• Title, Summary, Keyword: Haematuria

Search Result 9, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Assessment and Clinical Significance of Haematuria in Malaysian Patients - Relevance to Early Cancer Diagnosis

  • Ng, Keng Lim;Htun, Thi Ha;Dublin, Norman;Ong, Teng Aik;Razack, Azad Hassan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.6
    • /
    • pp.2515-2518
    • /
    • 2012
  • Aim: To study the causes and significance of both microscopic and macroscopic haematuria in adult patients and assess possible relevance to early detection of urological cancers. Methods: 417 patients presenting with haematuria were assessed in our Urology Unit. Following confirmation of haematuria, these patients were subjected to imaging techniques and flexible cystoscopy. Parameters analysed included clinical characteristics, imaging results, flexible cystoscopy findings, time delay to diagnoses and eventual treatment and final diagnoses of all cases. Results: 390 haematuria cases were analysed from 417 consecutive patients with haematuria. After 27 cases were excluded as they had previous history, 245 microscopic and 145 macroscopic. Age range was 17 to 95 years old with predominance of 152 females to 239 males. The racial distribution included 180 Chinese, 100 Indians,95 Malays and 15 other races. The final diagnoses were benign prostatic hyperplasia (22.6%), no cause found (22.3%), other causes (18.7%), urolithiasis (11.5%), urinary tract infection UTI (10.8%), non specific cystitis (10.3%), bladder tumours (2.8%) and other genitourinary tumours (1%). 11 new cases (2.8%) of bladder cancers were diagnosed, with a mean age of 59 years. Only 3 of 245 (1.2%) patients with microscopic haematuria had newly diagnosed bladder tumour compared with 8 of 145 (5.5%) patients with frank haematuria (p=0.016). Mean time taken from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of bladder cancer was 53.3 days with definitive treatment (TURBT) in 20.1 days from diagnosis. Conclusion:- This study has highlighted the common causes of haematuria in our local setting. We recommend that full and appropriate investigations be carried out on patients with frank haematuria especially those above 50 years old in order to provide earlier detection and prompt management of bladder diseases especially tumours.

Stratifying Patients with Haematuria into High or Low Risk Groups for Bladder Cancer: a Novel Clinical Scoring System

  • Tan, Guan Hee;Shah, Shamsul Azhar;Ann, Ho Sue;Hemdan, Siti Nurhafizah;Shen, Lim Chun;Abdul Galib, Nurudin Al-Fahmi;Singam, Praveen;Kong, Ho Chee Christopher;Hong, Goh Eng;Bahadzor, Badrulhisham;Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.11
    • /
    • pp.6327-6330
    • /
    • 2013
  • Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross-sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low r isk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.

Loin Pain Haematuria Syndrome - A Narrative Review of Pain Management Strategies

  • Grech, Andrew Kristian
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.78-85
    • /
    • 2016
  • Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is an uncommon clinical entity that has divided renal physicians, pain practitioners, and even psychiatrists since its initial description. A relative paucity of data exists regarding the condition, with best practice guidelines lacking amid the existing threads of anecdotal experiences and variable follow-up observations. The aim of this article was to review the cumulative published experience of pain relief strategies for LPHS.

Can Reproductive Characteristics Predict Bladder Cancer in Women with Haematuria?

  • Yavuzcan, Ali;Caglar, Mete;Kayikci, Muhammet Ali;Basaran, Ekrem;Tekin, Ali;Ozdemir, Enver;Dilbaz, Serdar;Ustun, Yusuf;Cam, Haydar Kamil
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.9
    • /
    • pp.5107-5110
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: Among women with haematuria, defining individuals under high risk for bladder cancer based on reproductive factors prior to cystoscopy would be of great benefit in the management of this condition. The aim of this study was to compare age and reproductive factors such as menopausal status, parity, age at first delivery and age at the last delivery between women who have haematuria with or without bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 463 patients underwent diagnostic cystoscopy in D$\ddot{u}$zce University Faculty of Medicine between 1 June 2008 and 1 June 2013. Female patients who presented with persistent microscopic or macroscopic haematuria and underwent standard evaluation for haematuria including urinalysis, urine culture, urine cytology, urinary tract imaging with excretory urography or computerized tomography with contrast enhancement and endoscopic evaluation of the urethra and bladder were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were tobacco use and high risk occupations for bladder cancer such as textile, dry cleaning, painting and etc. Forteen women had hematuria due to benign conditions, and 18 due to bladder cancer. Data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records of Duzce University Hospital. Results: Patients with haematuria due to benign reasons did not significantly differ from patients who were found to have bladder cancer in terms of age (p=0.28), menopausal status (p=0.29), mean parity (p=0.38), being nulliparous (p=0.57), parity ${\geq}3$ (p=0.22), age ${\leq}18$ years at first delivery (p=1.00), age ${\geq}30$ years at last delivery (p=0.26), age ${\geq}35$ years at last delivery (p=0.23) and percentage of the patients with advanced age (${\geq}65$ years) (p=0.18). Conclusions: It is difficult to predict a high risk for developing bladder cancer in women with haematuria based solely on reproductive factors.

Fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization in the Surveillance of Urothelial Cancers: Can Use of Cystoscopy or Ureteroscopy be Deferred?

  • Ho, Christopher Chee Kong;Tan, Wei Phin;Pathmanathan, Rajadurai;Tan, Wei Keith;Tan, Hui Meng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.7
    • /
    • pp.4057-4059
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing may be useful to screen for bladder carcinoma or dysplasia by detecting aneuploidy chromosomes 3, 7, 17 and deletion of the chromosome 9p21 locus in urine specimens. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of FISH in a multi-ethnic population in Asia. Materials and Methods: Patients with haematuria and/or past history of urothelial cancer on follow-up had their voided urine tested with FISH. Patients then underwent cystoscopy/ureteroscopy and any lesions seen were biopsied. The histopathological reports of the bladder or ureteroscopic mucosal biopsies were then compared with the FISH test results. Results: Two hundred sixty patients were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the FISH test was 89.2% and 83.4% respectively. The positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 47.1% and 97.9%. By excluding patients who had positive deletion of chromosome 9, the overall results of the screening test improved: sensitivity 84.6%; specificity 96.4%; PPV 75.9% and NPV 97.9%. Conclusions: UroVysion FISH has a high specificity of detecting urothelial cancer or dysplasia when deletion of chromosome 9 is excluded. Negative UroVysion FISH-tests may allow us to conserve health resources and minimize trauma by deferring cystoscopic or ureteroscopic examination.

The Study on The Snake Venom (사독(蛇毒)에 대한 문헌적(文獻的) 고찰(考察))

  • Lee, Jin-Seon;Kwon, Gi-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-91
    • /
    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to invastigate the researches of Snake Venom and snakes which used in treatment 1. The fist literature that used the snake for treatment is Shin Nong Ben Cao Jing 2. Composition of Snake Venom is consist of Enzymatic proteins ; Phospholipase A(A1-2), Protease, L-amino acid oxidase etc, and Non-enzymatic proteins ; Crotamine(Cytolysin), Proteolytic factor(Hematoxin), Crotoxin(Neurotoxin) etc. 3. Main toxins in Snake Venom are Hematoxin, Cytolysin, Neurotoxin and Cardiotoxin. Lethal dose 50 value of Agkistrodon brevicaudus is $45.87{\mu}g$/18g, Agkistrodon saxatilis is $10.28{\mu}g$/18g, Agkistrodon ussuriensis is $8.68{\mu}g$/18g, therefore Agkistrodon ussuriensis has strongist Snake Venom of all in Korea. 4. Pharmacological actions of Snake Venom are anticoagulation, thrombolytic function, hypotensor etc. 5. Systemic syndromes and signs after snakebite are Dizziness(25.7%), Vomitting(23.1%), Fever(22%), Visual disturbance(18%), Headache(17.7%) and Dyspnea(17.6%), etc. 6. Local syndrome and sign after snakebite is Discoloration(54.2%), Bleeding(20.2%), Bullae(10.7%), Skinulcer(10.8%), etc. 7. Pathological syndromes after snakebite are WBC increase, Urine protein, Urine sugar, Haematuria and elevation of S-GDT, S-GPT etc. These syndromes are leaded by Hematoxin and Cytolysin. 8. Complication signs after snakebite are Cellulitis, Gastritis, Lympoma, Abscess etc. 9. Common function of Viperidae(Agkistrodon acutus or Zaocys dhumnades etc) is expelling the wind(祛風), removing obstruction in the channels(通絡), antipastic function(止痙). And it is used in order to cure hemiparesis, hemiplegia, facial palsy and CVA disease, etc. 10. Using way of snake for medical treatment is various like Herbal alchol therapy, pill, powder and injection etc. The Study on the Snake Venom should be carried out continuously for using of medical treatment.

Clinical Prognostic Factors and Survival Outcome in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients - A Malaysian Single Centre Perspective

  • Yap, Ning Yi;Ng, Keng Lim;Ong, Teng Aik;Pailoor, Jayalakshmi;Gobe, Glenda Carolyn;Ooi, Chong Chien;Razack, Azed Hassan;Dublin, Norman;Morais, Christudas;Rajandram, Retnagowri
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.12
    • /
    • pp.7497-7500
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: This study concerns clinical characteristics and survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), as well as the prognostic significance of presenting symptoms. Materials and Methods: The clinical characteristics, presenting symptoms and survival of RCC patients (n=151) treated at UMMC from 2003-2012 were analysed. Symptoms evaluated were macrohaematuria, flank pain, palpable abdominal mass, fever, lethargy, loss of weight, anaemia, elevated ALP, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of these presenting symptoms. Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were employed for survival analysis. Results: The 2002 TNM staging was a prognostic factor (p<0.001) but Fuhrman grading was not significantly correlated with survival (p=0.088). At presentation, 76.8% of the patients were symptomatic. Generally, symptomatic tumours had a worse survival prognosis compared to asymptomatic cases (p=0.009; HR 4.74). All symptoms significantly affect disease specific survival except frank haematuria and loin pain on univariate Cox regression analysis. On multivariate analysis adjusted for stage, only clinically palpable abdominal mass remained statistically significant (p=0.027). The mean tumour size of palpable abdominal masses, $9.5{\pm}4.3cm$, was larger than non palpable masses, $5.3{\pm}2.7cm$ (p<0.001). Conclusions: This is the first report which includes survival information of RCC patients from Malaysia. Here the TNM stage and a palpable abdominal mass were independent predictors for survival. Further investigations using a multicentre cohort to analyse mortality and survival rates may aid in improving management of these patients.

Effect of Rheum undulatum Extract on Antioxidant Activity and Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Human Skin Fibroblasts (대황 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 MMP-1 저해 활성)

  • Park, Sung-Min;Lee, Gye-Won;Cho, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1700-1704
    • /
    • 2008
  • Rheum undulatum L. has been commonly used as a cure for hematemesis, dropsy, and haematuria in the Oriental medicine for a long time. The main constituents of R. undulatum are chrysophanol and emodin, which are an antioxidative substance that has an anthraquinone structure. In the present study, to develop a new anti-aging agent, we examined the antioxidant activity and the inhibitory effect of the R. undulatum extract on the synthesis of MMP-1 in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts and MMP-1 activity. The R. undulatum extract was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide radicals in the xanthine/ xanthine oxidase system by a dose-dependent manner, respectively. UVA-induced MMP-1 expression was reduced about 79.5% by 1 ${\mu}g$/ml of the R. undulatum extract and also inhibited MMP-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, it was observed that the R. undulatum extract has the antioxidant activity, regulation of UVA-induced MMP-1 production, and inhibition of MMP-1 activity. Therefore, these results suggest that the R. undulatum extract can be developed as a new anti-aging component of cosmetics.

Decitabine in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Which Combined with Complex Karyotype Respectively

  • Gao, Su;Li, Zheng;Fu, Jian-Hong;Hu, Xiao-Hui;Xu, Yang;Jin, Zheng-Ming;Tang, Xiao-Wen;Han, Yue;Chen, Su-Ning;Sun, Ai-Ning;Wu, De-Pei;Qiu, Hui-Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.15
    • /
    • pp.6627-6632
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: We conducted a study exploring the clinical safety and efficacy of decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), combined with a complex karyotype. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to September 2013, a total of 35 patients with AML/MDS combined with a complex karyotype diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included for retrospective analysis. All patients were treated with decitabine alone ($20mg/m^2$ daily for 5 days) or combination AAG chemotherapy (Acla 20mg qod*4d, Ara-C $10mg/m^2$ q12h*7d, G-CSF $300{\mu}g$ qd, the dose of G-CSF adjusted to the amount in blood routinely). Results: In 35 patients, 15 exhibited a complete response (CR), and 6 a partial response (PR), the overall response rate (CR+PR) being 60% (21 of 35). Median disease-free survival was 18 months and overall survival was 14 months. In the 15 MDS patients with a complex karyotype, the CR rate was 53.3% (8 of 15); in 20 AML patients with complex karyotype, the overall response rate was 65% (13 of 20). The response rate of decitabine alone (22 cases) was 56.5% (13 of 22), while in the combination chemotherapy group (13 cases), the effective rate was 61.5% (8 of 13)(P>0.05). There are 15 patients with chromosome 7 aberration, after treatment with decitabine, 7 CR, 3 PR, overall response rate was 66.7% (10 of 15). Of 18 patients with 3 to 5 kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, 66.7% demonstrated a response; of 17 with more than 5 chromosomal abnormalities, 52.9% had a response. In the total of 35 patients, with one course (23 patients) and ${\geq}$two courses (12 patients), the overall response rate was 40.9% and 92.3% (P<0.05). Grade III to IV hematological toxicity was observed in 27 cases (75%). Grade III to IV infections were clinically documented in 7 (20%). Grades I to II non-hematological toxicity were infections (18 patients), haematuria (2 patients), and bleeding (3 patients). With follow-up until September 2013, 7 patients were surviving, 18 had died and 10 were lost to follow-up. In the 6 cases who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) all were still relapse-free survivors. Conclusions: Decitabine alone or combination with AAG can improve outcome of AML/MDS with a complex karyotype, there being no significant difference decitabine in inducing remission rates in patients with different karyotype. Increasing the number of courses can improve efficiency. This approach with fewer treatment side effects in patients with a better tolerance should be employed in order to create an improved subsequent chance for HSCT.