Motor oils (GS Caltex Deluxe Gold V 7.5W/30, Hyundai gear oil 85W/140) and asphalt (AP-5, KS M 2201, Dongnam Petrochemical MFG. Co.) were used as model oils in the preliminary experiments to effectively remove water from water/bitumen emulsion. The bitumen extracted from Canadian oilsands was used in this study. The water/oil emulsion was not separated without demulsifiers, and Hyundai motor oil showed higher efficiency of water separation at a low concentration of demulsifier compared with that for GS Caltex motor oil. However, as the concentration increased, the efficiency did not rapidly increase compared with that of GS Caltex motor oil. It was highly speculated that the water phase of Hyundai motor oil was not dispersed well compared with that of GS Caltex motor oil because the viscosity of Hyundai motor oil was much higher than that of GS Caltex motor oil. The demulsifier of higher HLB (hydrophilic - lipophilic balance) value had high separation efficiencies in water/oil emulsion. The TWEEN 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate solution) showed better separation efficiency than other demulsifiers.

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Polyoxyethylene Tocopheryl Ethers; A Series of Novel Surfactants from Tocopherol for Functional Cosmetics (토코페롤에서 유도된 기능성 화장품용의 새로운 계면 활성제)

  • 김영대;김창규
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-41
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    • 1992
  • A new and unique class of nonionic surfactants was synthesized by reacting biological a-tocopherol with ethylene oxide for functional cosmetics. The structures were confirmed by Hl-UMR, FT-lR, TLC and elemental analysis. POV and conjugated diene value study for EPO showed POE(n)TE had antioxidative effect similar to tocopheryl acetate Protective effect on cell membrane in photohemolysis of POE(5)TE, POE(10)TE and POE(18)TE were slightly lower than tocopherol but higher than nonoxynol-12, and POE(10)TE had UV absorption power comparable with tocopherol and homosalate. Biological activity of the hydrophobic group of the new surfactants make them unique and different from those of conventional nonionic surfactants Systematic safety evaluations of POE(n)TEs on the skin and eye proved that they are as safe as tocopherol. The results of physicochemical study showed POE(10)TE had the lowest CMC value, POE(18)TE had the maximum surface tension reduction and the highest foam volume and POE(n)TEs had various HLB values by the degree of ethoxylation. The test resul Is of technological and practical applications of these surfactants for cosmetics showed some POE(n)TEs were superior to conventional surfactants. POE(5)TE in W/O emulsions, POE(10)TE and POE(12)TE in O/W emulsions, POE(12)TE in dispersions, POE(18)TE in solubilizations and POE(50)TE in gelations were shown to be excellent which was considered due to the structural characteristic and formation of liquid crystals of POE(n)TEs. By the development and applications of these excel lent multi-functional surfactants, innovative functional cosmetics were successfully formulated.

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A Study on the Formation of Lamellar Liquid Crystalline Using Skin Mimicking Surfactant (피부모사체 계면활성제를 사용한 라멜라 액정의 생성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, In-Young;Nam, Eun-Hee;Shin, Moon-Sam
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.484-495
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    • 2020
  • This study is a mixed surfactant (MimicLipid-MSM1000) that forms the same structure as that of the stratum corneum, sucrose distearate, polyglyceryl-2 dioleate, fermented squalane, ergosterol, 10-hydroxystearic acid, mixture consisting of was synthesized. When using 2~5 wt% of this mixed surfactant, it was possible to make an artificial skin mimetic that forms a multi-layer lamellar structure of 5~30 layers. An emulsion was prepared using this mixed surfactant, and a multi-layered lamellar phase was formed and analyzed mechanically. The appearance of this surfactant was a light brown hard wax, the hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) was 12.53, the critical parameter value was 0.987, and the acid value was 0.13. Stability according to pH change was also stable in acidic (3.8), neutral (7.2) and alkaline (10.8). The particle size of the liquid crystal was found to be the most stable maltese cross lamellar crystalline droplet at 5~25mm. The size of the emulsified particles according to the change in the speed of the homo agitator is 2500 rpm (17.9mm±2.6mm), 3500rpm (12.5mm±2.1mm), 4500rpm (6.2mm±1.8mm) particles were formed. Liquid crystal forming particles were observed through a polarization microscope, and the formation structure of the liquid crystal was precisely analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM). As an application field, it is expected that it will be widely applicable to the development of various prescriptions, such as various skin care cosmetics, makeup care cosmetics, and scalp protection cosmetics, by using a skin-mimicking surfactant.

Solubillzation and Extraction Of Antioxidant Astaxanthin by Micelle Formation from Phaffia rhodozyma Cell Homogenate (Phaffia rhodozyma 세포파쇄액으로부터 항산화제 Astaxanthin의 미셀 형성을 통한 가용화 및 추출)

  • Kim, Young-Beom;Ryu, Kang;Lim, Gio-Bin;Lee, Eun-Kyu
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2002
  • Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-${\beta}$, ${\beta}$-carotene-4-4'-dione), a natural pigment of pink to red color, is widely distributed in nature particularly in the skin layer of salmonoids and the crust of shrimp, lobster, etc. Recently, it was produced from the yeast culture of Phaffia rhodozyma. Because of its high thermal stability and antioxidant functionality, its applications can be extended into food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical ingredient beyond the traditional feed additive. Because of its very high lipophilicity, astaxanthin has been extracted traditionally by strong organic solvents such as chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone, etc. In this study, we developed a surfactant-based solubillization system for astaxanthin, and used it to extract astaxanthin from disrupted yeast cells. Among Tween 20, Triton X-100 and SDS, Tween 20 was identified as the most suitable surfactant in terms of extraction capacity and safety. The ethylene oxide group of Tween 20 was identified as the most significant factor to increase the HLB value that determined the extraction capacity. The effects of micelle formation condition, such as the molar ratio of astaxanthin and Tween 20, pH, and ionic strength were also investigated. pH and ionic strength showed no significant effects. The optimal molar ratio between astaxanthin and Tween 20 was 1 : 12. Antioxidant activity of astaxanthin was higher than ${\beta}$-carotene and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. Astaxanthin in the crude extract from the yeast cell was more resistant to air and/or light degradation than pure astaxanthin, probably because of the presence of other carotenoids and lipids.

Evaluation of Glyceryl Monooleate(GMO) W/O Emulsion Stability by using Turbiscan®LAB (Turbiscan®을 이용한 Glyceryl Monooleate(GMO) 함유 W/O 유제의 안정성 평가)

  • Cho, Kyung-Jin;Cho, Won-Kyung;Lee, Jeon-Pyung;Kim, Min-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Hwang, Sung-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2009
  • The main object of this study was to prepare of w/o emulsion including glyceryl monooleate(GMO) and to evaluate its stability by using the recently developed $Turbiscan^{(R)}LAB$. GMO is the polar oily surfactant with the low HLB value, and it forms the gel phase of cubic structures after dissolves in aqueous media. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 7.4 was prepared as the water phase and Marcol 52(mineral oil) was used as the oil phase in this study. GMO was used as the surfactant of W/O emulsion. W/O emulsion using GMO alone as a surfactant was very unstable. But the emulsion using both GMO and poloxamer 407 was more stable. The stability of W/O emulsions was evaluated after centrifuging the emulsions. But it was difficult with naked eye because an opaque and concentrated system like W/O emulsion was very turbid. So $Turbiscan^{(R)}LAB$ was used to detect the destabilization phenomena in non-diluted emulsion. As a result, the W/O emulsion using the proper amounts of GMO and poloxamer 407 was more stable among them using GMO of various amounts. But it seems that the other element for the stability of W/O emulsion including GMO was required. Furthermore, the $Turbiscan^{(R)}LAB$ was a very efficient analyzer for evaluating the physical stability of emulsion.

Development of Water-Resistant O/W Emulsion-Typed Sunscreening Cosmetics through Triblock Polymeric Surfactant-Mediated Re-emulsification Inhibition (삼중블록 고분자 계면활성제의 재유화 억제 기능을 이용한 지속내수성 O/W 에멀젼형 자외선 차단용 화장품 개발)

  • Lee, Ji Hyun;Hong, Sung Yun;Lee, Jin Yong;An, So Youn;Lee, Hyo Jin;Kim, Sung Yong;Lee, Jun Bae;Kim, Jin Woong;Shin, Kyounghee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.199-208
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    • 2019
  • This study reports water-resistant oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-based sunscreening formulations prepared using a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(${\varepsilon}$-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) triblock polymeric surfactant. As a result of a variety of outdoor recreational activities such as swimming and hiking, consumer needs for development of advanced water-resistant sunscreen formulations are increasing. Water-resistant sunscreens are mostly based on water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, because they should not be wiped off by water or sweat. However, the W/O emulsion formulations have a disadvantage in that the feeling of use is oily and difficult to remove. On the other hand, the O/W emulsion formulations are excellent in achieving the better skin feel as well as the easier removal. However, it is difficult to provide the O/W emulsion formulations with the water-repelling performance, since re-emulsification likely occurs upon getting touch with water. To solve this problem, this study proposes a O/W emulsion-based sunscreen formulation, a triblock polymeric surfactant having relatively high interfacial tension HLB value (~ 10). This allows the sunscreen formulations to exhibit the improved water repellence function by preventing their re-emulsification. The sunscreen formation system prepared in this study would be useful for diversification of functional sunscreen products, taking advantages of its excellent emulsion stability, UV protection performance, long lasting water-resistant function and selective cleansing effect with only foam cleanser.