• Title, Summary, Keyword: HPA

Search Result 355, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

PVA/SSA/HPA Composite Membranes on the Application to Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PVA/SSA/HPA 복합막의 고분자전해질 연료전지에의 응용연구)

  • Oh Sae-Joong;Tongzhai Gao
    • Membrane Journal
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.9-15
    • /
    • 2006
  • PVA/SSA/HPA composite membranes were prepared by the addition of SSA as a crosslinking agent and HPA such as PWA or SiWA. The water uptake decreased and the IEC increased as the HPA contents increased in PVA/SSA/HPA composite membranes. XRD results showed that HPA distributed well into the composite membranes as the HPA concentration increased, and SiWA dispersed better than PWA in the composite membranes. TGA results showed that PVA/SSA composite membranes were more heat-resistant than PVA due to the crosslinking of PVA, and the heat stability of the composite membranes improved much more as the concentration of HPA increased. The methanol barrier property of PVA/SSA/HPA composite membranes was superior to Nafion, and the methanol permeability of the composite membranes decreased as the concentration of HPA increased.

HpaXm from Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum is a Novel Harpin with Two Heptads for Hypersensitive Response

  • Miao, Wei-Guo;Song, Cong-Feng;Wang, Yu;Wang, Jin-Sheng
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.54-62
    • /
    • 2010
  • A novel harpin-like protein, HpaXm, was described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum. The hpaXm was found to be localized between hrp2 and hrcC. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence or solely the 13 highly conserved residues $H_2N$-SEKQLDQLLTQLI-COOH in the N-terminal $\alpha$-helix indicates that HpaXm is evolutionarily closer to HpaGXag and HpaXac than to Hpa1Xoo and Hpa1Xoc. A synthesized peptide containing two heptads, 39-LDQLLTQLIMALLQ-52, from the N-terminal a-helical region of HpaXm displayed comparable activity in inducing a hypersensitive response, but two other synthesized derivatives, $HpaXm{\Delta}T44C$ and $HpaXm{\Delta}M48Q$, showed reduced HR-triggering activity. The data from a GST trap test revealed that HpaXm was released into the extracellular medium, hpaXm mutant deficient for the leader peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15) was unable to be secreted outside cells but still induced HR in tobacco leaves.

Modeling of High Power Amplifier for Improving the Performance of Digital Pre-Distorter(DPD) (디지털 전치 왜곡기의 성능 향상을 위한 고전력 증폭기의 모델링 기법)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jun;Yun, In-Woo;Son, Ye-Seul;Kim, Jun-Tae;Kim, Joongil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.66-68
    • /
    • 2016
  • 무선 통신 시스템에서 장거리 신호송출을 위해 사용하고 있는 고전력 증폭기(HPA, High Power Amplifier)는 증폭기의 비선형성 때문에 송출신호에 왜곡을 야기시키며 이 때문에 선형구간만을 사용하게 되어 그 전력 효율이 떨어지게 된다. 이 비선형 특성을 해결하기 위하여 디지털 사전 왜곡기(DPD, Digital Pre-distorter)를 HPA 의 앞단에 채용하여 송출신호를 선형화 시키고 효율도 높이게 된다. 이 DPD는 대부분 HPA를 특정 모델이라고 가정하고 최적화 알고리즘을 통해 설계되는데 HPA의 모델에 대한 가정이 맞지 않을 경우 설계된 DPD의 성능이 떨어질 수 있다. 따라서 HPA의 모델을 정확하게 아는 것은 DPD 설계에 있어서 중요한 이슈가 된다. 본 논문에서는 실제 상용되는 HPA에 대해 이미 알려진 다양한 HPA의 모델 중에서 가장 적합한 모델을 선정하고 또한 그 모델의 계수를 얻어내는 방법을 소개한다. 이렇게 얻어진 HPA의 모델정보는 최적의 DPD 설계에 사용될 수 있다. 각 HPA 모델에 대한 파라메터를 구함에 있어서 알려진 최적화 방법 이외에 직접 적용이 어려운 경우에는 기존 방식을 수정하고 그 방식을 사용하였다. 실제 HPA 의 입출력 신호를 실시간 수집하고 컴퓨터 모의실험을 수행하여 동일한 HPA 입력 신호에 대해 실제 HPA의 출력과 찾아낸 최적 모델의 출력을 비교 분석함으로써 실제 찾아낸 모델이 가장 정확하게 상용 HPA를 모델링 하고 있음을 확인하였다.

  • PDF

Design and Performance Evaluation of Predistorter to Compensate HPA Nonlinearity in 16-QAM System (16-QAM 시스템에서 HPA 비선형성을 보상하기 위한 사전왜곡기의 설계 및 성능 평가)

  • Jang, Kyeongsoo;Ryu, Heung-Gyoon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
    • /
    • v.28 no.12
    • /
    • pp.948-953
    • /
    • 2017
  • When using a high-power amplifier(HPA) for high-speed communication, the nonlinear characteristics of the HPA deteriorate power efficiency, bit error rate(BER) performance, and spectral efficiency. Because it is inevitable to use the HPA to obtain sufficient transmission power for high-speed communication, it is necessary to compensate for nonlinearity of the HPA by using a predistorter. In this study, a predistorter was used to compensate for the nonlinearity of the HPA, and the nonlinear distortion was compensated using the predistorter. Simulation results show that the compensation of the nonlinearity of the HPA using the predistorter achieves a BER performance similar to that of an ideal linear amplifier, and that the spectral mask is also satisfied.

Development of HEA for Terrestrial Digital TV (지상파 DTV 용 HPA 개발)

  • 송명선;이재욱;김혁제;강상기;최재익
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.9-13
    • /
    • 1999
  • 이 논문은 디지털 TV 송신기의 구성 시스템 중 하나인 HPA 서브시스템(이하 HPA 시스템이라고 함)을 구현하는 구현 기술에 대하여 기술한다. HPA 시스템은 레벨 제어부, HPA 모듈, 고출력 결합기, 여파기, HPA 감시, 경보 및 제어 시스템으로 구성되어 있다. 이를 구현하기 위해서 전력레벨을 설계하고, 각 레벨에 맞는 4Wpeak, 30Wpeak, 125Wpeak 단위 증폭기를 설계, 제작 시험하였으며, 이들 단위 증폭기를 전력 분배기/결합기를 이용하여 결합하여 600Wpeak급 HPA 모듈을 제작하였다. 자체 제작한 HPA 모듈과 상용 부품을 이용하여 HPA 서브시스템을 구성하였으며, 현장시험을 통하여 그 성능을 입증하였다. 개발한 HPA 시스템은 동작주파수 470MHz-510MHz, 최대출력 1.6kWpeak, 이득 60dB 이상, 채널내 이득 평탄도 0.6dB 이하, 입력 반사손실 -l8dB이하이며, IMD는 3dB back-off시 -35dB이하이다

  • PDF

Design and Performance Evaluation of SSD (Simultaneous Single Band Duplex) System with HPA Nonlinearity (HPA 비선형 특성을 고려한 SSD(Simultaneous Single Band Duplex) 시스템의 설계와 성능 분석)

  • Keum, Hong-Sik;An, Changyoung;Ryu, Heung-Gyoon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
    • /
    • v.40 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-31
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this paper, we design a SSD(simultaneous single band duplex) system using RF cancellation and digital cancellation. And then, we analyze performance of the SSD system using pre-distorter with HPA non-linearity. Also, we analyze digital cancellation performance of the SSD system using pre-distorter with HPA non-linearity. Additionally, digital cancellation cancels residual self-interference. In linear conditions, digital cancellation can cancel self-interference of 40dB. Therefore, the SSD system has good BER performance because most of self-interference is canceled. But, in HPA non-linearity conditions, digital cancellation cancels residual self-interference of 25dB. In this conditions, self-interference is greater than desired signal. Therefore, bit informations of distant station can not be received. But, we confirm that if the proposed system uses pre-distorter then bit information of distant station can be received by HPA non-linearity compensation. Also, we confirm that even though the proposed system uses pre-distorter, if HPA non-linearity increases then digital cancellation performance is degraded by imperfect compensation of HPA non-linerity.

Cloning and Expression of hpaA Gene of Korean Strain Helicobacter pylori K51 in Oral Vaccine Delivery Vehicle Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363

  • Kim Su-Jung;Jun Do-Youn;Yang Chae-Ha;Kim Young-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.318-324
    • /
    • 2006
  • In order to develop an oral vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection, we have expressed the hpaA gene of H. pylori K51 isolated from Korean patients, encoding 29-kDa HpaA that is known to be localized on the cell surface and flagella sheath, in a live delivery vector system, Lactococcus lactis. The hpaA gene, amplified by PCR using the genomic DNA of H. pylori K51, was cloned in the pGEX-2T vector, and the DNA sequence analysis revealed that the hpaA gene of H. pylori K51 had 99.7% and 94.8% identity with individual hpaA genes of the H. pylori 26695 strain (U.K) and the J99 strain (U.S.A). A polyclonal anti-HpaA antibody was raised in rats using GST-HpaA fusion protein as the antigen. The hpaA gene was inserted in an E. coli-L. lactis-shuttle vector (pMG36e) to express in L. lactis. Western blot analysis showed that the expression level of HpaA in the L. lactis transformant remained constant from the exponential phase to the stationary phase, without extracelluar secretion. These results indicate that the HpaA of H. pylori K51 was successfully expressed in L. lactis, and suggest that the recombinant L. lactis expressing HpaA may be applicable as an oral vaccine to induce a protective immune response against H. pylori.

Effect of chloride ions on the catalytic properties of human pancreatic α-amylase isozyme produced in Pichia pastoris (Pichia pastoris에서 생산된 인체 췌장 α-아밀레이스 동질효소의 촉매활성에 대한 염소이온의 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Gyu;Kim, Young-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.48 no.4
    • /
    • pp.341-346
    • /
    • 2016
  • The AMY2B gene, encoding human pancreatic ${\alpha}$-amylase isozyme (HPA II), was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the effects of chloride ions on HPA II activity toward starch substrates were investigated. As seen with chloride ion-dependent ${\alpha}$-amylases-including HPA I, the isozyme of HPA II-chloride ions increased enzyme activity and shifted the optimal pH to an alkaline pH. The activity enhancement by chloride was more significant at pH 8 than that at pH 6, suggesting that the protonation state of the general acid/base catalyst of HPA II was important for the hydrolysis of starches at an alkaline pH because of the increase in its $pK_a$ by chloride ions. The turnover values for cereal starches as the substrates markedly increased in the presence of chloride by up to 7.2-fold, whereas that for soluble starch increased by only 1.7-fold. Chloride inhibited substrate hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, with $K_i$ values ranging from 6 to 15 mg/mL.

SETTING OF HPA OUTPUT POWER IN COMS DATS CONSIDERING IMD CHARACTERISTICS

  • Park, Durk-Jong;Yang, Hyung-Mo;Ahn, Sang-Il
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
    • /
    • v.1
    • /
    • pp.204-207
    • /
    • 2006
  • COMS will receive two different meteorological signals in S-Band from IDACS (Image Data Acquisition and Control System) in ground station before transmitting them in L-Band to user station. MODCS (Meteorological Ocean Data Communication Subsystem) in satellite released the value of required PFD (Power Flux Density) to receive two signals. Thus, DATS (Data Acquisition and Transmission Subsystem) needs to send two signals to satellite with a satisfied EIRP. The value of minimum HPA (High Power Amplifier) output power was estimated by subtracting antenna directional gain and path loss between antenna and HPA from the needed EIRP in this paper. Besides the minimum output power of HPA, the maximum output power was also calculated with considering IMD (Inter-Modulation Distortion) characteristics. IMD is always occurred in the output of HPA when LRIT and HRIT are amplified by using single HPA as COMS application. In this paper, the setting of maximum output power was determined when the IMD of modelled HPA was corresponded to the requirement of MODCS.

  • PDF

A Study on Data Acquisition Technique for HPA/DCO (HPA/DCO 영역의 데이터 수집 기법 연구)

  • Park, Min-su;Son, Nam-heun;Lee, Sang-jin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.850-853
    • /
    • 2011
  • HPA(Host Protected Area) 영역과 DCO(Device Configuration Overlay) 영역은 사용자가 일반적으로 접근할 수 없는 영역이며 이 위치에 데이터를 저장하거나 은닉할 수 있다. HPA/DCO 영역은 저장 장치와의 통신을 위해 만들어진 규약인 ATA-4와 ATA-6에서 제시되었다. 디지털 포렌식 조사시 HPA/DCO 영역을 고려하지 않은 디스크 이미징 및 데이터 추출 방법은 해당 영역에 숨겨진 유용한 정보를 획득할 수 없다. 따라서 디지털 포렌식 관점에서 HPA/DCO 영역은 중요한 의미를 가지고 있으며, 해당 영역에 존재하는 데이터를 인식하여 획득하는 절차를 통해 디스크 이미징 또는 데이터 추출이 이루어져야 한다. 본 논문은 HPA/DCO 영역에 관한 기존 연구를 활용하여 포렌식 조사에서 해당 영역을 확인하고 접근할 수 있는 방법을 제시하며, HPA/DCO 영역에 저장되어 있는 데이터를 획득하여 디지털 포렌식 조사시 활용할 수 있도록 한다.

  • PDF