• Title, Summary, Keyword: Halogenated Compounds

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Prediction of Sorption/Desorption Parameters of Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds Using QSAR (QSAR을 이용한 지방족 할로겐화합물 흡착 및 탈착 계수의 예측)

  • 김종오;박증석;최연돈
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.737-742
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    • 2002
  • Sorption and desorption is an important phenomenon to determine the fate of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase. This study was conducted to develope a predictive equation capable of estimating the sorption and desorption potentials of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons onto the sludge from activated process, sediment, and clay. It has shown that the sorption and desorption parameters can be accurately estimated using Quantitative Structural Activity Relationship(QSAR) models based on molecular connectivity indexes of test compounds. The QSAR model could be applied to predict the sorption and desorption capacity of the other halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The QSAR modeling would provide a useful tool to predict the sorption and desorption capacity without time-consuming experiments.

Effects of Halogenated Compounds, Organic Acids and Unsaturated Fatty Acids on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation Characteristics

  • Choi, N.J.;Lee, S.Y.;Sung, H.G.;Lee, S.C.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1255-1259
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of halogenated compounds, organic acids, unsaturated fatty acids and their mixtures on in vitro methane production and fermentative characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms. Agents used in two in vitro experiments were bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) as halogenated compound, fumarate and malate as organic acid, and linoleic acid and linolenic acid as unsaturated fatty acid sources. Ruminal fluid collected from a Holstein steer fed tall fescue and concentrate mixtures was incubated at $39^{\circ}C$ for 48 h with addition of those materials. Single supplementation of halogenated compounds, organic acids or unsaturated fatty acids decreased in vitro methane production (p<0.05). The second experiment was designed to investigate effects of combination of one of halogenated compounds and either organic acids or fatty acids on methane production. Lower concentration of methane and lower A:P ratio were observed with PMDI compared with BES (p<0.01). In general medium pH, VFA, total gas and hydrogen production, and dry matter degradability were affected by addition of the same compounds. In addition, PMDI+malate treatment resulted in the highest molar proportion of propionate, and lowest A:P ratio and methane production (p<0.01). Hydrogen production was highest in PMDI+linolenic acid and lowest in BES+malate treatment (p<0.01). PMDI+malate combination was the most recommendable in reducing methane production without too much influence on digestibility under conditions of present studies.

Sorption/Desorption Characteristics of Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds from Activated Sludge, Sediment, and Clay (지방족 할로겐화합물의 활성슬러지와 해안저질 및 점토에서의 흡탈착 특성)

  • 김종오;박종석;최연돈
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.9
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    • pp.961-969
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed : 1) to establish the experimental analysis conditions for the sorption and desorption of toxic organic contaminants to/from the activated sludge, sediment, and clay, and 2) to determine the sorption and desorption equilibrium coefficients of some representative halogenated aliphatic compounds. Through the preliminary sorption test using Azo dye, a setting of quantitative experimental conditions to determine the sorption and desorption characteristics was decided as follows; equilibration time of 180 minutes, centrifuge for 15 minutes at 5000$\times$g, and 500mg/$\ell$ of TOC concentration. The sorption and desorption characteristics of halogenated aliphatic compounds onto activated sludge, sediment and clay could be described very well using the Freundlich isotherm. The preference of the average sorption capacity of the overall compounds showed in the sequence sediment 0.26mg/g, clay 0.23mg/g, and activated sludge 0.11 mg/g. The desorption rate of the sorbed compounds onto activated sludge, sediment and clay was approximately 89.8%, 35.3%, and 66.4%, respectively.

Prediction of the Net Heats of Combustion of Organic Halogenated Compounds based on the Atomic Contribution Method (원자기여법에 근거한 유기 할로겐 화합물의 순연소열 예측)

  • Ha, Dong-Myeong;Lee, Sung-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2003
  • The heat of combustion is one of the major physical properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of the flammable substances. Empirical equations have been developed to pre-dict the net heats of combustion of organic halogenated compounds based on the atomic contribution method. The method developed in this study was compared with Cardozo's method and Hanley's method. As can be seen from the average absolute deviation(A.A.D.), the proposed equation was found to be best. The proposed equation may serve as an estimation scheme for the heats of combustion of the other organic halogenated compounds.

Antimicrobial and Antineoplastic Tyrosine Metabolites from a Marine Sponge, Aplysina fistularis

  • Goo, Yang-M.
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 1985
  • Examination of the constituents of a marine sponge, Aplysina fishtularis, indicated that brominated tyrosine metabolites were mainly responsible for antimicrobial and antineoplastic activities. Halogenated tyrosine metabolites, 2, 6-dibromo-(2), 2-bromo-3-chloro-(3) and 2, 6-dibromo-(5), 5-a mino-2-bromo-6-chloro-(6) and 5-amino-2, 6-dich-loro-(7) 4-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone-4-acetic acid lactams were identified as the major antineoplastic and antimicrobial principles. Many other brominated tyrosine metabolites were also confirmed, but they did not show antimicrobial and antineoplastic activities.

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Temporal Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds in Newly-Constructed Residential Buildings: Concentration and Source

  • Shin, Seung-Ho;Jo, Wan-Kuen
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2013
  • The present study was designed to examine the concentrations, emission rates, and source characteristics of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 30 newly-constructed apartment buildings by measuring indoor and outdoor VOC concentrations over a 2-year period. For comparison, seven villa-type houses were also surveyed for indoor and outdoor VOC concentrations over a 3-month period. Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected on Tenax-TA adsorbent and analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer system or a GC/flame ionization detector system coupled to a thermal desorption system. The long-term change in indoor VOC concentrations depended on the type of VOCs. Generally, aromatic (except for naphthalene), aliphatic, and terpene compounds exhibited a gradual deceasing trend over the 2-year follow-up period. However, the indoor concentrations of the six halogenated VOCs did not significantly vary with time changes. Similar to these halogenated VOCs, the indoor naphthalene concentrations did not vary significantly with time changes over the 2-year period. Unlike the halogenated VOCs, the indoor naphthalene concentrations were much higher than the outdoor concentrations. The indoor concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds were higher for the villa-type houses when compared to those of apartment buildings. In addition, four source groups (floor coverings and interior painting, household products, wood paneling and furniture, moth repellents) and three source groups (floor coverings and interior painting, household products, and moth repellents) were considered as potential VOC sources inside apartment buildings for the first- and second-year post-occupancy stages, respectively.

Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Volatile Halogenated Hydrocarbons Using Urinalysis with Capillary GC-ECD

  • Jung, Won-Tae;Sohn, Dong-Hun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 1992
  • For the risk assessment of human exposure to volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, a dynamic purge trap/on-column cryofocusing method using capillary gas chromatograph-$^{63}Ni$ electron capture detector and thermal desorption unit was applied to analyze the free forms, metabolites of 1, 1, 2-trichloroethylene and 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethylene. The urine sample was diluted with distilled water, hydrolyzed and sealed. Then the inert gas was infused to purge out free 1, 1, 2-trichloroethylene, free 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethylene and urichloroethanol. These compounds were trapped to $Tenax^R$ / GC-gas trap device throughout clean up tube. Being undertectable to gas chromatograph directly, trichloroacetic acid was methyl esterificated and trapped in the manner above mentioned. The optimal incubation time to get best recovery of methyl ester was 4 hours at $60^circ$C. The concentrations of free volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and their metabolites in urine were obtained of free volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and their metabolites in urine were obtained from 5 healthy volunteers. This analytical method is expected to make the biological monitoring more precise and convenient.

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Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Affected by Natural Halogenated Aromatic Compounds

  • Kim Jongseol;Lee Ahmi;Moon Yong-Suk;So Jae-Seong;Koh Sung-Cheol
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the effects of halogenated aromatic compounds (HACs) including naturally occurring ones (L-thyroxine, 3-chloro-L-tyrosine, 5-chloroindole, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and chlorobenzene) on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination in sediment cultures. A PCB-dechlorinating enrichment culture of sediment microorganisms from the St. Lawrence River was used as an initial inoculum. When the culture was inoculated into Aroclor 1248 sediments amended with each of the six HACs, the extent of dechlorination was not enhanced by amendment with HACs. The dechlorination patterns in the HAC-amended sediments were nearly identical to that of the HAC-free sediments except the 3-chloro-L-tyrosine-amended ones where no dechlorination activity was observed. When these sediment cultures were transferred into fresh sediments with the same HACs, the dechlorination specificities remained the same as those of the initial inoculations. Thus, in the present study, the substrate range of the highly selected enrichment culture could not be broadened by the HACs. It appears that HACs affect PCB dechlorination mainly through population selection rather than enzyme induction of single population.

Volatile Organic Compounds contamination in some urban runoff and groundwater samples in Seoul City (서울시 도로변 빗물과 지하수의 VOCs오염)

  • 이평구;박성원;전치완;신성천
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.73-91
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    • 2001
  • compounds (VOCs) were selected for assessment of VOCs contamination in some urban runoff and groundwater samples in Seoul. They included 3 aromatic hydrocarbons, 13 alkyl benzenes, 1 ether, 26 halogenated alkanes, 10 halogenated alkenes, and 9 halogenated aromatics. The levels of VOCs in urban runoff and groundwater were measured for samples collected in March 2000, June 2000 and November 2000 in Seoul City. A total of 78 samples (44 run-off water, 27 groundwater, and 7 samples from 4 urban wastewater treatment plants in Seoul) were collected and analysed by GC-MS with purge and trap. After examination of the runoff, it was concluded that alkyl benzenes and aromatic hydrocarbons were organic compounds which were significantly impacted by traffic flows in Seoul. Of 62 VOCs, only 11 VOCs were not detected in runoff samples, while 14 VOCs were detected in 27 groundwater samples. The toluene content in the runoff was extremely variable from 0.1ppb to 29,310ppb, depending on the different sampling sites. The concentrations of xylene ranged between 0.07ppb and 2970ppb in the runoff. The concentrations ranged from 0.05ppb to 33.0ppb for benzene, 0.05ppb to 960ppb for ethylbenzene, 0.08ppb to 20ppb for trichloromethane (chloroform) , 0.03ppb to 4.30ppb for trichloroethylene(TCE) and 0.1ppb to 50ppb for 1,1,2-trichloroethane. From the preliminary study of groundwater from some wells in Seoul, the most frequently detected VOCs are djchlorornethane(methylene chloride), trichloromethane(chloroform) and toluene. Most of aromatic hydrocarbons, alkyl benzenes and other solvents generally lower than detection limits.

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