• Title, Summary, Keyword: Halophyte

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Soil Salinity Influencing Plant Stands on the Reclaimed Tidal Flats of Kyonggi-Bay in the Midwestern Coast of Korea (우리나라 중서부 해안 경기만 간척지에서 식생 분포에 대한 토양 염도의 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyu;Chun, Soul;Joo, Young-K.;Jung, Yeong-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.280-288
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    • 2009
  • To identify controlling factors for spatial variation of vegetation in reclaimed tidal flats, plant stands were investigated in a newly reclaimed as well as three matured tidal flats, and a natural tidal flat in the midwest coast of Korea. Electrical conductivity of saturated soil extract (ECe) was measured to assess soil salinity. Soil salinity differed significantly among plant stands. Depending on soil salinity, plant species showed different niches: glycophyte predominated low saline spots, halophyte predominated high saline spots. Soil salinity for each plant habitats was in order of as follow: bare soil or plant wilted > mixed pioneer halophyte > pioneer halophyte > mixed with pioneer halophyte and facultative halophyte > mixed facultative halophyte > facultative halophyte > mixed with facultative halophyte and glycophyte > glycophyte > mixed glycophyte stands. These results suggested that plant distribution might have been influenced by spatial edaphic gradient (soil salinity), and thus it could be utilized as an indicator for field soil salinity gradient. Relationship between soil salinity and plant distribution was not different among the aged reclaimed tidal flats, suggesting that the vegetative population might have changed into a similar direction since the reclamation.

Changes in Flora Dynamics on the Reclaimed Tidal Flats of Kyonggi-Bay in the Mid-west Coast of Korea (우리나라 중서부 해안 경기만 간척지에서 식생변화)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyu;Jung, Yeong-Sang;Chun, Soul;Joo, Young-K.;Jeong, Hyeung-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.289-300
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    • 2009
  • Flora distribution was surveyed in the newly reclaimed tidal flats in the west coastal area in Korea to understand changes in flora dynamics after reclamation. The surveyed reclaimed tidal flats were the newly reclaimed tidal flat in Hangdam, the mid Kyonggi Bay in 2002, and three reclaimed lands in Seukmun and Daeho, Chungnam, and Hangdam in Kyonggi Bay, of which reclamation years based on embankment were 7, 9 and 18 years, respectively. In the newly reclaimed tidal flat, the dominant flora was Suaeda japonica and other florae were rare, while various halophytes and glycophytes were distributed in the reclaimed lands. On the newly reclaimed tidal flat, four species of halophytic pioneer florae, Salicornia europaea, Suaeda glauca, Suaeda japonica, and Suaeda maritime occurred, and along with age facultative halophyte and glycophyte occurred sequently. On the reclaimed lands, the florae were more complex with various facultative halophyte and glycophyte, so these were predominated rather than pioneer halophyte, while one of pioneer halophyte that Suaeda japonica was not occurred. Increasing of various facultative halophyte and glycophyte, and decreasing of pioneer halophyte indicated that flora changed toward to increase of facultative halophyte and glycophyte by aged after reclamation. On the newly reclaimed tidal flat the ratio of flora species changed rapidly with the invasion of plant. This implied that the flora had begun to change in the early stage of reclamation. Facultative halophyte and glycophyte started to increase on the early stage of reclamation but relative density and frequency of pioneer halophyte was higher than facultative halophyte and glycophyte. According to the investigation up to 3 years after reclamation, pioneer halophyte predominated on it. Although flora changed, there were common representative halophytes among the reclaimed tidal flats: Salicornia europaea, Suaeda maritima, and Suaeda glauca as pioneer halophyte, Aster tripolium, Sonchus brachyotus, and Phragmites communis as facultative halophytes.

Distribution, Characterization, and Diversity of the Endophytic Fungal Communities on Korean Seacoasts Showing Contrasting Geographic Conditions

  • You, Young-Hyun;Park, Jong Myong;Seo, Yeong Gyo;Lee, Woong;Kang, Myung-Suk;Kim, Jong-Guk
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.150-159
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzed the distribution of endophytic fungi in 3 coastal environments with different climatic, geographical, and geological characteristics: the volcanic islands of Dokdo, the East Sea, and the West Sea of Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were characterized and analyzed with respect to the characteristics of their host environments. For this purpose, we selected common native coastal halophyte communities from three regions. Molecular identification of the fungal endophytes showed clear differences among the sampling sites and halophyte host species. Isolates were also characterized by growth at specific salinities or pH gradients, with reference to previous geographical, geological, and climate studies. Unlike the East Sea or West Sea isolates, some Dokdo Islands isolates showed endurable traits with growth in high salinity, and many showed growth under extremely alkaline conditions. A smaller proportion of West Sea coast isolates tolerate compared to the East Sea or Dokdo Islands isolates. These results suggest that these unique fungal biota developed through a close interaction between the host halophyte and their environment, even within the same halophyte species. Therefore, this study proposes the application of specific fungal resources for restoring sand dunes and salt-damaged agricultural lands and industrialization of halophytic plants.

Contents of Inorganic Metals from Halophyte and shellfish Living in the Beach Sediment (갯벌생물에서의 미량성분 함량)

  • Park, Hee-Yeon;Kim, Yeon-Kye;Lee, Doo-Seok;Song, Ki-Cheol;Lim, Chi-Won
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2007
  • Halophyte and shellfish are functional and favorite foods in Korea. This study was conducted to survey the contents of inorganic metals to elucidate seafood hygiene & safety. The average concentrations of heavy metals in the halophyte and shellfish were 1.73, and 1.54 ppb of Cd and 47.37, 25.06ppm of Cu, respectively. Average contents of Hg in halophytes was 0.26 ppb and 50.43 ppb in shellfish. In case of minerals, the average concentrations were 4,475.62, 4,440.54 ppm of Ca, and 3,936.16, 1,227.09 ppm of Fe, 2,145.36, 6.170.60 ppm of P. and 314.53, 162.11 ppm of Zn, respectively. The average values of heavy metals were all below the permissible amounts in food but minerals showed high levels in halophyte and shellfish.

Analyzing Spectral Characteristics of Salt Marsh Vegetation Around Donggumdo Tidal Flat in Ganghwado, Korea (강화도 동검도 주변 조간대 내에 서식하는 염생식물의 분광특성 분석)

  • Lee, Yoon-Kyung;Eom, Jin-Ah;Ryu, Joo-Hyung;Won, Joong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.575-581
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    • 2007
  • Suaeda japonica is the one of halophyte species which is widely spread in the Ganghwado tidal flat. Halophyte affects to the vertical development of wetland by enhancing the adhesion force of sediments. If demineralization of tidal flat proceeds, the colony of halophyte moves to the seaside where has relatively high salinity content. The change of halophyte zonation can be an environmental indicator to understand the landization of tidal flat. To interpret the spectral characteristics of halophyte, we measured the reflectance of suaeda japonica, reed and sediment around Donggumdo tidal flat in Ganghwado. First and second-derivation analysis was applied to these transformed spectra in order to identify which spectral ranges were distinguished with different coastal wetland vegetation and artificial structures. From the result, red reflectance peak of suaeda japonica were appeared at 600-650nm and greed reflectance peak of reed were appeared at 500-570nm. Spectra of sediments were continuously increased from 350-550nm without any absorption by chlorophyll. These reflectance were easily identified among the spectra of halophyte.

Soil Environment Analysis and Habitat of Halophyte for Restoration in the Salt Marshes of Southern and Western Coasts of Korea (한국 서.남해안 염습지 복원을 위한 염생식물의 생육지와 토양환경 분석)

  • Lee, Jeom-Sook;Ilm, Byung-Sun;Myeong, Hyen-Ho;Park, Jung-Won;Kim, Ha-Song
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the halophyte community and soil analysis according to habitat in representative 18 salt marshes of southern and western coasts of Korea from July 2006 to April 2008 and suggested basic materials for vegetational restoration of these aras. First, the survey area was classified into coastal and estuarine marshes. Then, the coastal marshes were classified into clay marsh, sand gravel marsh, and sand marsh, and the esturarine marshes, into salt swamp and estuary marsh. Major plant communities according to habitat pattern were Phragmites communis, Carex scabrifolia, and Suaeda japonica community in the clay marsh; Phragmites communis, Zoysia sinica, Carex scabrifolia, Salicornia herbacea, Artemisia fukudo, Suaeda martima community in the sand gravel marsh; Elymus mollis, Carex kobomugi, and Vitex rotundifolia community in the sand mars; Phragmites communis, Zoysia sinica, Suaeda martima, and Carex scabrifolia community in the salt swamp, and Suaeda japonica, Phragmites communis, Carex scabrifolia, and Suaeda asparagoides community in the estuary marsh. The soil environment of halophyte community area showed a difference to soil and halophyte community according to habitat characteristics of halophyte. Thus, to restore salt mashes in the coast area, it is advantageous for the stable settlement, germination, and growth of halophyte to grasp physical and physicochemical characteristics of habitat soil in the salt marshes, to select halophyte suitable to these habitat conditions, and to expand gradually in the natural vegetation area after transplantation.

Relationship between halophyte distribution and soil environmental factors in the west coast of South Korea

  • Lee, Seung Ho;Lee, Jeom-Sook;Kim, Jong-Wook
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.12-19
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    • 2018
  • Background: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between soil environmental factors and halophyte distribution in the west coast of South Korea. Soils of our study sites were categorized into two groups: salt marsh and estuary marsh. Results: Salinity was higher in the salt marsh group than that in the estuary marsh group. However, total nitrogen, silt, and clay contents were higher in the estuary marsh group than those in the salt marsh group. Although altitude had a wider range in the salt marsh group, the mean altitude was higher in the estuary marsh group than that in the salt marsh group. Annual halophytes of seed propagation species were distributed parallel to the coast line on salt marsh. Higher coverage of vegetation was found in the area closer to the coast line. Plant density was higher near dead parental plants in estuary marsh, showing less difference in area that was more distant from the coast line. Conclusions: Results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) for vegetation distribution and sediment environmental factors and germination analysis in the coast line showed significant relationship with halophyte distribution. Therefore, they can be used as an indicator of coastal plant movement due to sea level rise.

Studies on Vegetation for Ecological Restoration of Salt Marshes in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land - Germination Strategies and Character of Halophytes - (새만금 간척지일대 염습지 생태복원을 위한 식생학적 연구 - 염생식물 발아 전략 및 특성 -)

  • Kim, Chang-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.451-462
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    • 2009
  • A study on vegetation in the Mangyeong River and Dongjin River basins and the surrounding regions of the Saemangeum Reclaimed Land was conducted in a series of efforts to determine the expected ecological changes in the salt marshes, to restore their vegetation, to explore the restoring force of halophyte, to examine the community mechanism and, ultimately, to rehabilitate marshy land vegetation along the lakeside, coastal dune and salt marshes of the Saemangeum Project Area. The findings of the study may be summed up as follows: Five species such as Suaeda japonica, Salicornia herbacea, Atriplex gmelini, Aster tripolium and Suaeda asparagoides that are mostly distributed in the estuary of the Saemangeum Reclaimed Land were analyzed to examine the mechanism of halophyte to maintain their community. To find out the strategies of plants for survival and the cause of forming community structure, a research was made as for appearance ratio of young sapling. From the results of laboratory analysis into dynamics of the saplings of halophyte, it was revealed that the germination ratio of the dry area and submerged area decreases in the order of Suaeda asparagoides, Suaeda japonica, Salicornia herbacea, Atriplex gmelini and Aster tripolium.

Traits of Water Level Control by Sluice Gates and Halophyte Community Formation in Saemangeum (새만금 배수갑문 수위조절 특성과 염생식물 군락지 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Sin, Myoung-Ho;Kim, Chang-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.186-193
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    • 2010
  • In order to examine the traits of sluice gate water control, halophyte community formation and their inter-relations in Saemangeum, both water level condition and halophyte community formation were analyzed periodically and spatially on the topographic map with Surfer, Saemageum Spatial Analysis System, and related field reports. The traits of water level condition are that average water level in the growing period of halophytes was similar to annual average water level, annual low level and high level appeared in the growing period, and water level was usually maintained within a range of -1.0m~0.5m above mean sea level, but it has changed more frequently year by year. Routine water level control, natural disaster prevention, construction, and civil appeal took major percentages of the reasons for sluice gate's opening and shutting. Since 2007, not only the overall control frequency of sluice gate but also its control frequency for construction and natural disaster prevention have increased outstandingly. Halophyte community had formed at a rate of 1,209ha/year in the 4,315 ha land in 2008, 6.3 times larger than in 2005, and 2,382 ha above around 1.0m was estimated to be artificially vegetated, 89.1 % of the 2,673ha-size sown area. High water level was found to be a more possible determinant than average water level or low water level in halophyte community formation and it was thought to be secondary factors whether tillage was conducted or/and whether surface sealing formed.