• Title, Summary, Keyword: Healthcare disparities

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Regional Disparity of Cardiovascular Mortality and Its Determinants (지역별 심뇌혈관질환 사망률의 차이 및 영향요인)

  • Kang, Hyeon Jin;Kwon, Soonman
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.12-23
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    • 2016
  • Background: Many studies have explained regional disparities in health by socioeconomic status and healthcare resources, focusing on differences between urban and rural area. However some cities in Korea have the highest cardiovascular mortality, even though they have sufficient healthcare resources. So this study aims to confirm three hypotheses. (1) There are also regional health disparities between cities not only between urban and rural area. (2) It has different regional risk factors affecting cardiovascular mortality whether it is urban or rural area. (3) Besides socioeconomic and healthcare resources factors, there are remnant factors that affect regional cardiovascular mortality such as health behavior and physical environment. Methods: The subject of this study is 227 local authorities (si, gun, and gu). They were categorized into city (gu and si consisting of urban area) and non-city (gun consisting of rural area), and the city group was subdivided into 3 parts to reflect relative different city status: city 1 (Seoul, Gyeonggi cities), city 2 (Gwangyeoksi cities), and city 3 (other cities). We compared their mortalities among four groups by using analysis of variance analysis. And we explored what had contributed to it in whole authorities, city and non-city group by using multiple regression analysis. Results: Cardiovascular mortality is highest in city 2 group, lowest in city 1 group and middle in non-city group. Socioeconomic status and current smoking significantly increase mortality regardless of group. Other than those things, in city, there are some factors associated with cardiovascular mortality: walking practice(-), weight control attempt(-), deficiency of sports facilities(+), and high rate of factory lot(+). In non-city, there are other factors different from those of city: obesity prevalence(+), self-perceiving obesity(-), number of public health institutions(-), and road ratio(-). Conclusion: To reduce cardiovascular mortality and it's regional disparities, we need to consider differentiated approach, respecting regional character and different risk factors. Also, it is crucial to strengthen local government's capacity for practicing community health policy.

Factors Affecting Unmet Healthcare Needs of Working Married Immigrant Women in South Korea

  • Yi, Jinseon;Lee, Insook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.41-53
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting on unmet healthcare needs of married immigrant women, especially who are working in South Korea. Methods: It is designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. We analyzed data from 8,142 working married immigrant women to the 'National Survey of Multicultural Families 2015.' Based on Andersen's health behavior model, logistic regression was conducted to determine the predictors of unmet healthcare need. Results: The prevalence of unmet healthcare needs among the subjects was 11.6%. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors of unmet needs included existence of preschooler, country of origin, period of residence in predisposing factors, monthly household income, helpful social relationship, social discrimination, Korean proficiency, working hour per week in enabling factors, and self-rated health, experience of grief or desperation in need factors. Conclusion: The association between labor-related factors and unmet healthcare needs of marriage immigrant women currently working was found from nationally representative sample. Support policies for immigrant women working more than legally defined hours and having preschooler should be supplemented to reduce unmet healthcare needs. In addition, eradicating discrimination in workplace, enlarging social relationship, and developing culturally competent nursing services tailored to health problems caused by labor are needed.

Factors Determining Children's Private Health Insurance Enrolment and Healthcare Utilization Patterns: Evidence From the 2008 to 2011 Health Panel Data

  • Shin, Jawoon;Lee, Tae-Jin;Cho, Sung-il;Choe, Seung Ah
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.319-329
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Parental socioeconomic status (SES) exerts a substantial influence on children's health. The purpose of this study was to examine factors determining children's private health insurance (PHI) enrolment and children's healthcare utilization according to PHI coverage. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2011 (n=3085) was used to explore the factors determining PHI enrolment in children younger than 15 years of age. A logit model contained health status and SES variables for both children and parents. A fixed effects model identified factors influencing healthcare utilization in children aged 10 years or younger, using 2008 to 2011 panel data (n=9084). Results: The factors determining children's PHI enrolment included children's age and sex and parents' educational status, employment status, and household income quintile. PHI exerted a significant effect on outpatient cost, inpatient cost, and number of admissions. Number of outpatient visits and total length of stay were not affected by PHI status. The interaction between PHI and age group increased outpatient cost significantly. Conclusions: Children's PHI enrolment was influenced by parents' SES, while healthcare utilization was affected by health and disability status. Therefore, the results of this study suggest disparities in healthcare utilization according to PHI enrollment.

Relationship between Income and Healthcare Utilization in Cancer Patients (암환자의 소득수준과 의료이용의 관련성)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Joo;Park, Jong-Hyock
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.397-413
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the income level and the healthcare utilization by health insurance type in all cancer patients in year 2005. Methods: The target population was cancer patients with health insurance who used healthcare as a diagnosis code (C00-C97) from January 1 to December 31 of 2005. The Korea Central Cancer Registry Center's Cancer Patient Registry Data, the list of cancer patients of the National Health Insurance Corporation, and the claim data of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service were used. The I was the wealthiest, followed by II, III, IV. The V was the poorest in this study. For the analysis, the $x^2$-test, ANOVA (and Kruskal-Wallis test), and regression were used. Results: Outpatient and hospitalization medical expenses, and outpatient visit days of cancer patients with self-employed health insurance were highest in I (p<.001, respectively), and the hospitalization days were the highest in II (p<.001, respectively). Outpatient and hospitalization medical expenses, and outpatient visit and hospitalization days of cancer patients with occupational health insurance were the highest in I (p<.001, respectively). Outpatient and hospitalization medical expenses, and outpatient visit and hospitalization days in cancer patients were higher in I compared to V, and higher in II and III, IV compared to V (p<.001, respectively). Conclusion: Supporting plan for cancer patients' outpatient healthcare utilization are necessary. Moreover, we should make specialized strategy for low income cancer patients with self-employed health insurance when we develop quality improvement policy for inpatient service.

Factors Associated with Organized and Opportunistic Cancer Screening: Results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2011

  • Kang, Minsun;Yoo, Ki-Bong;Park, Eun-Cheol;Kwon, Kisung;Kim, Gaeun;Kim, Doo Ree;Kwon, Jeoung A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3279-3286
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Korea. To reduce cancer incidence, the Korean National Cancer Center (KNCC) has been expanding its organized cancer screening program. In addition, there are opportunistic screening programs that can be chosen by individuals or their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with participation in organized and opportunistic cancer screening programs, with a particular focus on socioeconomic factors. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a cross-sectional nationwide study conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare from 2007 to 2011. The study included information from 9,708 men and 12,739 women aged 19 years or over. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for age, year of data collection, residential region, current smoking status, current alcohol consumption status, exercise, marriage status, job status, perceived health status, stress level, BMI, limitation of activities, cancer history, health insurance type, and private insurance status, to investigate the association between education level, economic status, and cancer screening participation. Results: In terms of education level, disparities in attendance were observed only for the opportunistic screening program. In contrast, there was no association between education level and participation in organized screening. In terms of economic status, disparities in opportunistic screening participation were observed at all income levels, but disparities in organized screening participation were observed only at the highest income level. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that socioeconomic factors, including educational level and economic status, were not significantly associated with participation in organized cancer screening, except at the highest level of income.

Poor People and Poor Health: Examining the Mediating Effect of Unmet Healthcare Needs in Korea

  • Kim, Youngsoo;Kim, Saerom;Jeong, Seungmin;Cho, Sang Guen;Hwang, Seung-sik
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the mediating effect of subjective unmet healthcare needs on poor health. The mediating effect of unmet needs on health outcomes was estimated. Methods: Cross-sectional research method was used to analyze Korea Health Panel data from 2011 to 2015, investigating the mediating effect for each annual dataset and lagged dependent variables. Results: The magnitude of the effect of low income on poor health and the mediating effect of unmet needs were estimated using age, sex, education level, employment status, healthcare insurance status, disability, and chronic disease as control variables and self-rated health as the dependent variable. The mediating effect of unmet needs due to financial reasons was between 14.7% to 32.9% of the total marginal effect, and 7.2% to 18.7% in lagged model. Conclusions: The fixed-effect logit model demonstrated that the existence of unmet needs raised the likelihood of poor self-rated health. However, only a small proportion of the effects of low income on health was mediated by unmet needs, and the results varied annually. Further studies are necessary to search for ways to explain the varying results in the Korea Health Panel data, as well as to consider a time series analysis of the mediating effect. The results of this study present the clear implication that even though it is crucial to address the unmet needs, but it is not enough to tackle the income related health inequalities.

Regional Inequalities in Healthcare Indices in Korea: Geo-economic Review and Action Plan (우리나라 보건지표의 지역 격차: 지경학적 고찰과 대응방안)

  • Kim, Chun-Bae;Chung, Moo-Kwon;Kong, In Deok
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.240-250
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    • 2018
  • By the end of 2017, in a world of 7.6 billion people, there were inequalities in healthcare indices both within and between nations, and this gap continues to increase. Therefore, this study aims to understand the current status of regional inequalities in healthcare indices and to find an action plan to tackle regional health inequality through a geo-economic review in Korea. Since 2008, there was great inequality in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by region in not only metropolitan cities but also districts in Korea. While the community health statistics from 2008-2017 show a continuous increase of inequality during the last 10 years in most healthcare indices related to noncommunicable diseases (except for some, like smoking), the inequality has doubled in 254 districts. Furthermore, health inequality intensified as the gap between urban (metropolitan cities) and rural regions (counties) for rates of obesity (self-reported), sufficient walking practices, and healthy lifestyle practices increased from twofold to fivefold. However, regionalism and uneven development are natural consequences of the spatial perspective caused by state-lead developmentalism as Korea has fixed the accumulation strategy as its model for growth with the background of export-led industrialization in the 1960s and heavy and chemical industrialization in the 1970s, although the Constitution of the Republic of Korea recognizes the legal value of balanced development within the regions by specifying "the balanced development of the state" or "ensuring the balanced development of all regions." In addition, the danger of a 30% decline or extinction of local government nationwide is expected by 2040 as we face not only a decline in general and ageing populations but also the era of the demographic cliff. Thus, the government should continuously operate the "Special Committee on Regional Balanced Development" with a government-wide effort until 2030 to prevent disparities in the health conditions of local residents, which is the responsibility of the nation in terms of strengthening governance. To address the regional inequalities of rural and urban regions, it is necessary to re-adjust the basic subsidy and cost-sharing rates with local governments of current national subsidies based mainly on population scale, financial independence of local government, or distribution of healthcare resources and healthcare indices (showing high inequalities) overall.

EDITORIAL : Special Issue for the 30th Anniversary of the Korean Academy of Health Policy and Management (EDITORIAL : 한국보건행정학회 30주년 기념 특별호)

  • Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.195-196
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    • 2018
  • The Korean Academy of Health Policy and Management (KAHPM) has shown remarkable achievements in the field of health policy and management in Korea for the last 30 years. The KAHPM consists of experts in various fields of health policy and management, and has been the leading academic discussion forum for health policy agendas of interest to the public. Health Policy and Management (HPM), the official journal of the KAHPM, published the first issue of volume 1 in October, 1991 and is publishing the second issue of volume 28 as of 2018. Currently, it is one of Korea' main journals in the field of health policy and management. HPM has published a special issue in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the KAHPM. The HPM invited authors, including former presidents of the KAHPM and current board members, to write about main issues in health policy and management. Although the HPM tried to set up an invited author on all subjects in the health policy and management field, 19 papers are published, that completed the peer review process by August, 2018. The authors of the special issue of the 30th anniversary of the KAHPM include six former presidents, a senior professor, and 12 board members. The subjects of this issue are reform of the healthcare delivery system, health insurance and medical policy, reform of health system governance, the role of National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (KIHASA) and the National Evidence-based healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA), ethical aspects of health policy change, regional disparities of healthcare, healthcare accreditation, new healthcare technology evaluation system, globalization of the healthcare industry, the epidemiological investigator system, the quarantine system, safety and disaster, and official development assistance. There are some remaining topics to deal with for the KAHPM: aged society, anti-smoking, non-infectious disease, suicide, healthcare resources, emergency medical care, out-of-pocket money, medical fee payment system, medical aid system, long-term care insurance, industrial accident compensation insurance, community-centered health welfare system, and central government and local government of health. The HPM will continue to publish review articles on the main topics in health policy and management. This is because the KAHPM, which has been the leading academic society of Korea's health policy and management for the last 30 years, feels responsible for continuing its mission for the next 30 years.

A Study on the Curriculum of Global Health Education (글로벌 건강교육 교과과정에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung Sook;Kim, Hack Sun;Lee, So Young;Dressel, Anne;Galvao, Loren W.;Jun, Myunghee
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study aimed to understand current global health education and suggest its future direction for Korean undergraduate nursing students. Methods: After reviewing literature to identify key concepts applicable to global health nursing curricula, the authors analyzed global health curricula from 98 nursing colleges by using a framework that was developed for this study. Results: Among the 201 nursing colleges, 98 (48.8%) schools offered one or more global health-related courses. The titles of these courses were divided into two categories: Multiculturalism and international nursing. Multicultural courses were offered mainly for freshmen (40.5%) or sophomore students (40.5%), whereas international nursing courses were offered mainly for senior students (35.9%). These courses trained nursing students to be culturally competent in providing nursing care for immigrants or foreign travelers living in South Korea. Conclusions: It is evident that interest in global health education is growing in South Korea. However, the scope and content of global health education needs to be broadened beyond multiculturalism and international nursing so that it can prepare nursing students to promote global health equity, reduce global health disparities, and work competently with globally-focused organizations.

Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Use of Eye Care Services in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012

  • Park, Yong Seok;Heo, Hwan;Ye, Byeong Jin;Suh, Young-Woo;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Park, Shin Hae;Lim, Key Hwan;Lee, Sung Jin;Park, Song Hee;Baek, Seung-Hee;The Epidemiologic Survey Committee of the Korean Ophthalmological Society
    • Korean Journal of Ophthalmology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.58-70
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To estimate the factors and prevalence of eye care service utilization in the South Korean population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study included data from 22,550 Koreans aged ${\geq}5$ years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. For people aged 5 to 11 years (young children), information was based on self-reports of contact with eye care service in the past year; for people aged ${\geq}12$ years (older population), the information was based on the self-reported lifetime contact with eye care service. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the complex sample survey data were performed. Results: The prevalence of eye care service use in young children during the past year was 61.1% (95% confidence interval, 58.1%-64.1%), while that in the older population during their lifetime was 73.5%. Subjects aged 7 to 11 years were more likely to have had an eye examination in the past year than subjects aged 5 to 6 years (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-6.19). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher monthly household income, being a National Health Insurance holder, and having private health insurance were related to more frequent use of eye care services in young children. For the older population and women, those living in an urban area and those with a best-corrected visual acuity less than 20 / 40 in the worse-seeing eye were more likely to have had an eye examination during their lifetime. Low education level was associated with low lifetime use of eye care services in the older population. Conclusions: There are sociodemographic disparities with use of eye care services in South Korea. This population-based study provides information that is useful for determining different intervention programs based on sociodemographic disparities to promote eye care service utilization in South Korea.