• Title, Summary, Keyword: Heat conductivity

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Thermal conductivity of rocks for geothermal energy utilization (지열에너지 활용을 위한 암석의 열전도도 고찰)

  • Lee, Young-Min
    • Transactions of the Korea Society of Geothermal Energy Engineers
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2007
  • Thermal conductivity of rocks is one of the most important parameters in designing a geothermal heat pump system, because heat exchange rate depends primarily on thermal conductivity of rocks. In this paper, the measurement methods of thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity of rocks, and heat exchange rate are discussed.

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The Effects of Solution Heat Treatment and Aging Treatment on the Electrical Conductivity and Hardness of Cu-Cr Alloys (크롬동합금의 도전율과 경도에 미치는 용체화처리와 시효처리의 영향)

  • Kim, Shin Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.21-24
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    • 2002
  • The electrode materials for welding machine in automobile industry such as Cu-Cr, Cu-Zr and Cu-$Al_2O_3$ require the high electrical conductivity and the proper hardness. Therefore the effects of solution heat treatment and aging treatment on the electrical conductivity and hardness of Cu-0.8wt%Cr and Cu-1.2wt%Cr alloys have been investigated. Cu-0.8wt%Cr alloy showed the higher electrical conductivity and hardness than Cu-1.2wt%Cr alloy and both alloys showed the better electrical conductivity at $930^{\circ}C$ among 930, 980 and $1030^{\circ}C$ solution heat treatment temperatures. The electrical conductivity and hardness in both alloys were not affected by aging treatment but remarkably affected by solution heat treatment temperature. The final drawing process reduced electrical conductivity and increased hardness more in Cu-1.2wt%Cr alloy.

Effect of Grouting Materials on Ground Effective Thermal Conductivity (그라우팅 재료가 지중 유효열전도도에 미치는 영향)

  • Sohn, Byong-Hu
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.3371-3376
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    • 2007
  • The design of a ground-source heat pump system includes specifications for a ground loop heat exchanger where the heat transfer rate depends on the thermal conductivity of the ground. To evaluate this heat transfer property, in-situ thermal response tests on four vertical test boreholes with different grouting materials were conducted by adding a monitored amount of heat to water over various test lengths. By measuring the water temperatures entering and exiting the loop, water flow rate, and heat load, effective thermal conductivity values of the ground were determined. The effect of increasing thermal conductivity of grouting materials from 0.82 to 1.05 W/m$^{\circ}C$ resulted in overall increases in effective ground thermal conductivity by 25.8% to 69.5%.

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Characteristics on the Non-Steady Heal Transfer of the STS 304 Hollow Cylinder (STS 304 중공 원통의 비정상 열전달 특성)

  • Lee, Sang-Chul;Kim, Young-Geun;Shim, Kyu-Jin;Bae, Kang-Youl;Chung, Han-Shik;Jeong, Hyo-Min
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1552-1557
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    • 2004
  • This paper introduced about characteristics on the non-steady heat transfer of STS 304 hollow cylinder, In the non-steady state, the specific heat and conductivity are depended on the temperature variations, and these properties affect to the governing equation on heat conduction. But the most of numerical analysis on heat conduction is assumed to constant properties which is conductivity and specific heat. Assuming that conduction is assumed to constant properties which is conductivity and specific heat. Assuming that the properties are reacted sensitively, the numerical results can have the difference of between constant properties with non-constant properties. The main parameters are specific heat and conductivity. The temperature distributions of the STS 304 hollow cylinder became in steady state after 4 minutes in case of the constant properties. As the conductivity in varied with temperature, the temperature distributions became in steady state after 15 minutes. Therefore, a numerical analysis of the non steady state heat transfer will has to apply that conductivity varied with temperature.

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Study on the Optimum Design of Ground Source Heat Pumps (지열원 히트펌프 시스템의 최적 설계 기법 연구)

  • Choi, Jong Min
    • Transactions of the Korea Society of Geothermal Energy Engineers
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2018
  • Among the various ground source heat pump systems, vertical-type heat pump systems have been distributed greatly. Most of the vertical-type ground source heat pump systems have been designed based on the Korean Ministry of Knowledge Economy Announcement in Korea. In this study, the design process of the vertical-type ground source heat pump system in the announcement was analyzed, and the effects of the design parameters on the ground loop heat exchanger were investigated. Borehole thermal conductivity was the highest dominant design parameter for ground loop heat exchangers. The borehole thermal conductivity was changed according to the pipe and grout thermal conductivity. For optimal design of the ground heat pump system, it is highly recommended that the design process in the announcement will be revised to adopt the various tubes and grout which have higher thermal conductivity. In addition, the certification standard for heat pump unit should be revised to develop the heat pump with a small flow rate.

A Study on Improving the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchanger (지중열교환기 성능 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ook-Joong;Lee, Kong-Hoon;Kim, Min-Su
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.3142-3147
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    • 2008
  • A simple transient simulation of ground source heat pump system was carried out to investigate the effects of ground thermal conductivity on its performance. The TRNSYS code with a simple water to water heat pump model was used to compare the COP variation of the system. A new ground heat exchanger called by semi-closed loop was proposed and constructed in the real site. The effective thermal conductivity was measured using the test equipment developed by according to the line source model. The simulation results showed that highly efficient thermal conductivity of the grout material could increase the performance of the heat pump system very well. And the new ground heat exchanger showed the increased effective thermal conductivity as the penetration water flow rate(PWFR) was increased. Therefore, the performance improvement of the heat pump system using the proposed ground heat exchanger can be expected.

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Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity Measurement of CNT/EEA Semiconducting Materials and XLPE Insulator (CNT/EEA 반도전층 재료와 XLPE 절연체의 열적 특성)

  • Yang, Jong-Seok;Lee, Kyoung-Yong;Shin, Dong-Hoon;Park, Dae-Hee
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers C
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    • v.55 no.11
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    • pp.514-519
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    • 2006
  • To improve the mean-life and the reliability of power cable, we have investigated specific heat (Cp) and thermal conductivity of XLPE insulator and semiconducting materials in 154[kV] underground power transmission cable. Specimens were made of sheet form with the seven of specimens for measurement. Specific heat (Cp) and thermal conductivity were measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and Nano Flash Diffusivity. Specific-heat measurement temperature ranges of XLPE insulator were from $20[^{\circ}C]\;to\;90[^{\circ}C]$, and the heating rate was $1[^{\circ}C/min]$. And the measurement temperatures of thermal conductivity were $25[^{\circ}C],\;55[^{\circ}C]\;and\;90[^{\circ}C]$. In case of semiconducting materials, the measurement temperature ranges of specific heat were from $20[^{\circ}C]\;to\;60[^{\circ}C]$, and the heating rate was $1[^{\circ}C/min]$. And the measurement temperatures of thermal conductivity were $25[^{\circ}C]\;and\;55[^{\circ}]C$. From these experimental results both specific heat and thermal conductivity were increased by heating rate because volume of materials was expanded according to rise in temperature. We could know that a small amount of CNT has a excellent thermal properties.

Performance Analysis of Ground Thermal Conductivity by Ground Heat Exchanger (지중열교환기의 지중열전도도 성능 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Jun;Choi, Jae-Sang;Kang, Yong-Tae
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2005
  • The objectives of this paper are to estimate the ground thermal conductivity by ground heat exchangers in two different places - Chooncheon and Wonjoo, and to analyze the effect of ground thermal conductivity on the ground thermal diffusivity and the size of the ground heat exchanger. In Chooncheon area, a single-U type HDPE pipe (25mm diameter) with borehole diameter of 150mm, length of 150m is installed. In Wonjoo area, a single-U type HDPE pipe (40mm diameter) with borehole diameter 150mm, length of 200m is installed. It is found that the ground thermal conductivities are estimated as 2.69 $W/m^{\circ}C$ and 2.99 $W/m^{\circ}C$ in Chooncheon and Wonjoo, respectively. It is also found that the ground heat exchanger size is reduced by 8.6% with 25% increase of ground thermal conductivity, and increase by 11.8% with 25% decrease of ground thermal conductivity.

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The Effects of the Installation Conditions of Ground Loop Heat Exchanger to the Thermal Conductivity and Borehole Resistance (지중열교환기 설치 조건이 지중 유효 열전도도와 보어홀 열저항에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Hyo-Jae;Kong, Hyoung-Jin;Kang, Sung-Jae;Choi, Jae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2011
  • A ground loop heat exchanger in a ground source heat pump system is an important unit that determines the thermal performance of a system and its initial cost. A proper design requires certain site specific parameters, most importantly the ground effective thermal conductivity, the borehole thermal resistance and the undisturbed ground temperature. This study was performed to investigate the effect of some parameters such as borehole lengths, various grouting materials and U tube configurations on ground effective thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance. In this study, thermal response tests were conducted using a testing device to 9 different ground loop heat exchangers. From the experimental results, the length of ground loop heat exchanger affects to the effective thermal conductivity. The results of this experiment shows that higher thermal conductivity of grouting materials leads to the increase effective thermal conductivity from 22 to 32%. Also, mounting spacers have increased by 14%.

Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Some Sand-Water Mixtures Used for Backfilling Materials of Ground Heat Exchanger (지중열교환기 뒤채움재로 사용되는 모래-물 혼합물의 열전도도 예측)

  • Sohn, Byong-Hu
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.614-623
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the thermal conductivity of and(silica, quartzite, limestone, sandstone, granite and two masonry sands)-water mixtures used for ground heat exchanger backfilling materials. Nearly 260 tests were performed in a thermal conductivity measuring system to characterize the relationships between the thermal conductivity of mixtures and the water content. The experimental results show hat the thermal conductivity of mixtures increases with increasing dry density and with increasing water content. The most widely used empirical prediction models for thermal conductivity of soils were found inappropriate to estimate the thermal conductivity of unsaturated sand-water mixtures. An improved model using an exponential relationship to compute the thermal conductivity of dry sands and empirical relationship to assess the normalized thermal conductivity of unsaturated sand-water mixtures is presented.