• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hepatic detoxification

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Detoxification Effect of Microcluster-Water on Bromobenzene-Induced Liver Damaged Mice (Bromobenzene으로 유도된 간 손상 마우스에 대한 Microcluster수의 효과)

  • Park, Bum-Ho;Back, Kyung-Yern;Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the hepatic detoxification effect of microcluster-water (McW). Animal experiments were divided into 4 groups: distilled water intake group (DC), distilled water intake-bromobenzene treated group (DB), McW intake group (MC), and McW intake-bromobenzene treated group (MB). There were no significant differences in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities between DC and MC groups, but the activities in MB group were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in DB group. No apparent changes of aniline hydrolase activity were shown in all experimental groups, while glutathione S-transferase activity in MC and MB groups was higher than that in DC and DB, respectively. The content of hepatic lipid peroxide in DC group was similar to that of MC group. In addition, the contents in DB and MB groups were significantly (p<0.05) increased than that of DC group. The increasing rate in MB group was lower than that of DB group. Also, the electron donating activity of McW was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of distilled water. From these results, it could be suggested that McW has the possibility of having detoxification effect of bromobenzene induced hepatic injury by increasing glutathione S-transferase, which is known as a kind of hepatiic detoxification enzyme.

In vitro and In vivo Responses of Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Exposed to Formalin (Formalin에 노출시킨 넙치 (Paralichthys olivaceus) 간장 약물대사효소의 in vivo 및 in vitro 반응)

  • Lee, Ji-Seon;Ha, Jin-Hwan;Lee, Kyoung-Seon;Jeon, Joong-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2006
  • The response of hepatic mixed function oxygenase (MFO) system was investigated in olive flounder exposed to formalin. Hepatic microsome of olive flounder incubated in vitro with formalin demonstrated the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP), ethoxyresorufin deethylase (EROD), cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R) and cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) activity. In addition, olive flounder was exposed to 100, 300 and 500 ppm of formalin for 1 h and then transferred to a flow-through type of 1000 L aquarium. Hepatic MFO enzyme activity was determined for 72 h. As the result, hepatic CYP, P450R and EROD activities increased following exposure of formalin, but b5R and GST showed no significant change. These results imply that CYP and P450R can be considered as main hepatic enzymes involving in detoxification of formalin.

The Effect of Antioxidant-complex on Oxygen Free Radical Generating and Scavenging System in Rats

  • Doh Seong-Tak;Lee Sang-Il
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.49-52
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    • 2006
  • To elucidate the effect of antioxidant complex containing $\beta-carotene$, vitamin E, vitamin C, Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract and selenium on oxygen :tree radical production and detoxification system, rats were fed normal diet and normal diet with antioxidant complex 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% for 3 weeks. Feed efficiency ratio, changes in body weight, weight gain and amounts of feces of rat are similar in four groups. Liver weight per body weight and hepatic lipid peroxide weight increased in 0.5% group. However, hepatic glutathione contents in all antioxidant complex added groups were significantly increased compare with normal control group. On the other hand, the activity of xanthine oxidase was a little increased due to the amounts of antioxidant complex. Superoxide dismutase and gutathione peroxidase activity of 0.1% antioxidant complex added group were increased about $10{\sim}20%$ in comparison to normal control group. These results suggest that the supplementation of antioxidant complex 0.1% to basal diet may reduce the hepatic damage caused by free radicals.

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Hepatoprotection by Semisulcospira libertina against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice

  • Jeon, Tae-Won;Lee, Young-Sun;Kim, Hyo-Jung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2003
  • Recently, we reported (J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 31(3): 516-520, 2002) that Semisulcospira libertina (Marsh Snail) pretreatment has a hepatoprotective effect on $CCl_4$-induced liver damage in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of hepatoprotection by S. libertina (SL) on liver injury induced by acetaminophen (AA). Male ICR mice were pretreated with dehydrated powder of SL once daily for three consecutive days, given a single toxic dose of AA (450 mg/kg) and liver function determined 24 h later. Liver damage was assessed by quantifying serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities, and by measuring hepatic lipid peroxidation. To confirm possible mechanism(s), the content of hepatic glutathione (GSH) and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF $\alpha$) mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) were also measured. Pretreatment with SL dramatically lowered AA-elevated ALT, AST and SDH activities. SL pretreatment decreased AA-produced lipid peroxidation by 11% and restored the AA-depleted hepatic GSH by 27%. Furthermore, SL markedly suppressed the expression of TNF $\alpha$ mRNA induced by AA. Our findings revealed that the possible hepatoprotective mechanisms of SL could be attributed, at least in part, to the glutathione-mediated detoxification as well as the regulation of TNF $\alpha$ mRNA expression.

Effects of Onion Juice on Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Lipid Persoxidation in Rats (양파즙이 에탄올에 의한 백서의 지질산화물 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 박평심;이병래;이명렬
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.750-756
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    • 1994
  • The effect of onion juice on ethanol -induced lipid peroxidation were studied were studied in rats. The contents of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) -reactants increased significantly in liver thanol(4ml/kg/day) administered -rats. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase increased by ethanol administration compared with control group, but alterations of antioxidant enzymes activities in liver of ethanol administered rats were not significant vs control group. The glutathione contents in liver decreased by ethanol , whereas the glutathione level increased in ethanol and onion juice group compared with ethanol group. The contents of hepatic TBA-reactants and serum aminotrasnferase activity in ethanol group were reduced by onion juice administration. In these results, increased hepatic TBA-reactants of liver in ethanol group might be due to decreased glutathione contents in liver. Reduced glutathione (GSH) plays an important roles in the liver in several detoxification and the reduction of lipid peroxides. So the protective effects of onion juice on ethanol-induced increment of TBA-reactants may be due to the increament of lgutathions content. The glutathione depletion by ethanol was an important factor of ethanol-induced cell damage, and the prevention of onion juice to the glutathione depletion reduced by ethanol may be an important factor on the protection from ethanol-induced lipid perpxidation in rats.

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Effect of Hispidulin 7-O-neohesperidoside on Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Liver and NMR Assignment

  • Park, Jong-Cheol;Baek, Nam-In;Chung, Shin-Kyo;Hur, Jong-Moon;Lee, Jong-Ho;Yu, Young-Beob;Chol, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 1997
  • The full NMR assignment of hispidulin 7-0-neohesperidoside (1) isolated from Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense was made with the aid of 2D correlation NMR techniques such as HMQC and HMBC. To investigate detoxification of bromobenzene-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation by compound 1, hepatic lipid peroxide level and the activities of enzymes responsible for production and removal of epoxide were studied. The level of lipid peroxide elevated by bromobenzene was significantly reduced by compound 1. This compound administered daily over one week before intoxication with bromobenzene did not affect the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase. Epoxide hydrolase activity was decreased significantly by bromobenzene, which was restored to the control level by pretreatment of persicarin. The results suggest that the bromobenzene-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation by compound 1 is reduced by enhancing the activity of epoxide hydrolase, an enzyme removing bromobenzene epoxide.

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S-(N,N-Diallyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetylcysteine: Synthesis and Biochemical Properties Associated with Chemoprevention (S-(N,N-Diallyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetylcysteine의 합성 및 발암억제와 관련된 생화학적 특성)

  • 이병훈
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 1998
  • Dithiocarbamate and mixed disulfide containing allyl functions were designed and synthesized as putative chemopreventive agents, i.e. N,N-diallyldithiocarbamate (DATC) and S-(N,N-diallyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetylcysteine (AC-DATC). DATC and AC-DATC were administered and the activities of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and microsomal N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) deethylase were assayed in order to test the effects of these organosulfur com-pounds on the detoxification and metabolic activation system of NDEA. The amounts of hepatic glutathione (GSH and GSSG) was also determined. The administration of DATC to rats led to an increase in the activity of GR and to an inhibition of CYP2E1-mediated NDEA deethylation. AC-DATC induced the activity of GR and GST, increased the hepatic GSH content and inhibited the rate of NDEA deethylation. The level of GSSG was decreased as a consequence of the increased activity of GR. These effects may contribute to possible antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic action of the dithiocarbamates investigated.

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Recent Updates on Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity: The Role of Nrf2 in Hepatoprotection

  • Gum, Sang Il;Cho, Min Kyung
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2013
  • Acetaminophen (APAP) known as paracetamol is the main ingredient in Tylenol, which has analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. Inappropriate use of APAP causes major morbidity and mortality secondary to hepatic failure. Overdose of APAP depletes the hepatic glutathione (GSH) rapidly, and the metabolic intermediate leads to hepatocellular death. This article reviews the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and provides an overview of current research studies. Pharmacokinetics including metabolism (activation and detoxification), subsequent transport (efflux)-facilitating excretion, and some other aspects related to toxicity are discussed. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated gene battery plays a critical role in the multiple steps associated with the mitigation of APAP toxicity. The role of Nrf2 as a protective target is described, and potential natural products inhibiting APAP toxicity are outlined. This review provides an update on the mechanism of APAP toxicity and highlights the beneficial role of Nrf2 and specific natural products in hepatoprotection.

Effects of Extract and Isorhamnetin Glycoside from Brassica juncea on Hepatic Alcohol-Metabolizing Enzyme System in Rats

  • Hur, Jong-Moon;Park, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jong-Won;Park, Jong-Cheol
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.190-194
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    • 2012
  • The effects of methanol extract of the leaves of Brassica juncea and its major component, isorhamnetin 3-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside on hepatic alcohol metabolizing enzymes were investigated. The methanol extract and isorhamnetin 3-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside supplementations increased the activities of microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and aldehyde dehydrogenase in a dose-dependent manner, and had mild effects on the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase. Isorhamnetin 3-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside alleviated the adverse effect of ethanol ingestion by enhancing the activities of alcohol oxidizing emzymes, microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Effect of Dietary Selenium of Metallothionein Synthesis and Antioxidative Detoxificantion Mechanism in Cadmium Administered Rats (Cadmium 투여 흰쥐에 있어서 Metallothionein 합성과 항산화적 해독기구에 미치는 식이 Selenium의 영향)

  • 이순재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.286-298
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    • 1993
  • In order to investigate the effect of selenium (Se) on the liver damage, metallothionein synthesis and hepatic antioxidative detoxification system in cadmium(Cd) administered rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats(60\\5g) were divided into two diet groups, depending on with (CdS groups) or without (Cd groups) 0.5ppm Se supplementation and fed experimental diets ad libidum for 4 weeks. And then each group was again subdivided into five groups, depending on injection number of Cd, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times of 2.5mg Cd/kg of body wt once a day. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit values, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activite were decreased progressively with increasing number of Cd injection, but increased by the supplementation of Se. The reduced form of glutathione (GSH) contents in blood and liver and vitamin E content were decreased and oxidized form (GSSG) increased in Cd groups, but these of Se supplemented groups were not very different from controls. Cd reduced liver vitamin E content which was not restored by Se supplementation. Liver lipid peroxide values were elevated with increasing doses of Cd, but Se supplementation reduced these elevated levels. Accumulation of metallothionein in liver and kidney was increased with increasing number of Cd injection, but Se did not affect on them. Histological examination revealed that lysosomes were significantly increased and mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were enlarged by Cd, however, these changes were reduced by Se. It was concluded that Se administration promoted antioxidative detoxification and alleviated peroxidative damage in rat liver by Cd.

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