• Title, Summary, Keyword: Heterozygosity

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Marker-Assisted Mating Applied in In-Situ Conservation of Indigenous Animals in Small Populations : (1) Choosing Mating Schemes for Maximum Heterozygosity

  • Wu, X.L.;Liu, R.Z.;Shi, Q.S.;Liu, X.C.;Li, X.;Wu, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.431-434
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    • 2000
  • Maintaining maximum genetic variability is of critical importance with in-situ conservation of animal species in small populations. Marker-assisted mating (MAM) was suggested to achieve maximum heterozygosity in offspring populations. The aims of this research was to investigate and decide the effectiveness and promising types of MAM to achieve this goal. Analysis of variance with simulation data revealed that the heterozygosity in offspring populations was significantly determined by sire heterozygosity from mating of non-inbred parent animals, and significantly by sire heterozygosity and percent parental difference in offspring reproduced by inbred parents. Seven types of marker-assisted mating schemes were examined, in which offspring exhibited heterozygosity that was -0.01 to 7.37% below or above that from random mating of non-inbred parent animals, and 0.00 to 16.39% above that from random mating of inbred parent animals. The great increase in offspring heterozygosity was observed with mating by tandem maximizing sire heterozygosity, percent parental difference, and dam heterozygosity. Random mating resulted in fluctuation of offspring heterozygosity. These results suggested that MAM was a promising method for maintaining maximum offspring variability in in-situ conservation of animal species in small populations.

Investigation of Gene and Microsatellite Heterozygosities Correlated to Growth Rate in the Chinese Meishan Pig

  • Jiang, X.P.;Liu, G.Q.;Xiong, Y.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.927-932
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    • 2005
  • A total of 130 Chinese Meishan piglets were scored for their genotypes at five gene loci and five microsatellite loci. The average gene heterozygosity was 0.3338 and the average microsatellite heterozygosity was 0.2954, and the heterozygosity of the overall ten loci was 0.3146. The data of birth weight (BW) and body weight on day 35 (W35) were collected, average daily gain (ADG) for each individual was computed as the slope from the regression of weight on age. There was no significant correlation between individual heterozygosity and birth weight (p>0.05). Significant regressions were observed between ADG and the heterozygosity of loci (p<0.01). Similar results were observed in W35 and loci heterozygosity (p<0.01). Heterozygosity at these ten loci explained 43.62% of the total variation in ADG and 45.48% in W35. Significant correlations existed not only in the function of gene loci but also in neutral microsatellite loci, so it indicated that associative overdominance affected piglet growth significantly.

Correlations between Heterozygosity at Microsatellite Loci, Mean d2 and Body Weight in a Chinese Native Chicken

  • Liu, G.Q.;Jiang, X.P.;Wang, J.Y.;Wang, Z.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1671-1677
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    • 2006
  • A total of two hundred twenty eight half-sib chickens were scored for allele size at 20 microsatellite loci to estimate individual heterozygosity and mean $d^2$. The averages of microsatellite heterozygosity, allele per locus and mean $d^2$ were 0.39, 3.6 and 49, respectively. The body weight was measured biweekly from birth to twelve weeks of age. Gompertz function was assumed to simulate body weight and to estimate the growth model parameters. Due to sex effect on body weight, the regression of body weight on heterozygosity as well as on mean $d^2$ in males and females was analyzed separately in the present study. Positive correlations were found between microsatellite heterozygosity and body weight in males and females (p<0.05). Positive correlation also observed between individual heterozygosity and simulated maximum daily gain estimated from Gompertz function in female chickens (p<0.05). There were no significant correlations between mean $d^2$ and body weight. The results suggest that local effect hypothesis could explain the correlations between heterozygosity and fitness-related traits in the domesticated chicken population, rather than the general effect hypothesis does.

Loss of Heterozygosity and Microsatellite Instability at Multiple Tumor Suppressor Genes in Gastric Carcinomas (위암에서 여러 종양억제유전자 부위의 이형접합성 소실과 현미 부수체 불안정성)

  • Cho Young Gu;Kim Chang Jae;Park Cho Hyun;Kim Young Sil;Kim Su Young;Nam Suk Woo;Lee Sug Hyung;Yoo Nam Jin;Lee Jung Young;Park Won Sang
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of loss of heterozygosity and the microsatellite instability at multiple tumor suppressor gene loci in gastric adenocarcinomas. Materials and Methods: Loss of heterozygosity and the microsatellite instability at several tumor suppressor gene loci were analyzed in 29 primary gastric carcinomas by using microdissection and the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Twenty-three ($79\%$) of the 29 cases demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at one or more loci. The frequency of loss of heterozygosity at the p53 locus was the highest ($63\%$) and those at the VHL, APC, p16, Rb, MEN1, BRCA1, DPC4, 3p21, and 16p13 region were $41\%,\;36\%,\;19\%,\;29\%,\;33\%,\;26\%,\;21\%,\;32\%,\;and\;11\%$, respectively. Compared with histological type, loss of heterozygosity was more common in diffuse-type gastric cancer (P<0.01). Interestingly, 9 of 10 tumors with allelic deletion at the p53 locus showed loss of heterozygosity at other tumor suppressor gene loci. The microsatellite instability was also detected in 6 ($20\%$) of the 29 cases at one or more loci. Conclusion: These data suggest that frequent loss of heterozygosity and the microsatellite instability at multiple tumor suppressor genes might be required for the development and the progression of gastric carcinomas and that p53 allelic loss may be the most frequent event in the development of gastric carcinomas.

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Estimation of Genetic Characteristic and Cumulative Power of Breed Discrimination Using Microsatellite Markers in Hanwoo (Microsatellite Marker를 사용한 한우 품종 식별력 및 유전적 특성 분석)

  • Oh, Jae-Don;Lee, Jin-Ah;Kong, Hong-Sik;Park, Keong-Do;Yoon, Du-Hak;Jeon, Gwang-Ju;Lee, Hak-Kyo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2008
  • To estimate the genetic characteristics and cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) existing among Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and exotic foreign population (Angus, Herford, Charolais, Holstein) we used a total of 414 genomic DNAs from five breeds population (Hanwoo, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Holstein). Genetic characteristics indices including mean allele number among loci, unbiased heterozygosity ($h_i$) within locus and polymorphic information content (PIC) and unbiased average heterozygosity (H) among loci in four breeds were calculated using the generated allele frequencies by each marker. The mean allele numbers for all loci ranged between 5 and 7 while heterozygosity (H) ranged from 0.75 (HW) to 0.64 (HF) among loci and across breeds heterozygosity (H) was 0.69. The generated unbiased average heterozygosity among loci in each breed was integrated to the global formula of CPD resulting in 99.71 % within the populations. The genetic variation of HW (Hanwoo) showed highest estimates among the analyzed breeds.

Genetic Diversity of Magra Sheep from India Using Microsatellite Analysis

  • Arora, R.;Bhatia, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.938-942
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    • 2006
  • Genetic diversity of Magra - a lustrous carpet wool breed of India, was investigated by means of 25 ovine microsatellite markers proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Society for Animal Genetics (FAO-ISAG). All used microsatellites amplified well and exhibited polymorphisms. A wide range of genetic variability was observed as allele number from 3 (BM6506, OarCP20) to 10 (CSSM31), observed heterozygosity from 0.200 (BM6506) to 0.947 (OarHH35), expected heterozygosity from 0.368 (CSSM47) to 0.864 (BM1314) and Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) from 0.347 (CSSM47) to 0.849 (BM1314). This supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in the measurement of genetic diversity indices in Indian sheep too. Various average genetic variability measures viz., allele diversity (5.7), observed heterozygosity (0.597), expected heterozygosity (0.694) and mean PIC (0.648) values showed high genetic variability despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by the high average inbreeding coefficient ($F_{IS}=0.159$) due to the unequal sex ratio of the breeding animals.

Genomic Polymorphism Analysis using Microsatellite Markers in Gyeongju Donggyeong Dogs

  • Kim, Seung-Chang;Kim, Lee-Kyung;Choi, Seog-Kyu;Park, Chang-Min;Park, Sun-Ae;Cho, Yong-Min;Lim, Dajeong;Chai, Han-Ha;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Ji-Woong;Sun, Sang-Soo;Choi, Bong-Hwan
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.243-248
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to find a useful marker for gene polymorphism analysis using Microsatellite marker (MS marker) in Gyeongju Donggyeong dog. Twenty three MS marker analyzed the genetic features of DNA using 100 Gyeongju Donggyeong dogs in Gyeongju area. It was performed multiplex PCR with 3 set primer divided 9, 10 and 4 by analysis of conditions among MS markers. The results were calculated heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC), allele frequency and number of allele at each locus using Microsatellite Toolkit software and Cervus 3.0 program. Total 148 alleles were genotyped to determine and average 6.43 alleles was detected. FH3381 had the highest of 15 alleles and FH2834 had the lowest of 2 alleles. Expected heterozygosity had a wide range from 0.282 to 0.876 and had average value of 0.6496. Also, Observed heterozygosity had a more wide range from 0.200 to 0.950 and had average value of 0.6404. PIC had range from 0.262 to 0.859 and average PIC was calculated 0.606. Especially, FH2998 represented the highest rate of observed heterozygosity of 0.950 and FH3381 represented the highest rate of expected heterozygosity of 0.876 and PIC of 0.859. The use of these markers was considered to be useful to study genetic traits of Gyeongju Donggyeong dog.

SNPchaser : A Web-based Program for Detecting SNPs Substitution and Heterozygosity Existence (SNPchaser : DNA서열의 SNPs 치환 및 Heterozygosity 확인 프로그램)

  • Jang, Jin-Woo;Lee, Hyun-Chul;Lee, Myung-Hoon;Choi, Yeon-Shik;Choo, Dong-Won;Park, Kie-Jung;Lee, Dae-Sang
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.410-414
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    • 2009
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the DNA sequences difference among the same species in the level of nucleic acids and are widely applied in clinical fields such as personalized medicine. The routine and labor-intensive methods to determine SNPs are performing the sequence homology search by using BLAST and navigating the trace of chromatogram files generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing machine by using Chromas program. In this paper, we developed SNPchaser, a web-based program for detecting SNPs substitution and heterozygosity existence, to improve the labor-intensive method in determining SNPs. SNPchaser performed sequence alignment and visualized the suspected region of SNPs by using user's reference sequence, AB1 files, and positional information of SNPs. It simultaneously provided the results of sequences alignment and chromatogram of relevant area of SNPs to user. In addition, SNPchaser can easily determine existence of heterozygosity in SNPs area. SNPchaser is freely accessible via the web site http://www.bioinformatics.ac.kr/SNPchaser and the source codes are available for academic research purpose.

Correlations of Genic Heterozygosity and Variances with Heterosis in a Pig Population Revealed by Microsatellite DNA Marker

  • Zhang, J.H.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Deng, C.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.620-625
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    • 2005
  • Correlation of microsatellite heterozygosity with performance or heterosis was reported in wild animal populations and domestic animal populations, but the correlation with heterosis in a crossbreeding F$_1$ pig population remained uncertain. To explore this, we had random selected and mated Yorkshire${\times}$Meishan (F, n = 82) and their reciprocal (G, n = 47) to F$_1$, and used the two straightbreds as control groups (Yorkshire = 34, Meishan = 55), and observed the heterosis of birth weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG) and feed and meat ratio (FMR). Two Kinds of measurement-individual heterozygosity (IH) and individual mean d$^2$ (lg value, ID) were used as index of heterozygosity and variance from 39 microsatellite marker loci to perform univariate regression analysis against heterosis. We detected significant correlation of IH with BWT in all of F$_1$ (F+G) and in F. We observed significant correlation of ID with ADG in all of F$_1$ (F+G), and with FMR in all of F$_1$ (F+G) and in F. There was significant maternal effect on heterosis, which was indicated by significant difference of means and distribution of heterosis between F and G. This difference was consistent with distributions of IH and ID, and with difference of means in F and G. From this study, it would be suggested that the two kinds of genetic index could be used to explore the genetic basis of heterosis in crossbreeding populations but could not determine which is better.

Studies on blood types in Thoroughbred horses (더러브렛 말의 혈액형에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Gil-jae;Kim, Bong-hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.683-689
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    • 2000
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the blood markers of Thoroughbred horses (TB) The blood red cell types and blood protein types (biochemical polymorphisms) were tested from 1,125 Thoroughbred horses by serological and electrophoretic procedures, and their phenotypes, gene frequencies, heterozygosity, polymorphic information content values and exclusion probability were estimated. The blood group and biochemical polymorphism phenotypes observed with high frequency were Aaf(91.7%), Ca(94.7%), K-(94.5%), Ua(75.9%), P-(50.6%), Qabc(82.6%), ALB-BB(67.7%), GC-FF(92.7%), AIB-KK(99.6%), ES-II(77.9%), TF-DF1(23.6%), PI-LL(23.2%), HB-B2B2(73.6%), PGD-FS(45.4%) and genotypes Dcgm/dk(16.9%), Dbcm/cgm(13.6%), Dbcm/dk(11.9%), Dcegmn/cegmn(10.0%), Dcgm/cgm(8.7%) in TB. Alleles observed with high frequency were Aaf(0.796), Ca(0.769), Ddk(0.266), Dcgm(0.261), Dbcm(0.211), K-(0.972), P-(0.710), Qabc(0.565), Q-(0.368), Ua(0.509), $HB^{B2}$(0.858), $PGD^F$(0.634), $ALB^B$(0.825), $GC^F$(0.927), $AIB^K$(0.998), $ES^I$(0.881), $TF^{F1}$(0.346), $TF^D$(0.319), $TF^{F2}$(0.184), $PI^L$(0.479), $PI^N$(0.214), $PI^U$(0.116) in TB. The heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC) and exclusion probability (PE) were calculated. The mean heterozygosity and PIC value were 0.3899 and 0.3375, respectively. The highest heterozygosity and PIC were estimated 0.7834 and 0.7492 in blood group D locus, respectively. The cumulated PE obtained by blood groups and biochemical polymorphisms was 0.9813.

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