• Title, Summary, Keyword: Heavy metals contamination

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Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

  • Kyere, Vincent Nartey;Greve, Klaus;Atiemo, Sampson M.
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.31
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    • pp.6.1-6.10
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    • 2016
  • Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination ($C_{deg}$), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall $C_{deg}$. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall $C_{deg}$. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and $C_{deg}$, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied.

The Recognition Level of Food Contamination with Residual Pesticides and Hazardous Heavy Metals in Taejon Area (식품의 잔류농약 및 유해중금속의 오염인식도 -대전지역을 중심으로-)

  • 한장일;김성애
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.454-465
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    • 1998
  • This study was to investigate the recognition level of food contamination with residual pesticides and hazardous heavy metals from 365 male and female adults in Taejon area using questionnaires. Among the recognizing level of residual pesticides in overall foods, 69.1% were 'serious', 25.6% were 'average' and 5.3% were 'not serious'. Over 94.7% of the subjects recognized residual pesticides pollution infoods. for hazardous heavy metals in food, 47.8% responsed as 'serious', 40.5% as 'average' and 11.8 as ' not serious' . Over 88.3% of the subjects recognized contaminated pesticides seriously in fruits, 72.1% in vegetables and 51.7% in cereals, whereas 55.7% of the subjects recognized hazardous heavy metal contamination seriously in fruits, 53.4% in vegetables, 40.8% in fishes and shellfishes and 35.0% in seaweeds. The subjects recognized residual pesticides contamination more seriously in overall foods, cereal, potatoes and starches, bean, vegetables and fruits, whereas hazardous heavy metal contamination was recognized more seriously in fishes and shellfishes, and seaweeds food groups. Comparisons were shown based on individuial's occupation. Farmer, forester, iner and fisher showed the lowest recognizing level of food contamination in most food groups. The mean score of the dietary effect by mass media's information on food contamination from residual pesticides and hazardous heavy metals were 3.51±0.96 out of 5 points. By Duncan's multiple range test, sex, age, marriage, food cost per month, concerns about health and nutrition knowledge showed significant differences in the mean effect score at p<0.05. According to a pesticides contamination in several food groups were affected by food cost per month, mass media's information on food contamination, health status, and concerns about health, But a recognition level of hazardous heavy metals in food were affected by income and, food cost per month mass media's information on food contamination, health status, concern about health and nutrition knowledge. People who need to take extreme precautions of food contamination were in order of producers, government officials, homemakers, the consumer's association and consumers.

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Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in Playgrounds of Kindergartens in Vilnius

  • Valskys, Vaidotas;Ignatavicius, Gytautas;Sinkevicius, Stanislovas;Gasiunaite, Ugne
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2016
  • The soil contamination by heavy metals in playgrounds of kindergartens in Vilnius city is analysed in this article. The aim of this research is to investigate and evaluate soil contamination by heavy metals in playgrounds of kindergartens in different territories of Vilnius city. Concentrations of heavy metals were measured using Thermo Fisher Scientific Niton$^{(R)}$ XL2 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Maximum allowable and background concentrations that are given in Lithuanian hygiene standard and Lithuania geochemical atlas are used to compare and evaluate concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of heavy metals and their spatial distribution were analysed in order to exclude the most contaminated areas relating with different functional areas of the city. Geo-statistical analysis and maps of spatial distribution were developed using IDW interpolator in ArcMap software. Detail soil surveys helps to assess the extent of anthropogenic impact in different parts of the city which can be harmful to the soil ecosystem and human health. Such researches can help to change or select different function for city areas in territorial planning process.

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils of the Daegu and Ulsan Area (대구·울산지역의 토양 중금속 오염도 평가)

  • Lee Tae-Gwan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.605-611
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the local distribution of the heavy metal concentration in Daegu and Ulsan which were divided into the residual areas, the traffic dense areas and the industrial areas. The Inductively Coupled Plasma(ICP) was used to analyze heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and minor metals, such as Fe, Si, Mg, Ca, AI, Na, K. The results of this analysis showed that the content of heavy metals which was classified by districts in Daegu and Ulsan was the highest in the industrial areas followed by the traffic dense areas and the residual areas. Compared to the level of heavy metals of national and local soil survey network in 2003, contamination of heavy metals in Daegu was lower than national average. However, the content of Cd, As, Zn in Ulsan was respectively 13.38 times, 472 times and 2.65 times higher than national average contamination. In addition, compared to the soil pollution level of the environmental protection law, contamination of all areas in Daegu was lower. But the content of As at the industrial areas in Ulsan was 10.71 times higher than standard of soil pollution and 4.28 times higher than standard of measures against soil contamination.

Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure

  • Park, Byeong-Yong;Lee, Jae-Kook;Ro, Hee-Myong;Kim, Young Ho
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 2016
  • The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, $1/4^2$, $1/4^3$, and 0] ${\times}$ maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4-5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2-5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals.

The analysis of heavy metal total contents In milt of Han river (한강유역 저니층의 중금속 함량 전분석)

  • 정일현;김세진
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 1994
  • An analytic and comparative study on the level of concentration on heavy metals in silt of Han- River was described. The Paldang lake supplies tap water resources for the 20 million residents in the metropolitan zone. It is composed that three steps for water works by the water volume in all 35,072 thousand tons : the first section is 7,251 thousand tons, the second is 15,980 thousand tons and the third is 11,841 thousand tons. However, recently it has becoming a serious social issue for water contamination on Paldang by heavy metals due to gathering of silt. It has concentrated on analysis and comparison study on the level of heavy metals between contamination- estimated zone and the other zones. After all, Concentration on heavy metals of expected none pollute's zone and expected pollute's zone indicate almost similar results. In the end, heavy metals within silt of Han- River consider not to effect on pollution but quantity of natural condition.

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Studies on the Evaluation Method of Heavy Metal Contamination Degree in the Han River (한강 저질중의 중금속 오염도 평가 방법에 관한 연구)

  • 어수미;박성배
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 1992
  • This study was performed to evaluate contamination degree of heavy metals in sediments of Han River, compared with other nation's evaluation method. The results were as follows 1. The contamination Ratio calculation method by heavy metal concentration in differnt fraction size has a limitation to apply to all of the areas of Han river because of its characteristics of sediment. As a result, this method applied to only 4 areas of Pal Dang, Wang Sook Chon, Uk Chon, and Bul Kwang Chon, and Contmination Ratio of heavy metals in those areas were relatively low of below 3. So it's considered that those areas have less contaminated from anthropogenic contaminants. 2. The Contamination Ratio calculation method by heavy metal concentration in different areasthat of upper area to be background level-has a limitation also to apply to Han river. But it is considered that this method was relatively suitable to apply, so it should be prepared evaluation standand method for them. Contamination ratio from background level as Pal Dang area were most high in An Yang Chon. So it must be prepared purification and control measure at An Yang Chon.

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The controversial points and a remedy on evaluation of heavy metal contamination in standard method for examination of soil in Korea. (국내 토양오염 공정시험방법중 중금속 관련 오염평가의 문제점과 개선책)

  • 오창환;유연희;이평구;박성원;이영엽
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.298-301
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    • 2000
  • Heavy metals are extracted from stream sediments, roadside soils and sediments and soils and tailings from mining area using partial extraction, acid digestion and HF-digestion. Compared to amounts of heavy metals extracted using partial extraction, those extracted using acid digestion are higher by 2.0∼220.9 times in Cu, 2.4∼2806.1 times in Pb, 1.3∼121 times in Cd, 14.1∼1300885 times in Fe, 1.2∼271.5 times in Mn, 1.3∼372.5 times in Zn, 2.2∼1734.5 times in Cr. Although partial extraction, which extracts less amounts of heavy metals from soil compared to acid digestion, is used in domestic standard method for examination of soil, domestic soil standard for heavy metals in non-agricultural and industrial areas is higher than soil standard in foreign countries which use acid digestion, For improvement of the domestic standard method for assessment of soil, it is suggested to lower the domestic soil standard for heavy metals or to change pretreatment method for extracting heavy metals from partial extraction to acid digestion with modifying the soil standard.

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Heavy metals removal from aqueous solution through micellar enhanced ultrafiltration: A review

  • Yaqub, Muhammad;Lee, Seung Hwan
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.363-375
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    • 2019
  • Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) is a surfactant-based separation technique and has been investigated for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The performance of heavy metals removal from wastewater through MEUF relies on membrane characteristics, surfactant properties, various operational parameters including operating pressure, surfactant and heavy metal concentration, pH of the solution, temperature, and presence of dissolved solutes and salts. This study presents an overview of literature related to MEUF with respect to the all significant parameters including membranes, surfactants, operating conditions and MEUF hybrid processes. Moreover, this study illustrates that MEUF is an adaptable technique in various applications. Nowadays water contamination caused by heavy metals has become a serious concern around the globe. MEUF is a significant separation technique in wastewater treatment that should be acknowledged, for the reason that removal of heavy metals contamination even at lower concentrations becomes achievable, which is evidently made known in the presented review. Hybrid processes presented the better results as compared to MEUF. Future studies are required to continue the experimental work with various combinations of surfactant and heavy metals, and to investigate for the treatment of concentrated solutions, as well as for real industrial wastewater.

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Crops in the Poongwon Mine Area (풍원광산 지역의 토양 및 농작물 중금속 오염)

  • Kim, Jakwan
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.5-11
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    • 2010
  • Abandoned mines release acid mine drainage and cause the contamination of soil and crops around the mine area. The objective of current study is to evaluate effect of mine on the soil and crop contamination. Soils, water, and crops were collected and analyzed, and the heavy metal data were classified into types of the soil, types of crops, and distance from the minehead. Surface soils of the mine area were highly contaminated with heavy metals, especially with zinc and lead. Tailings and cultivated paddy soils were also highly contaminated. Heavy metal concentrations upon distance from minehead decrease steadily as the distance from the minehead increase. The correlation between heavy metals was extracted from soils and the content in the rice samples showed a positive relation for arsenic and cadmium but not a meaningful relation for other metals.