• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hazard

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A Case Study for Construction Hazard Zonation Maps and its Application (석회암 지역 재해 등급도 작성 및 응용에 관한 사례 연구)

  • 정의진;윤운상;김중휘;마상준;김정환;이근병
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2002
  • We presents an hazard zonation mapping technique in karst terrain and its assessment. From the detailed engineering geological mapping. Controlling factors of sink hole and limestone cave formation were discussed and 4 main hazard factors affecting hazard potential are identified as follows: prerequisite hazard factor(distributions of pre-existing sink holes and cavities), geomorphological hazard factors(slope gradient, vegetation, and drainage pattern etc.) geological hazard factors(lithology, fracture patterns and geological structures etc.) and hydraulic conditions(hydraulic head, annual fluctuation of ground water table and composition of g/w water). From the construction of hazard zonation map along the Jecheon-Maepo area, and vertical cross-sectional hazard zonations specific tunnel site we suggest hazard zonation rating systems.

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Seismic Landslide Hazard Maps in Ul-Ju Ul-san Korea (지진에 대한 사면의 재해위험지도 작성 - 울산시 울주군 지역을 중심으로-)

  • 조성원
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2000
  • Landslide damage comprise most part of the damages from the earthquake and it only causes the damage to lives and structures directly but also cease the operation of social system by road or lifeline failure. For these reasons hazard assesment on the landslides has been recognized very important. And hazard maps have been used to visualize the hazard of the landslide. In this study as first step for application of hazard map to domestic cases hazard maps are made for the Ul-Joo Ul-san Korea, Where the Yan-san faults are located. For building hazard maps the degree of hazard are evaluated based on Newmark displacement and the resulting maps are constructed by GIS technique. In hazard assesment maximum ground acceleration obtained from attenuation equation of wave propagation and design earthquake acceleration suggested by Ministry of construction are used for acceleration term. Hazard maps are made by GIS programs Arc/Info and Arc/View based on the digital maps and data from lab tests and elastic wave surveys The maps show the possible landslide regions significantly and the displacements of slide are proportional to the slope angles.

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GIS overlay analysis for hazard assessment of drought in Iran using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

  • Asrari, Elham;Masoudi, Masoud;Hakimi, Somaye Sadat
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2012
  • The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a widely used drought index to provide good estimations of the intensity, magnitude and spatial extent of droughts. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial pattern of drought by SPI index. In this paper, the patterns of drought hazard in Iran are evaluated according to the data of 40 weather stations during 1967-2009. The influenced zone of each station was specified by the Thiessen method. It was attempted to make a new model of drought hazard using GIS. Three criteria for drought were studied and considered to define areas of vulnerability. Drought hazard criteria used in the present model included: maximum severity of drought in the period, trend of drought, and the maximum number of sequential arid years. Each of the vulnerability indicators were mapped and these as well as a final hazard map were classified into 5 hazard classes of drought: one, slight, moderate, severe and very severe. The final drought vulnerability map was prepared by overlaying three criteria maps in a GIS, and the final hazard classes were defined on the basis of hazard scores, which were determined according to the means of the main indicators. The final vulnerability map shows that severe hazard areas (43% of the country) which are observed in the west and eastern parts of country are much more widespread than areas under other hazard classes. Overall, approximately half of the country was determined to be under severe and very severe hazard classes for drought.

Development of Disaster Prevention Information System using Disaster Prevention Map Based on Digital Image (수치영상 기반의 방재지도를 활용한 방재정보시스템 개발)

  • Park, Joon-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2011
  • As global warming and has caused the number of abnormal changes, much damage has occurred recently in Korean Peninsula from natural disaster. To prevent and cope with these annually repeated natural hazards, scientific analysis are needed in Disaster Management, including systematic management. In this study, As part of scientific disaster prevention measures, digital image based hazard map for solution to overcome the existing hazard map with schematic representation was constructed. which was combined digital image, digital map and hazard information, and than hazard information system was developed using the hazard map. The hazard information map and hazard information system are able to provide great service to the public and to support quick decision making for hazard management and analysis of natural hazard damage.

HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT STATE OF VEGETATION DEGRADATION USING GIS, A CASE STUDY: SADRA REGION, IRAN

  • Masoudi, Masoud;Amiri, E.
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2013
  • The entire land of Southern Iran faces problems arising out of various types of land degradation of which vegetation degradation forms one of the major types. The present work introduces a model developed for assessing the current status of hazard of vegetation degradation using Geographic Information System (GIS). This kind of assessment differs from those assessments based on vulnerability or potential hazard assessments. The Sadra watershed which covers the upper reaches of Marharlu basin, Fars Province, has been chosen for a hazard assessment of this type of degradation. The different kinds of data for indicators of current status of vegetation degradation were gathered from collecting of field data and also records of the governmental offices of Iran. Taking into consideration three indicators of current status of vegetation degradation the model identifies areas with different hazard classes. By fixing the thresholds of severity classes of the three indicators including per cent of vegetation cover, biomass production and ratio of actual biomass to potential biomass production, a hazard map for each indicator was first prepared in GIS. The final hazard map of current status of vegetation degradation was prepared by intersecting three hazards in the GIS. Results show areas under severe hazard class have been found to be widespread (89 %) while areas under moderate and very severe hazard classes have been found less extensive in the Sadra watershed. The preparation of hazard maps based on the GIS analysis of these indicators will be helpful for prioritizing the areas to initiate remedial measures.

A Study to Propose Closed-form Approximations of Seismic Hazard (지진 재해도의 닫힌 근사식 제안에 관한 연구)

  • Kwag, Shinyoung;Hahm, Daegi
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.245-251
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, we address some issues in existing seismic hazard closed-form equations and present a novel seismic hazard equation form to overcome these issues. The presented equation form is based on higher-order polynomials, which can well describe the seismic hazard information with relatively high non-linearity. The accuracy of the proposed form is illustrated not only in the seismic hazard data itself but also in estimating the annual probability of failure (APF) of the structural systems. For this purpose, the information on seismic hazard is used in representative areas of the United States (West : Los Angeles, Central : Memphis and Kansas, East : Charleston). Examples regarding the APF estimation are the analyses of existing platform structure and nuclear power plant problems. As a result of the numerical example analyses, it is confirmed that the higher-order-polynomial-based hazard form presented in this paper could predict the APF values of the two example structure systems as well as the given seismic hazard data relatively accurately compared with the existing closed-form hazard equations. Therefore, in the future, it is expected that we can derive a new improved APF function by combining the proposed hazard formula with the existing fragility equation.

Study on applying to Hazard Classification Criteria of Chemicals subject to Material Safety Data Sheets (물질안전보건자료 대상물질의 유해성 분류기준 적용 연구)

  • Lee, Hye Jin;Lee, Naroo;Lee, In Seop
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.280-291
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Hazard classification is a controversial issue in the new MSDS system in which chemical companies have to prepare and submit MSDS for chemicals that they manufacture or import to the competent authorities according to the amended Occupational Safety and Health Act. The aim of this study is to suggest how to apply and manage harmonized hazard classification criteria and results by investigating current hazard classification systems and trends. Methods: The domestic issues about different hazard classification criteria and results were investigated by reviewing the literature and business outcomes regarding KOSHA. We also checked official and unofficial reports from the UN to understand international discussion about the topic. Chemical hazard classification results from agencies providing chemical information were analyzed to compare a harmonized rate between classifications. Furthermore, a field survey of a few chemical companies was conducted. Results: Under the related competent authorities, an integrated standard proposal was developed to harmonize the domestic hazard classification criteria. Although harmonized chemical information is strongly needed, we recognized the uncertainty and difficulty of harmonized hazard classification from the UN global list project review. In practice the harmonization rate of the classification was generally low between the classification in KOSHA, MoE, and EU CLP. Among hazard classes, health hazards largely led the disharmony. The field survey revealed a change of perception that the main body of chemical information production is manufacturers. Approaches and solutions about hazard classification issues differed depending on business size, types of chemical handling, and other factors. Conclusions: We proposed reasonable ways by time and step to apply hazard classification in the new MSDS system. Chemical manufacturers should make and offer chemical information including responsible hazard classifications. The government should primarily accept these classifications, evaluate them by priority, and support or supervise workplaces in order to communicate reliable chemical information.

Verification of Landfill Hazard Ranking Model by Sensitivity Analysis (민감도 분석에 의한 LHR 모형의 검증)

  • Hong, Sangpyo;Kim, Jungwuk
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 1997
  • LHR(Landfill Hazard Ranking Model) was developed for assessing the relative hazard of landfills by using the method of value-structured approach. LHR consists of combining a multiattribute decision-making method with a qualitative risk assessment approach. A pairwise comparision method was applied to determine weights of landfill factors related. To prove the validity of weights allocation of landfill hazard evaluation factors, sensitivity analysis was applied. Firstly, the impact on landfill hazard score according to variations of weights of landfill hazard factors was analyzed. Secondly, the impact on landfill hazard score according to conditions change of landfill hazard factors was analyzed. As a result of sensitivity analysis, LHR composite scores are largely influenced by some factors following sequential order such as waste volume, proximity to sensitive environments, containment facilities, distance from drinking water supplies, and waste toxicity. The relative order of landfill hazard evaluated by LHR is not influenced by the weights change of individual factors. Therefore, LHR seems to be a credible model to determine priorities of landfill remediation based on the vulnerability of water resources.

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Conceptual Design of a Hazard Evaluation Process for Constructing the Korean Hazard Information System : Focused on Flood Hazard (한국형 재해정보시스템 구축을 위한 재해평가 프로세스 개념설계 : 홍수재해를 중심으로)

  • Jeong, Keun-Chae
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.365-377
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, for constructing the Korean Hazard Information System (KHIS), we conceptually design a hazard evaluation process. We first deal with a hazard evaluation process focused on flood hazard to give the most immense damage and loss. The hazard evaluation process is consist of a damage evaluation process and a loss evaluation process, and is used for transforming hazards from natural disasters into economic measures. The proposed process is developed based on the famous FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)'s $HAZAS^{@MH}$methodology. We modify the FEMA's process to be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, that is all losses from the hazards are included into the estimation process but the losses are not duplicated in the process. In addition to this, we define the loss process specifically by considering the characteristics from the hazard environments of Korea. We can expect that KHIS for evaluating economic losses from natural hazards can be developed based on the conceptual design for the economic loss evaluation process, and KHIS can be used as a useful tool for analyzing the feasibilities of mitigation plans in central/local governments.