• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanji

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Analysis on the Pigments and Dyes of the Patterns for Jeogui and Pyeseul of National Museum of Korea (국립중앙박물관 소장 적의본과 폐슬본 채색 안료 및 염료 분석)

  • Yun, Eunyoung;Kang, Hyungtae
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.13
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2012
  • The patterns for Jeogui and Pyeseul (patterns of the queen's ceremonial robe worn and a belt ornament covering knees in the front) as owned by National Museum of Korea were made in the early 20th century and both of them were colored on paper. Through a non-destructive analysis on pigments and dyes used on both the patterns, it was attempted to identify the coloring materials. As for the analysis of the coloring pigments, the XRF was used. As a result of the pigment analysis on the pattern for Jeogui, it is presumed that lead white was used for obtaining the white color, ink stick for black color, orpiment for yellow color, cinnabar and red lead for red color, copper and arsenical or a mixture of copper carbonate and orpiment for green color whereas brass seems to have been used for obtaining other colors. The pigments used for obtaining the colors of white, black, yellow and green on the pattern for Pyeseul are the same as those used on the pattern for Jeogui whereas the red pigments used on each of the two patterns are seen to be different. Although it may be difficult to identify the kinds of blue pigments that were used on the patterns for Jeogui and Pyeseul, a mixture containing lead white is presumed to be used as blue pigment. Also, as a result of the UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis performed on the blue hanji (traditional Korean paper) of the pattern for Jeogui, it was presumed to have been dyed with indigo.

Stability Assessment on Materials of Cultural Property by Fumigants Containing Ethylene Oxide (Ethylene oxide계 훈증 약제에 의한 문화재 재질의 안정성 연구)

  • Jeong, Soyoung;Kim, Young-hee;Lee, Jeung-min
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.46-59
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted focusing on the stability on materials of cultural property when the fumigant containing ethylene oxide was applied among some kinds of fumigant. Four kinds of specimens from paper, textile, metal and pigment were prepared to compare color difference, weight, surface condition before and after treatment and FT-IR analysis was carried out on specimens of paper and textile. In the case of fumigation treatment, it was conducted by two groups : one is made up of specimens with the non-fumigation as control groups, the other is made up of specimens treated with ethylene oxide + $HFC_{134a}$ and ethylene oxide + $CO_2$ as experimental groups. The result of color difference showed that there were color differences on the specimens of Hanji(Korean traditional paper), silver, cotton, ramie and yellow pigment. Especially, it was found out there was color change more than 6.0 on average from the silver specimen. However, in the silver specimen's case, color change in the non-fumigated specimen was relatively higher than those of fumigant-treated specimens, therefore, it is judged that fumigant doesn't have a decisive effect on color change in specimens, but required caution while fumigating. The result of weight measurement, there were totally 0~2% weight changes and the slightest change was found in the metal specimen, the biggest change in the papers. The result of microscopic observation on the surface of specimens showed color changes and especially, the biggest change on the silver specimen was observed. But no change in components was identified from FT-IR analysis of papers and textiles.

Study on the Oiled Paper in the Literature of the Joseon Dynasty (유지(油紙) 관련 고문헌 고찰 - 조선시대 문헌을 중심으로 -)

  • Shin, Hyo-young;Choi, Tae-ho;Jeong, Seon-hwa
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.194-210
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    • 2013
  • Oiled paper (Yuji, 油紙) is an oil impregnated paper which was one of the daily necessities in Korea. As there has not been any accurate research on this subject, this study examined the literature from the Joseon Dynasty to study its origin, nomenclature, usage and production process. Goryeodogyeong (高麗圖經) and Goryeosa (高麗史) allowed the estimation that the origin of oiled paper was the Goryeo Dynasty, but the records of oil and paper in Samguksagi (三國史記) and Nihon Shoki (日本書紀) indicate the possibility that the production of oiled paper can be traced back to the 7th Century. The nomenclature and the usage of oiled paper in the Joseon Dynasty were examined through the Annals of Joseon Dynast (朝鮮王朝實錄), Ilseongnok (日省錄) and Seungjeongwonilgi (承政院日記), while the Royal Protocols of the Joseon Dynasty (Uigwe, 儀軌) and Takjijunjeol (度支準折) together with other literature were examined for its market value, use and materials. The literature from the Joseon Dynasty indicate that oiled paper was used for various everyday commodities with its waterproof, damp-proof and transparent properties and called in various ways according to its use and production process. This study studied the literature on oiled paper from the Joseon Dynasty, but the studies on the restoration of traditional oiled paper are still needed. Therefore, it would be necessary to study the traditional oiled papers in combination with the study of oiled paper relics, the reproduction of traditional oiled paper samples, and the case study of the papermaking masters who have been producing the traditional oiled papers.

Base Study Related with Development of Natural Bio-Adhesives Using Seaweeds (해초류를 이용한 천연 바이오 접착제 개발 기반 연구)

  • Han, Won-Sik;Oh, Seung-Jun;kim, Young-Mi;Lee, You-Jin;Kim, Ye-Jin;Park, Min-Seon;Wi, Koang-Chul
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.595-604
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    • 2018
  • In this study, in a bid to develop natural bioadhesives for paper craft, the hanji industry, and preserving cultural assets, complex polysaccharides were extracted from brown and red algae and used as an ingredient in adhesives. Brown algae include sea trumpet, kelp, sea oak, and sea mustard, whereas red algae include Pachymeniopsis elliptica agar-agar weed, Gloiopeltis tenax, and hunori. The polysaccharides were extracted after transforming them from non-aqueous Ca complexes contained in each of the brown and red algae into water-soluble polysaccharides containing alkali metals with a solubility level of 1. and extracted Subsequently, only the polysaccharides were extracted using alcohol precipitation. The adhesion tensile strengths of kelp, a brown algae, and Pachymeniopsis elliptica, a red algae, were 21.58 and 32.99 kgf, respectively. They thus demonstrated better adhesion than that of solid glue products such as water plants (18.45 kgf) and glue sticks (20.45 kgf). The extraction yield of these polysaccharides is supposed to be determined according to their extracted environments; however, no difference in adhesion strength was seen. Further, it was found that the shapes of polysaccharides were determined by their growing environment instead of extraction environment. Use of multi-step alcohol precipitation method during extraction enabled the removal of the constituents except protein and other polysaccharides, thereby demonstrating a stable outcome without cultivation of mold. Furthermore, there was no occurrence of mold even after production of the adhesives by the simple solution method, which demonstrates the adhesive's potential as an environment-friendly adhesive material.

The effect of air quality and humidity on aged characteristics of beeswax-treated paper during artificial aging (인공열화 시 공기질 및 습도가 밀랍지의 열화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Eun Jeong;Choi, Kyoung Hwa;Kang, Yeong Seok;Cho, Jung hye;Jeong, Hye Young
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2012
  • A beeswax-treated paper has no air permeability but has the water repellency compared with a general Hanji. Because of these properties, the differences of the aging factors and mechanisms between the outer partition of beeswax-treated paper that is affected by the surrounding conservation environment and the inner partition of it that is not affected are bigger than general books. In this research, we analyzed and compared the aging characteristics through the accelerated aging of the beeswax-treated paper by some air and humidity conditions. The results of the physical and optical analysis after the artificial aging, it was shown that the oxygen accelerates the aging of the beeswax-treated paper and the condition with the humidity 50% RH is more stable than the condition with the humidity 0% RH. The results of the CG/MS analysis that was conducted to figure out the decomposition charateristics of the beeswax according to the air quality and the humidity, a low molecular weight compound that the number of carbon is C9-C20 including a fatty acid such as a palmitic acid was increased as the aging was progressed. However, under the same environment, a compound that the number of carbon is C21-C36 including a hydrocarbon and a aliphatic alcohol and a high molecular weight compound that the number of carbon is more than C34 including a wax ester were decreased. A rate of change according to the air quality and the humidity was similar to the beeswax-treated papers.

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Jangdo(Small Ornamental Knives) manufacturing process and restoration research using Odong Inlay application (오동상감(烏銅象嵌)기법을 활용한 장도(粧刀)의 제작기술 및 복원연구)

  • Yun, Yong Hyun;Cho, Nam Chul;Jeong, Yeong Sang;Jang, Chu Nam
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.172-189
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    • 2016
  • In this research, literature research on the Odong material, mixture ratio, casting method and casting facility was conducted on contemporary documents, such as Cheongong Geamul. Also, a long sword was produced using the Odong inlay technique. The sword reproduction steps were as follows; Odong alloying, silver soldering alloying, Odong plate and Silver plate production, hilt and sheath production, metal frame and decorative elements, such as a Dugup (metal frame), production, Odong inlay assembly and final assembly. For the Odong alloy production, the mixture ratio of the true Odong, which has copper and gold ratio of 20:1, was used. This is traditional ratio for high quality product according to $17^{th}$ century metallurgy instruction manual. The silver soldering alloy was produced with silver and brass(Cu 7 : Zn 3) ratio of 5:1 for inlay purpose and 5:2 ratio for simple welding purpose. The true Odong alloy laminated with silver plate was used to produce hilt and sheath. The alloy went through annealing and forging steps to make it into 0.6 mm thick plate and its backing layer, which is a silver plate, had the matching thickness. After the two plates were adhered, the laminated plate went through annealing, forging, engraving, silver inlaying, shaping, silver welding, finishing and polishing steps. During the Odong colouring process, its red surface turns black by induced corrosion and different hues can be achieved depending on its quality. To accomplish the silver inlay Odong techniques, a Hanji saturated with thirty day old urine is wrapped around a hilt and sheath material, then it is left at warm room temperature for two to three hours. The Odong's surface will turn black when silver inlay remains unchanged. Various scientific analysis were conducted to study composition of recreated Odong panel, silver soldering, silver plate and the colouring agent on Odong's surface. The recreated Odong had average out at Cu 95.57 wt% Au 4.16wt% and Cu 98.04 wt% Au 1.95wt%, when documented ratio in the old record is Cu 95wt% and Au 5wt%. The recreated Odong was prone to surface breakage during manufacturing process unlike material made with composition ratio written in the old record. On the silver plate of the silver and Odong laminate, 100wt% Ag was detected and between the two layers Cu, Ag and Au were detected. This proves that the adhesion between the two layers was successfully achieved. The silver soldering had varied composition of Ag depending on the location. This shows uneven composition of the silver welding. A large quantities of S, that was not initially present, was detected on the surface of the black Odong. This indicates that presence of S has influence on Odong colour. Additional study on the chromaticity, additional chemical compounds and its restoration are needed for the further understanding of the origin of Odong colour. The result of Odong alloy testing and recreation, Odong silver inlay long sword production, scientific analysis of the Odong black colouring agent will form an important foundation of knowledge for conservation of Odong artifact.