• Title, Summary, Keyword: High Incident Sound Pressure

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Design of a Micro-perforated Panel Absorber at High Incident Sound Pressure (높은 입사 음압에서의 미세 천공판을 이용한 흡음 기구의 설계)

  • Park, Soon-Hong;Seo, Sang-Hyun;Jang, Young-Soon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.983-990
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    • 2010
  • Reduction of acoustic loads of space launch vehicles can be achieved by acoustic absorbers satisfying strict cleanness requirements. This limited the use of general porous materials and requires non-porous sound absorbers. Micro-perforated panel absorbers(MPPA) is one of promising sound absorbers satisfying the cleanness requirement for launch vehicles. However, its applicability was limited to low sound pressure levels according to the acoustic impedance model of micro-perforated panels. In this paper the applicability of micro-perforated panel absorbers at high incident sound pressure was investigated in experimental ways. The absorption characteristics of a micro-perforated panel absorber was simulated according to its design variables, e.g., minute hole diameters and aperture ratios. It was shown that optimal design can be readily done by using proposed design charts. Experiments were conducted to measure acoustic properties of the designed micro-perforated panel absorbers. The results showed that acoustic resistance increases rapidly as incident sound pressure level does but change of acoustic reactance can be neglected in a practical point of view. This caused the decrease of peak value of absorption coefficient at high incident sound pressure level, but the amount of reduction can be accepted in practice. The major advantage of the micro-perforated panel absorber(wide absorption bandwidth) was still kept at high sound pressure level.

Absorption Characteristics of Micro-perforated Panel Absorber According to High Incident Pressure Magnitude and Variation of Geometric Parameters (높은 입사 음압 및 설계 인자의 변화에 따른 미세 천공판 흡음 기구의 흡음 특성)

  • Park, Soon-Hong;Seo, Sang-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1059-1066
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    • 2011
  • The micro-perforated panel absorber(MPPA) is one of promising noise control elements because of its applicability to extreme environments where general porous materials cannot be used. Since the MPPA is inherently non-porous sound absorber, it can be a good candidate of acoustic protection system of a space launcher. The overall sound pressure level inside payload fairings of commercial launch vehicles is so high(around 140 dB OASPL) that the conventional linear impedance model cannot be directly applied to the design of the acoustic protection systems. In this paper an acoustic impedance models of a micro-perforated panel absorber at high sound pressure environment were reviewed and the use of the impedance on the practical design of MPPAs was addressed. The variation of absorption characteristics of MPPA was discussed according to the design parameters, e.g., perforation ratio, the minute hole diameter, the thickness of MPP and the incident sound pressure level.

Absorption Characteristics of Micro-perforated Panel Absorber According to Incident Pressure Magnitude and Its Geometric Parameters (가진 음압 및 설계 인자에 따른 미세 천공판 흡음 기구의 흡음 특성)

  • Park, Soon-Hong;Seo, Sang-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2011
  • The micro-perforated panel absorber (MPPA) is one of promising noise control elements because of its applicability to extreme environments where general porous materials cannot be used. Since the MPPA is inherently non-porous sound absorber, it can be a good candidate of acoustic protection system of a space launcher. The overall sound pressure level inside payload fairings of commercial launch vehicles is so high (around 140 dB OASPL) that the conventional linear impedance model cannot be directly applied to the design of the acoustic protection systems. In this paper an acoustic impedance models of a micro-perforated panel absorber at high sound pressure environment were reviewed and the use of the impedance on the practical design of MPPAs was addressed. The variation of absorption characteristics of MPPA was discussed according to the design parameters, e.g., perforation ratio, the minute hole diameter, the thickness of MPP and the incident sound pressure level.

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Characteristics of the silencer using resonator arrays with nonlinear impedance (비선형 임피던스를 고려한 공명기 배열 소음기의 특성)

  • Seo, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Yang-Hann
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.374-379
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    • 2013
  • Helmholtz resonators have high transmission loss in a narrow band at the resonance frequency. The transmission loss characteristics of resonators at high sound pressure levels can change due to variations of the impedance as a result of nonlinear behavior. Different sound pressure levels are applied to each resonator when resonators were arranged along the path. Therefore, impedance variation due to incident sound pressure level should be considered in order to predict the transmission loss.

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An Empirical Acoustic Impedance Model for the Design of Acoustic Resonator with Extended Neck at a High Pressure Environment (높은 음압에서의 내부 확장관형 음향 공명기의 설계를 위한 실험적 음향 임피던스 모델)

  • Park, Soon-Hong;Seo, Sang-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1199-1205
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    • 2012
  • An empirical acoustic impedance model of acoustic resonators with extended neck at a high sound pressure environment is proposed. The acoustic resonator with extended neck into its cavity is appropriate for the launcher fairing application because the length of neck does not increase the total height of the resonator. This enables one to design slim and light acoustic resonators for launch vehicles. The suggested acoustic impedance model considers the incident pressure and geometric variables(the neck length, the perforation ratio and the hole diameter) in terms of non-dimensional variables. Several acoustic resonators with extended neck are manufactured and their wall impedances are measured according to the pre-defined incident pressure levels. Effects of non-dimensional variables on the non-linear acoustic impedance are investigated so that a simple non-linear impedance model for the launcher fairing application can be proposed. It is demonstrated that the estimated acoustic resistance and acoustic length correction show reasonable agreement with the measured ones within the range of design parameters for launcher fairings.

Higher High Density Lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) to Total HDL Cholesterol Ratio Is Associated with a Lower Risk for Incident Hypertension

  • Hwang, You-Cheol;Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.;Kahn, Steven E.;Leonetti, Donna L.;Boyko, Edward J.
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.114-122
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    • 2019
  • Background: Recent studies have suggested that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We aimed to determine the association between different HDL cholesterol subclasses and risk of future hypertension. Methods: A total of 270 Japanese Americans (130 men, 140 women) without hypertension between the ages of 34 to 75 years were enrolled. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and average blood pressure was calculated. Incident hypertension was determined 5 to 6 and 10 to 11 years after enrollment. HDL2, HDL3, and total HDL cholesterol were measured at baseline. Results: During 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of hypertension was 28.1% (76/270). In univariate analysis, age, diabetes, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin resistance index, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and visceral adipose tissue were significant predictors for incident hypertension. Among the HDL cholesterol subclass, HDL2 cholesterol was inversely associated with hypertension incidence, but both total and HDL3 cholesterol were not. In addition, HDL2/HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with future hypertension risk. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 2.31; P=0.001), systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.56; P<0.001), and HDL2/HDL cholesterol (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98; P=0.035), were associated with future development of hypertension. Conclusion: A higher proportion of HDL2 cholesterol among total HDL cholesterol predicted a lower risk for incident hypertension. However, concentrations of total HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol were not independent predictors of incident hypertension.

Study on the Measurements of Architectural Acoustie by Cross-Correlation Methods (상호상관법에 의한 건축음향측정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Byoung-Jeon;Shin, Young-Moo
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.42-52
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    • 1990
  • A method of measuring impulse response of acoustic system, two kinds of cross-correlation methods (the direct correlation method and the M-sequence modulation correlation method) were applied. According to the direct correlation method, by using stationary random noise source and by calculating the cross-correlation function between the sourece and the output signal, equivalent impulse response can be obtained not being influenced by the back ground noises. By applying this method, the measurement of echo-time patterns in rooms and oblique incident sound absorption characteristics of sound absorbing materials was carried out. In the case of the M-sequence modulation correlation method which was contrived by Aoshima, an intermittent random nosie modulated by M-sequence signal is used as the source signal, and the cross-correlation function between the M-sequence signal and the squared output signal is calculated. According to this method, equivalent energy impulse response (squared impulse response) of te propagation system can be obtained without being influenced by the back ground noises and the air fluctuation caused by wind. As the applcaition of this measuring method to the architectural acoustics, the meaurements of echo-time patterns, reverberation decays and sound pressure lev디 distributions in rooms and sound insulation efficiencies in buildings were carried out. From these experimental studies, it has been found that this M-sequence modulation correlation method is markedly useful especially for the field masurement of sound insulation under high back ground noise condition.

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Shock Waves in He II induced by a Gas Dynamic Shock Wave Impingement (기체역학적 충격파의 입사에 의해 유도된 초유동헬륨중의 충격파)

  • ;H. Nagai;Y. Ueta;K. Yanaka;M. Murakami
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics Conference
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 2002
  • Two modes of shock waves propagating in He II (superfluid helium), this is a compression and a thermal shock waves, were studied experimentally by using superconductive temperature sensors, piezo pressure transducers and Schlieren visualization method with an ultra-high-speed video camera (40,500 pictures/sec). The shock waves are induced by a gas dynamic shock wave impingement upon a He II free surface. It is found that the shock Mach number of a transmitted compression shock wave is up to 1.16, and the shock Mach number of a thermal shock wave coincides well with the second sound velocity under each compressed He II state condition. The temperature rise ratio of an induced thermal shock wave to that of an incident gas dynamic shock wave was found to be very small, as small as 0.003 at 1.80K.

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