• Title, Summary, Keyword: High salt concentration

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Effect of Different Salt Concentrations and Temperatures on the Lactic Acid Fermentation of Radish Juice

  • Kim, Soon-Dong;Kim, Mee-Kyung;Ku, Yeun-Soo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.236-240
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    • 1999
  • The characteristics of natural lactic acid fermentation of radish juice were investigated at different salt concentrations (0~2%) and temperatures (10~3$0^{\circ}C$). Major lactic acid bacteria isolated from the radish juice fermented at 2% slat concentration were Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis. The percentage of lactic acid bacteria against total microbe in the fermented radish juice was over 80% at 0~1% salt concentrations, suggesting the possibility of fermentation even at low salt concentration, but was still active even at 1$0^{\circ}C$. The time to reach pH 4.0 during fermentation of juice of 1% salt concentration was 281~301 hrs at 1$0^{\circ}C$ and 50-73 hrs at 3$0^{\circ}C$. The concentrations of sucrose and glucose in the fermented juice were low at high temperatures and were the lowest at a 1.0% salt concentration. However, the content of mannitol showed the opposite trend. Although sour taste, ripened taste, and acidic odor of the fermented juice showed no significant differences among various temperatures and salt concentrations, sensory values of ripened taste and sour acidic were high at high temperatures. The overall quality was the best at 1.0% salt concentration, irrespective of the temperature.

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Optimization for Pretreatment Condition according to Salt Concentration and Soaking Time in the Preparation of Perilla Jangachi (소금 농도와 삭힘 시간에 따른 깻잎 장아찌의 전처리 조건의 최적화)

  • Lee, Hye-Ran;Nam, Sang-Min;Lee, Jong-Mee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 2002
  • Jangachi(salted and fermented vegetable) has been made by Korean traditionally using several kinds of vegetables, which is a good source of variety of nutrients and vitamins. There are many methods for making Jangachi. Generally soy sauce Jangachi is made through two steps. First, as a pretreatment, vegetables are soaked in salt water. Second, soaked vegetables are fermented in various ingredients like soy sauce, sugar, garlic, ginger and so on. This study was performed to observe changes in contents of chemical components and sensory evaluation of pretreated perilla leaf. Perilla leaf was soaked in water with different levels of salt concentration(2, 5 and 8 %) and soaking time(1, 3 and 5 days). The optimal level of salt and soaking time was determined with the results of sensory evaluation by response surface methodology and analysis of composition. The moisture contents decreased as the levels of salt and soaking time increased. The moisture content of untreated sample was 87.5 % and when soaked for 5 days in the water of 8 % salt concentration, it became 78.27 %. pH of Perilla leaf was high in high levels of salt concentration and short soaking time. Total acidity was so opposite to pH that was low in high levels of salt concentration and short soaking time. In the water of 8 % salt concentration, total acidity was 0.14 % when soaked for 1 day, 0.20 % for 3 days and 0.30 % for 5 days. Salt contents became greater as the soaking time increased. As the results of puncture test, soaked Perilla leaf's toughness increased as the levels of salt increased and soaking time decreased. Among the sensory attributes, greenness increased as the levels of salt concentration increased when soaked for more than 3 days. Saltiness and bitterness became greater as the levels of salt concentration increased. Perilla flavor decreased with the short soaking time. Off-flavor increased with the increased levels of soaking time and decreased salt concentration when soaked for more than 3 days. Toughness decreased as the levels of soaking time increased. Crispness increased with the increased levels of salt concentration. The condition of pretreated Perilla was optimum when it soaked for 42 hours in 4 % salt concentration.

A study on Sea-salt distribution of High-rise Apartments in Waterfront Area (워터프런트 지역 고층아파트의 해염분포에 관한 연구)

  • Doe, Geun-Young;Lee, Han-Seok;Song, Hwa-Cheol
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of sea-salt distribution giving great characteristic environmentally. Therefore the field measurement was conducted to target high-rise apartments constructing in reclaimed land of Busan and measured the concentration of sea-salt by means of distance and height of high-rise apartments from coast. The results of this study were as follows ; 1) The more a horizontal distance is far from coast, the more concentration sea-salt become low. But this study can not draw conclusion exactly as differ from a tendency of the thing close to the coast and the land. 2) In the near seaside, No.132 apartment accords existing research result that in difference of the concentration of sea-salt by height, the more height is high, the more that is high. But in seaside, No.117 apartment of middle point appears that the upper story and the lower story than middle story. Once more, in inland, No.132 apartment and No.117 apartment tend toward opposite it of the seaside. The reason that the result of this measurement and existing study is not agreement is thought that it occurs to turbulent flow between apartments by construction of high-rise apartments group.

Studies on Salt Intake Through Eat-out Foods in Andong Area (안동 지역에서의 외식을 통한 소금 섭취 실태에 관한 연구)

  • 이혜상
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted over eat-nut foods in Andong area to measure the salt concentration and to compare the result with the optimum gustation of salt concentration in usual diets. The results were as follows: 1. Mean salt concentration of eat-nut foods was similar to the optimum salt concentration by sensory evaluation. 2. The salt intake through the menu was about twice of the recommended intake by Korean Food Research. 3. The foods with a large serving size contributed to the increase of salt intake, suggesting that the serving size needs to be adjusted. 4. It is recommended that the consumption of high salt foods needs to be reduced while increasing that of fresh fruit and vegetable in the diet behavior on eat-out foods.

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Effect of Salt Concentration and Turbidity on the Inactivation of Artemia sp. in Electrolysis UV, Electrolysis+UV Processes (해수의 염 농도와 탁도가 전기, UV 및 전기+UV 공정의 Artemia sp. 불활성화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Seng;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.291-301
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt concentration and turbidity on the inactivation of Artemia sp. by electrolysis, UV photolysis, electrolysis+UV process to treat ballast water in the presence of brackish water or muddy water caused by rainfall. The inactivation at different salt concentrations (30 g/L and 3 g/L) and turbidity levels (0, 156, 779 NTU) was compared. A decrease in salt concentration reduced RNO (OH radical generation index) degradation and TRO (Total Residual Oxidant) production, indicating that a longer electrolysis time is required to achieve a 100% inactivation rate in electrolysis process. In the UV process, the higher turbidity results in lower UV transmittance and lower inactivation efficiency of Artemia sp. Higher the turbidity resulted in lower ultraviolet transmittance in the UV process and lower inactivation efficiency of Artemia sp. A UV exposure time of over 30 seconds was required for 100% inactivation. Factors affecting inactivation efficiency of Artemia sp. in low salt concentration are in the order: electrolysis+UV > electrolysis > UV process. In the case of electrolysis+UV process, TRO is lower than the electrolysis process, but RNO is more decomposed, indicating that the OH radical has a greater effect on the inactivation effect. In low salt concentrations and high turbidity conditions, factors affecting Artemia sp. inactivation were in the order electrolysis > electrolysis+UV > UV process. When the salt concentration is low and the turbidity is high, the electrolysis process is affected by the salt concentration and the UV process is affected by turbidity. Therefore, the synergy due to the combination of the electrolysis process and the UV process was small, and the inactivation was lower than that of the single electrolysis process only affected by the salt concentration.

Effects of Pre-salting on the Components Changes in the Preparation of Salted Anchovy (Engraulis japonica)

  • Cho Young-Je;Shim Kil-Bo;Kim Tae-Jin;Ju Jung-Mi;Choi Yeung-Joon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.3 no.3_4
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2000
  • To investigate pre-salting conditions in the preparation of salted anchovy from large anchovy, anchovy were salted with various salt concentration and stored at $5^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. Moisture content decreased with the increase of salt and the salinity increased in proportion to salt concentration at $20^{\circ}C$. Total nitrogen decreased slightly as the increase of salt concentration during pre-salting at $20^{\circ}C$. The nitrogenous components such as amino nitrogen and extractable nitrogen were invariable or decreased until 7 days in salt concentration over $25\%$ during pre-salting at $5^{\circ}C$. These results imply that soluble nitrogen with moisture run out of anchovy body in high salt concentration and the hydrolysis was inhibited by salt over $25\%$ at $5^{\circ}C$. VBN content were constant in salt concentration over $25\%$ until 7 days, regardless of curing temperature. The POV were under the influence of salt concentration and temperatures. We concluded that the optimal condition for preparation of salted anchovy were pre-salting with salt over $25\%$ at $5^{\circ}C$ for 7 days.

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Effect of the Salt Concentration in Seafood Wastewater on the High-Rate Anaerobic Digestion (수산물 가공폐수내 염분농도가 고율 혐기성 소화에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Yong-Bum;Han, Dong-Joon;Lee, Hae-Seung;Kwon, Jae-Hyouk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.730-736
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of the salt concentration in seafood wastewater on the high-rate anaerobic digestion process. In the general high-rate anaerobic process test, the TCODcr removal efficiency at 6 hr or more HRT was 81.1~0.7%, and the optimal HRT for seafood wastewater process was found to be 6 hr or more. The methane content in the biogas was 70.1~76.8% during the operation, and was hardly affected by the change in the influent load. The results of the anaerobic digestion efficiency according to the salt concentration showed that the removal efficiency of TCODcr was 83.4~89.2% below a $4,000mgCl^-/L$ salt concentration, and mid-70% at a $5,000mgCl^-/L$ salt concentration. Therefore, the salt concentration had to be kept below $4,000mgCl^-/L$ to ensure stable treatment efficiency. Below a $3,000mgCl^-/L$ salt concentration, the methane generation was 0.2999~0.346$m^3CH_4/kgCODrem.$, which was similar to the theoretical methane gas generation in STP condition ($0.35m^3CH_4/gTCODrem.$). The methane content in the biogas was 64.7~73.3% below a $3,000mgCl^-/L$ salt concentration, but decreased with an increase in the salt concentration, to 50.1~56.9% at a $4,000mgCl^-/L$ concentration.

Comparison of Salty Taste Assessment and High-Salt Dietary Behaviors among University Students and Chinese Students in Daegu, South Korea and University Students in Shenyang, China (대구시 한국 대학생과 중국 유학생 및 중국 심양시 대학생의 짠맛에 대한 미각과 짜게 먹는 식행동 비교)

  • Jiang, Lin;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.555-564
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the assessment of salty taste and high-salt dietary behaviors of Korean university students and their Chinese counterparts. The researchers developed a taste assessment computer program focusing on preference for salty taste, and it was applied to 300 university students, including 100 Korean students, and 100 Chinese students in Daegu of South Korea, and 100 Chinese students in Shenyang of China (144 males and 156 females). The results of the taste assessment of Chinese and Korean university students are as follows. Among males, Koreans (36.0%), Chinese students in Korea (36.2%), and Chinese (40.4%) scored highest in the "a bit salty" followed by "normal." Among females, Koreans (36.0%), Chinese students in Korea (49.1%), and Chinese (28.3%) scored highest in the "normal". In terms of salt concentration in solution, among the male subjects, most Koreans favored the salt concentration of 0.31%, which is considered to be a "normal" concentration; most Chinese students in Korea favored 0.63%, which is considered to be "a bit salty", and most Chinese favored the concentration of 1.25%, which is considered to be "salty". As for the female subjects, Koreans, Chinese students studying abroad, and Chinese favored 0.31%, the "normal" level of concentration. Korean students scored higher than Chinese students in Korea and Chinese students both in males and females (p < 0.001, p < 0.01), in terms of high-salt dietary behaviors favored salty taste. This study suggests that Chinese university students need nutrition education in terms of modifying eating behaviors to reduce dietary salt intake.

A Continuum Distribution of Plant Communities on the Salt Gradient of the Tidal Land (간사지 토양의 염도구배와 식물군락의 연속분포 양상에 관하여)

  • 장남기
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 1996
  • The distribution of salt plant communities is conditioned by the gradient of salt concentration in the tidal land. The quantitative analyses of the salt vegetation were made to investigate the continuum in different stands of the tidal land in Namdong, Incheon City. The order in which the leading dominances are arranged is decided by the gradient of salt concentration. Wading dominant species, from the high level to the low level of the salt gradient, were Salicornia herbatacea, Sueda maritma, Limonium tetragonum, Aster tripolium, Atriplex tatarica, Catystegia soldonella, and Lathylus japonica These species form a continuum on the tidal land depending upon salt concentration. Key words: Continuum distribution, Salt gradient, Wading dominance.

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The Relationship between Dietary Behaviors/health Risk Factors and Preference for Salty Taste among Korean Elderly People Living in Rural Areas (농촌지역 노인의 짠맛 기호도와 식습관 및 건강 위험인자와의 관계)

  • Lee, Mee Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.448-458
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Increasing salt preferences with age are said to increase preferences of salty foods, thereby leading to greater sodium consumption, which has further implication for hypertension. This study examined the link between preference of salty taste and dietary factors and health-related risk factors in Korean elderly people. Methods: We studied 312 elderly individuals aged > 65 years (male, 100 and female, 212). With each subject, pleasant concentration of NaCl was estimated using the sip-and-spit method. Dietary habits, food preferences, consumption frequencies, anthropometric and biochemical assessment were assessed. Results: The pleasant salt concentration was significantly increased in individuals older than 75 years (p < 0.05). Subjects who liked high concentration of salt showed significantly higher preferences for salty foods (p < 0.001). Results showed significant effects (p < 0.01) of fruit & fruit juice consumption frequencies, MNA (mini-nutritional assessment), cognition score, BMI, body fat %, waist circumference, arm circumference, calf circumference, vitamin D level that subjects who likes low salty taste were higher than subjects who likes high salty taste. Conclusions: The preference for salty taste in the elderly was not correlated with hypertension. But, increased preference for salty taste with age and increased salty food preferences may result in higher sodium consumption. Therefore, nutritional education regarding lowering salt preference and favorable behaviors of low-salt diet is needed to improve the quality of life in the rural elderly.