• Title, Summary, Keyword: Head Injury Criteria

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Comparison Head-Neck Movement and Neck Injury Criteria of BiRIDII in Rear-impact Sled Test (후방추돌시 BioRIDII 머리-목의 거동과 목상해지수와의 비교)

  • Kim, Si-Woo;Shim, So-Jung;Suh, Myung-Won
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2010
  • In recent years, a large number of study for rear impact has been conducted and as a result of study, researchers proposed the neck injury criteria and test procedures. But many questions, related to injury criteria and dummy biomechanical levels, remain unresolved. In recently reports, rear impact motions of BioRIDIIg is not humanlike but better than other dummy(HybridIII, RID3d). So, in this paper, 4 times sled test would be done to find the substitutable neck injury criteria in BioRIDIIg. To review corelation trend with neck injury critera and head-neck movement, we compared with recently announced neck injury criteria(NIC, Nkm, T1 ect.) and head-neck X-direction movement in BioRIDIIg. Finally, we find the head-neck X-direction movement on head C.G to T1 point may be considerable as the additional neck injury criteria.

Experimental Study on Neck Injury in Low Speed Frontal and Rear-End Collisions

  • Kim, Gyu-Hyun;Lee, Ouk-Sub;Hwang, Si-Won
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1232-1243
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    • 2000
  • Motor vehicle accidents in rear impacts cause more than fifty percents of drivers to suffer from neck injuries. It is known that most neck injuries are associated with rear-end collisions at a speed lower than 32 km/h and between the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 1 and AIS 2. Two different types of low speed crash tests such as the frontal barrier and rear moving barrier crashes have been conducted by following the procedure of the Research Committee for Automobile Repairs (RCAR). The injury for the neck and the Head Injury Criteria (HIC) were measured by using the sensors mounted on dummies. We reviewed neck injures and the relationship between the neck and head injuries, and examined the deceleration of the body. Using the experimental test data at the neck, we investigated an improved neck injury criterion Nij. Also, the effects of the position of a head restraint on reducing the frequency and severity of the neck injury in rear-end collisions were investigated.

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The Study of Influence Factor of Head Restraints on the Whiplash by using DFSS (DFSS 기법을 이용한 후방 추돌 시 경부 상해 감소를 위한 머리지지대 인자의 영향성 연구)

  • Oh, Hyungjoon;Seo, Sangjin;Yoo, Hyukjin
    • Journal of Auto-vehicle Safety Association
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.5-10
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    • 2012
  • Whiplash is the most frequent injury among occupants in low speed rear-end car collision. The aim of this paper is to analyze thecorrelation between influence parameters of head restraints and whiplash injury criteria.In this paper, DFSS (Design for Six Sigma) method is used for optimum design of head restrains. Four control factors of head restraints have selected by function matrix method. The effects of the control factors have been experimentally evaluated by using a sled pulse from 16km/h relative velocity which is suggested by KNCAP (Korean New Car Assessment Program). In order to reduce the noise factors of dynamic tests, whiplash tests were repeated twice. By using DFSS, the correlation between control factors and injury criteria has been comprehended.

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Assessment of Safety Performances in Operation of Human-centered Robots Using Geometric Tolerance and Head Injuries Criteria

  • Choi, Gi-Heung
    • International Journal of Safety
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • Operation of human-centered robot, in general, facilitates the creation of new process that may potentially harm the human operators. Design of safety-guaranteed operation of human-centered robots is, therefore, important since it determines the ultimate outcomes of operations involving safety of human operators. This study discusses the application of geometric tolerance and head injury criteria to safety assessment of human-centered robotic operations. Examples show that extending "Work Area" has more significant effect on the uncertainty in safety than extending the system range in the presence of velocity control.

A safety assessment by Risk Analysis Method on wheelchair occupant in side impact (측방충돌시 휠체어 탑승자의 위험도 분석에 의한 안전성평가)

  • 김성민;김성재;강태건;전병호;김경훈;문무성;홍정화
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.16-16
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    • 2003
  • In this study, for a safety assessment of wheelchair occupant in side impact, we used a dynamic sled impact test results. The test was carried out total 6 times and impact speed was 13g$\pm$0.43/28km/h$\pm$0.95, By using EURO SID-1 dummy, head performance criteria(HPC), abdominal peak force, etc. were measured. We evaluated wheelchair occupant safety by motion criteria(MC) which was measured by head, trunk and side deformation change of wheelchair and Head & Neck injury criteria(HNI) measured by using head and neck deformation angle and time relation. When we assumed that the maximum injury value in side impact was 100%, the results of motion criteria(MC) of wheelchair occupant were max 80.3, mim 32.3 and average 60.3%, Head & Neck injury criteria(HNI) value were max 118.4, min 14.5 and average 59.7%.

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A Safety Assessment on Light Weight Wheelchair Occupant in Frontal Crash (경량 휠체어 탑승자의 차량 전방충돌시 안전성 평가)

  • 김성민;김성재;강태건
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2003
  • In this study, for a safetv assessment of light weight wheelchair occupant in frontal crash, we tested a dynamic sled impact test. we carried out total 6 times test and impact speed was 20g/48 km/h. By using Hybrid III 50%ile male dummy, head injury criteria(HIC), neck flexion moment, neck axial tension force, neck shear force. chest acceleration, head, wheelchair and knee excursion were measured, we evaluated light weight wheelchair occupant safety by motion criteria(MC) which proposed in SAE J2249 and combined injury criteria(CIC) which is a voluntary standard(GM-IARV) of General Motors Co.. when we assumed that the maximum injury value in frontal crash was 100%, the result of motion criteria(MC) of wheelchair occupant was 52%, occupant upper body injury index(CIC) was 60.1%.

Optimized Design of the Head restraint according the regional seat safety assessment (국가별 좌석 안전성 평가 방법에 따른 머리지지대 최적화 설계)

  • Yoo, Hyukjin;Yim, Jonghyun;Yoon, Ilsung
    • Journal of Auto-vehicle Safety Association
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2013
  • The whiplash Injuries due to rear collision occur frequently. As result, in many countries, seat performance is being assessed and developed to improve head whiplash injury in rear collision of passenger car. This study compares whiplash assessment methods in each country. Using the DFSS(Design for Six Sigma) method, the correlation between influence parameters of head restraints and whiplash injury criteria is analyzed. Four control factors are used in this study. And total 11 whiplash injury criteria from NCAP(New Car Assessment Program) of Korea, Europe, China and IIHS(Insurance Institute for Highway Safety) of USA are used for output response. By the experimental design, L9 orthogonal coordinate system is configured and is tested by sled test equipment, twice. By using average assay value and ANOVA, the correlation between control factors and injury criteria has been comprehended. Optimization design of head restraint according the regional seat safety assessment was derived through the correlation.

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A Safety Assessment by Risk Analysis Method on Wheelchair Occupant in Frontal & Side Impact of Wheelchair Loaded Vehicle (휠체어 탑재 차량의 전방ㆍ측방 충돌시 휠체어 탑승자의 위험도 분석에 의한 안전성평가)

  • 김성민;김성재;강태건;전병호;김경훈;문무성
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2004
  • In this study, for a safety assessment of wheelchair occupant in frontal and side impact of wheelchair loaded vehicle, a sled impact test was perfumed. Each test was carried out total 6 times, by using Hybrid III 50th-percentile male dummy in light weight and electric wheelchair. We estimate MC(Motion Criteria), CIC(Combined Injury Criteria), HIC(Head Injury Criteria), HNIC(Head and Neck Injury Criteria) based on measured data. Through this study, we make an assessment of risk analysis of wheelchair occupant and wheelchair. Through this study, safety standard of wheelchair is to be evaluated.

Predictive Factors for Cervical Spine Injury in Patients with Minor Head Injury (경증 두부 외상을 가진 환자의 경추 손상을 예측할 수 있는 관련 인자)

  • Park, Chul Woo;Sung, Ae Jin;Lee, Jun Ho;Hwang, Seong Youn
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.154-160
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study aimed to determine new criteria for detecting independent factors with high sensitivity in cases of cervical spine injury. We compared the sensitivity, the specificity, and the false negative predictive value (NPV) of plain radiographs with those of computed tomography for cervical spine injury in patients with minor head injury. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 357 patients who underwent both cervical plain radiographs and computer tomography from January 2006, to September 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: the cervical spine injury group and the no cervical spine injury group. New criteria were organized based on variables that had significant differences in the logistic regression test. Results: Among the 357 patients, 78 patients had cervical spine injuries. The average age was $43.9{\pm}15.2$ yrs old, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.90. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. There was a significant difference in loss of consciousness, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)=14, neurologic deficit, posterior neck tenderness, and abnormality of the cervical plain radiographs between the two groups on the logistic regression test. New criteria included the above five variables. If a patient has at least variable, the area under the ROC curve of the new criteria was 0.850, and the sensitivity and the false NPV were 87.2% and 5.2%, respectively. Conclusion: New criteria included loss of consciousness, GCS=14, neurologic deficit, posterior neck tenderness, and abnormality of the cervical plain radiographs. If the patient had at least 1 variable, he or she could have a of cervical spine injury with a sensitivity of 87.2% and a false NPV of 5.2%.