• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hazardous heavy metal

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Analysis of Hazardous Heavy Metal in Colored Materials of Playground Facility for Children (어린이 놀이시설의 소재 색상에 따른 유해중금속 분석 연구)

  • Huh, Sun Hae;Weon, Jong-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2015
  • The content of hazardous heavy metal of materials used in playground facility for children was investigated using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses, In order to examine the content of hazardous heavy metals according to the material color, four colors, i.e., green, red, yellow and blue, were categorized on the materials used. The highest lead content is observed in the yellow plastic samples. The yellow samples with relatively high lead content show that the chrome content is also high. This can explained that lead chromate, so-called chromium yellow, is normally used as a main pigment to express the yellow color. Therefore, it is concluded that hazardous heavy metal detected in the materials of playground facility for children is due to the pigments used for coloring. Based on above findings, the relationship between the color of materials used in playground facility for children and the content of hazardous heavy metal is discussed.

Comparative Study of Hazardous Heavy Metal Contents by Cosmetic Type (화장품 유형별 유해 중금속 함량 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Jin hee;Kim, Ji Yeon;Park, Sang Gyu;Lee, Jae Ho;Yoon, Jong Ho;Kim, Gyoung Tae;Kim, Hae Jung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The hazardous heavy metal contents of cosmetics were investigated and the resulting values were compared by type of cosmetics: skin care preparations (SCP), hair preparations (HP), makeup preparations (MP), and eye makeup preparations (EMP). Methods: The hazardous heavy metal contents (Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Ni and Hg) were analyzed for 358 cosmetics products (187 SCP, 82 HP, 56 MP, and 33 EMP). Hg was measured by the amalgamation method, and other hazardous heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after decomposition using the microwave method. Results: The mean contents of Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Ni, and Hg in cosmetics were 0.424, 0.068, 0.024, 0.398, $0.567{\mu}/g$, and Not Detected, respectively. All of the hazardous heavy metals were detected in most products, but below the recommended maximums of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The level of Cd was the lowest at 14.8%, and Sb was the highest at 41.2%. Pb, Sb and Ni showed the highest mean value and detection rate in EMP. As, Cd, and Hg showed the highest in SCP, HP, and MP, respectively. Conclusion: Hazardous heavy metals were detected in most products. In particular, Pb, Sb, and Ni were broadly detected in EMP, meaning more stringent quality control is required.

Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

  • Kim, Ji-Ae;Lee, Seung-Ha;Choi, Seung-Hyun;Jung, Ki-Kyung;Park, Mi-Sun;Jeong, Ji-Yoon;Hwang, Myung-Sil;Yoon, Hae-Jung;Choi, Dal-Woong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2012
  • To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods.

The Recognition Level of Food Contamination with Residual Pesticides and Hazardous Heavy Metals in Taejon Area (식품의 잔류농약 및 유해중금속의 오염인식도 -대전지역을 중심으로-)

  • 한장일;김성애
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.454-465
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    • 1998
  • This study was to investigate the recognition level of food contamination with residual pesticides and hazardous heavy metals from 365 male and female adults in Taejon area using questionnaires. Among the recognizing level of residual pesticides in overall foods, 69.1% were 'serious', 25.6% were 'average' and 5.3% were 'not serious'. Over 94.7% of the subjects recognized residual pesticides pollution infoods. for hazardous heavy metals in food, 47.8% responsed as 'serious', 40.5% as 'average' and 11.8 as ' not serious' . Over 88.3% of the subjects recognized contaminated pesticides seriously in fruits, 72.1% in vegetables and 51.7% in cereals, whereas 55.7% of the subjects recognized hazardous heavy metal contamination seriously in fruits, 53.4% in vegetables, 40.8% in fishes and shellfishes and 35.0% in seaweeds. The subjects recognized residual pesticides contamination more seriously in overall foods, cereal, potatoes and starches, bean, vegetables and fruits, whereas hazardous heavy metal contamination was recognized more seriously in fishes and shellfishes, and seaweeds food groups. Comparisons were shown based on individuial's occupation. Farmer, forester, iner and fisher showed the lowest recognizing level of food contamination in most food groups. The mean score of the dietary effect by mass media's information on food contamination from residual pesticides and hazardous heavy metals were 3.51±0.96 out of 5 points. By Duncan's multiple range test, sex, age, marriage, food cost per month, concerns about health and nutrition knowledge showed significant differences in the mean effect score at p<0.05. According to a pesticides contamination in several food groups were affected by food cost per month, mass media's information on food contamination, health status, and concerns about health, But a recognition level of hazardous heavy metals in food were affected by income and, food cost per month mass media's information on food contamination, health status, concern about health and nutrition knowledge. People who need to take extreme precautions of food contamination were in order of producers, government officials, homemakers, the consumer's association and consumers.

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도시고형폐기물 소각비산재의 Electrokinetic 정화

  • 조용실;한상재;김수삼
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.224-227
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    • 2001
  • In general, municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash (MSWIF) has a potential hazardous leaching of heavy metal with subsurface environment variation. Therefore, to remove the heavy metal from MSWIF electrokinetic technology were used. With constant current density condition heavy metals in MSWIF removed by ion migration. During 7 days operation 40~80% of Cr, Cd and As were removed and longer operation, 14 days treatment, showed 35~100% removal efficiency.

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Hazardous Heavy Metal Contents of Mushrooms from Retail Markets in Seoul (서울 지역에서 유통되는 버섯류의 유해중금속 함량 조사에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Hyun-A;Kang, Soon-Hwa;Choe, Su-Bin;Kim, Hyung-Kook;Kang, Sung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.283-287
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    • 2014
  • This study determined the hazardous heavy metal content of mushrooms from markets in Seoul, Korea. One hundred and fifty mushroom samples were digested by the microwave method then the hazardous heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As, Cr, Ni and Hg) content was determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and mercury analyzer. The average values of heavy metals in the samples were as follows: (mean [minimum-maximum], ${\mu}g/kg$); Pb 7.8 (1.9-30.0), Cd 45.3 (0.7-292.4), As 54.6 (24.2-229.3), Cr 42.6 (8.4-334.3), Ni 22.4 (up to 180.4), and Hg 8.9 (2.0-25.0). The contents of hazardous heavy metal in mushrooms were lower than those reported previously and also lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) limit prescribed by the FAO/WHO. Thus, it could be suggested that the hazardous heavy metals levels in the mushrooms of retail market were adequately safe for consumption.

Studies of the Concept and Terminology of Heavy Metals Described in the Chemistry I Textbook (화학I 교과서에 나타난 중금속 용어와 개념의 고찰)

  • Moon, Kyung-Ah;Chae, Hee-K.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.560-568
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the terminology of chemically unclear ‘heavy metals' which were expressed in the Korean secondary science textbook in terms of the definition, the type and the meaning. Initial results showed that six of ‘Chemistry I' textbooks among these texts defined a heavy metal with the density and described it as a metal which is hazardous and continuously accumulated in the human body. Specifically, cadmium, lead and mercury were presented as examples of the hazardous metal in all of the eight textbooks but non-metals such as arsenic and absolutely essential metals including chrome, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel and copper were also given in the texts. Most of the texts described the hazardousness and toxicity of the metal too simple to understand the mechanism of its intoxication despite considering all of the factors including its oxidation state, residual amount and reactivity with biomolecules of the human body. Such an ambiguous definition and explanation may excluded in the textbook because the chemically undefined chemical vocabulary leads students to cause an alternative conception of the heavy metal, which means that the metal could be identical with toxins.

Heavy Metal Levels in the Outdoor Workers Exposed in Yellow Sand (황사에 노출된 옥외 근로자의 혈중 중금속 농도)

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2009
  • Yellow sand (or Asian dust) occurs mainly in spring in East Asia. Yellow sand from China and its surrounding regions transports air pollutants, such as aerosols, ozone, and heavy metals. The outdoor workers are frequently exposed to heavy metals during yellow sand phenomenon. This study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal levels in blood among 75 outdoor workers (exposed group) and 86 indoor workers (controled group) in Gyeonggi province from March 2008 to May 2009. Heavy metal levels in blood were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean blood lead levels in exposed group and controled group were $5.19{\pm}1.64{\mu}g/dL$, $4.24{\pm}1.34{\mu}g/dL$, respectively. Mean blood cadmium levels in exposed group and controled group were $1.28{\pm}0.89{\mu}g/dL$, $0.90{\pm}0.59{\mu}g/dL$, respectively. Lead and Cadmium levels in blood of exposed group were significantly higher than those of controled group. In the comparison of smoking status, lead and cadmium levels of smokers were significantly higher than those of non-smokers. In conclusion, the heavy metal levels of outdoor workers were significantly higher than those of indoor workers. And smoking was hazardous factor to elevate heavy metal levels in blood.

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Study on scheme for screening, quantification and interpretation of trace amounts of hazardous inorganic substances influencing hazard classification of a substance in REACH registration (REACH 물질 등록 시 분류에 영향을 주는 미량 유해 무기물질의 스크리닝·정량·해석을 위한 체계도 연구)

  • Kwon, Hyun-ah;Park, Kwang Seo;Son, Seung Hwan;Choe, Eun Kyung;Kim, Sanghun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.233-242
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    • 2019
  • Substance identification is the first step of the REACH registration. It is essential in terms of Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation and because even trace amounts of impurities or additives can affect the classification. In this study, a scheme for the screening, quantification, and interpretation of trace amounts of hazardous inorganic substances is proposed to detect the presence of more than 0.1% hazardous inorganic substances that have been affecting the hazard classification. An exemplary list of hazardous inorganic substances was created from the substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in REACH. Among 201 SVHCs, there were 67 inorganic SVHCs containing at least one or ~2-3 heavy metals, such as As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Sb, and Sn, in their molecular formula. The inorganic SVHCs are listed in excel format with a search function for these heavy metals so that the hazardous inorganic substances, including each heavy metal and the calculated ratio of its atomic weight to molecular weight of the hazardous inorganic substance containing it, can be searched. The case study was conducted to confirm the validity of the established scheme with zinc oxide (ZnO). In a substance that is made of ZnO, Pb was screened by XRF analysis and measured to be 0.04% (w/w) by ICP-OES analysis. After referring to the list, the presence of Pb was interpreted just as an impurity, but not as an impurity relevant for the classification. Future studies are needed to expand on this exemplary list of hazardous inorganic substances using proper regulatory data sources.

Comparison of Heavy Metal Level in Blood Between Industrial Workers and General People

  • Lee Mi-Hwa
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.453-457
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    • 2004
  • The welders and car painters are frequently exposed to heavy metals such as lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium, and those are a major source of heavy metal poisoning. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of the heavy metal level in blood by age, working duration, and smoking status among 105 industrial workers and 88 general people in Gyeongnam province from October 2003 to October 2004. The heavy metal level in blood was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean blood lead level in exposed group and control group was 8.40±4.67μl/dl, 1.82±1.35μl/dl, respectively. Mean blood zinc level in exposed group and control group was 9.43±5.38 ㎍/ml, 2.89±1.79㎍/ml, respectively. Mean blood cadmium level in Exposed group and control group was 1.53±1.05μl/dl, 0.60±0.49 μl/dl, respectively. Mean blood chromium level in exposed group and control group was 0.89±0.76μl/dl, 0.68±0.63μl/dl, respectively. Lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium level in blood of exposed group was significantly higher than that of control group. In the comparison of smoking status, lead, zinc and cadmium level of smoker's was significantly higher than that of non-smoker's. Comparison of heavy metal level by age, lead, zinc, cadmium level in 40's, 50's (exposed group) in blood significantly higher than that of 20's, 30's. In exposed group, working duration has no significant difference. In conclusion, smoking was the most hazardous factor to elevate in blood heavy metal levels.

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