• Title, Summary, Keyword: Horizontal plate anchor

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Uplift capacity of horizontal anchor plate embedded near to the cohesionless slope by limit analysis

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita;Sahoo, Sagarika
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.701-714
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    • 2017
  • The effect of nearby cohesionless sloping ground on the uplift capacity of horizontal strip plate anchor embedded in sand deposit with horizontal ground surface has been studied numerically. The numerical analysis has been carried out by using the lower bound theorem of limit analysis with finite elements and linear optimization. The results have been presented in the form of non-dimensional uplift capacity factor of anchor plate by changing its distance from the slope crest for different slope angles, embedment ratios and angles of soil internal friction. It has been found that the decrease in horizontal distance between the edge of the anchor plate and the slope crest causes a continuous decrease in uplift capacity of anchor plate. The optimum distance is that distance between slope crest and anchor plate below which uplift capacity of an anchor plate has been found to decrease with a decrease in normalized crest distance from the anchor plate in presence of nearby sloping ground. The normalized optimum distance between the slope crest and the anchor plate has been found to increase with an increase in slope angle, embedment ratio and soil internal friction angle.

Improvement in uplift capacity of horizontal circular anchor plate in undrained clay by granular column

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita;Roy, Anamitra
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.617-633
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    • 2016
  • A numerical study has been conducted to examine the improvement achieved in the ultimate pullout capacity of horizontal circular anchor plates embedded in undrained clay, by constructing granular columns of varying diameter over the anchor plates. The analysis has been carried out by using lower bound theorem of limit analysis and finite elements in combination with linear programming. The improvement in uplifting capacity of anchor plate is expressed in terms of an efficiency factor (${\xi}$). The efficiency factor (${\xi}$) has been defined as the ratio of ultimate vertical pullout capacity of anchor plate having diameter D embedded in soft clay reinforced by granular column to the vertical pullout capacity of the anchor plate with same diameter D embedded in soft clay only. The variation of efficiency factor (${\xi}$) for different embedment ratios and different diameter of granular column has been studied considering a wide range of softness of clay and different value of soil internal friction angle (${\phi}$) of the granular material. It is observed that ${\xi}$ increases with an increase in diameter of the granular column ($D_t$) and increase in friction angle of granular material. Also, the effectiveness of the usage of granular column increases with decrease in cohesion of the clay.

Pullout capacity of shallow inclined anchor in anisotropic and nonhomogeneous undrained clay

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.825-844
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to find out the pullout capacity of inclined strip anchor plate embedded in anisotropic and nonhomogeneous fully saturated cohesive soil in undrained condition. The ultimate pullout load has been found out by using numerical lower bound finite element analysis with linear programming. The undrained pullout capacity of anchor plate of width B is determined for different embedment ratios (H/B) varying from 3 to 7 and various inclination of anchor plates ranging from $0^{\circ}$ to $90^{\circ}$ with an interval of $15^{\circ}$. In case of anisotropic fully saturated clay the variation of cohesion with direction has been considered by varying the ratio of the cohesion along vertical direction ($c_v$) to the cohesion along horizontal direction ($c_h$). In case of nonhomogeneous clay the cohesion of the undrained clay has been considered to be increased with depth below ground surface keeping $c_v/c_h=1$. The results are presented in terms of pullout capacity factor ($F_{c0}=p_u/c_H$) where $p_u$ is the ultimate pullout stress along the anchor plate at failure and $c_H$ is the cohesion in horizontal direction at the level of the middle point of the anchor plate. It is observed that the pullout capacity factor increases with an increase in anisotropic cohesion ratio ($c_v/c_h$) whereas the pullout capacity factor decreases with an increase in undrained cohesion of the soil with depth.

Horizontal pullout capacity of a group of two vertical plate anchors in clay

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita;Kumar, Jyant
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.299-312
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    • 2013
  • The horizontal pullout capacity of a group of two vertical strip plate anchors, placed along the same vertical plane, in a fully cohesive soil has been computed by using the lower bound finite element limit analysis. The effect of spacing between the plate anchors on the magnitude of total group failure load ($P_{uT}$) has been evaluated. An increase of soil cohesion with depth has also been incorporated in the analysis. For a weightless medium, the total pullout resistance of the group becomes maximum corresponding to a certain optimum spacing between the anchor plates which has been found to vary generally between 0.5B and B; where B is the width of the anchor plate. As compared to a single plate anchor, the increase in the pullout resistance for a group of two anchors becomes greater at a higher embedment ratio. The effect of soil unit weight has also been analyzed. It is noted that the interference effect on the pullout resistance increases further with an increase in the unit weight of soil mass.

Analysis of Loading Rate Capacity of Plate Anchor in Sand (사질토 지반에 설치된 판앵커의 인발속도에 따른 저항력 분석)

  • Ryu, Dong-Man;Seo, Young-Kyo
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2012
  • Anchors are primarily designed and constructed to resist outwardly directed loads imposed on the foundation of a structure. These outwardly directed loads are transmitted to the soil at a greater depth by the anchors. Buried anchors have been used for thousands of years to stabilize structures. Nowadays, various types of earth anchors are used for the uplift resistance of transmission towers, utility poles, submerged pipelines, and tunnels. Anchors are also used for the tieback resistance of earth-retaining structures, waterfront structures, at bends in pressure pipelines, and when it is necessary to control thermal stress. In this research we analyzed the uplift behavior of plate anchors in sand using a laboratory experiment to estimate the uplift behavior of plate anchors under various conditions. To achieve the research purpose, the uplift resistance and displacement characteristics of plate anchors caused by the embedment ratio, plate diameter, and loading rate were studied, compared, and analyzed in various cases.

Analysis of Ultimate Capacity of Plate Anchor on Loading Rate Capacity in Clay (점토 지반에서 인발속도에 따른 판앵커의 극한 인발저항력 분석)

  • Seo, Young-Kyo;Ryu, Dong-Man
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2013
  • Anchors are primarily designed and constructed to resist outwardly directed loads imposed on the foundation of a structure. These outwardly directed loads are transmitted to the soil at a greater depth by the anchors. Buried anchors have been used for thousands of years to stabilize structures. Various types of earth anchors are now used for the uplift resistance of transmission towers, utility poles, submerged pipelines, and tunnels. Anchors are also used for the tieback resistance of earth-retaining structures, waterfront structures, at bends in pressure pipelines, and when it is necessary to control thermal stress. In this research, we analyzed the uplift behavior of plate anchors in clay using a laboratory experiment to estimate the uplift behavior of plate anchors under various conditions. To achieve the research purpose, the uplift resistance and displacement characteristics of plate anchors caused by the embedment ratio, plate diameter, and loading rate were studied, compared, and analyzed for various cases.

Model studies of uplift capacity behavior of square plate anchors in geogrid-reinforced sand

  • Keskin, Mehmet S.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.595-613
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    • 2015
  • An experimental investigation into the uplift capacity of horizontal square plate anchors in sand with and without geogrid reinforcement is reported. The parameters investigated are the effect of the depth of the single layer of geogrid, vertical spacing of geogrid layers, number of geogrid layers, length of geogrid layers, the effects of embedment depth, and relative density of sand. A series of three dimensional finite element analyses model was established and confirmed to be effective in capturing the behaviour of plate anchor-reinforced sand by comparing its predictions with experimental results. The results showed that the geogrid reinforcement had a considerable effect on the uplift capacity of horizontal square plate anchors in sand. The improvement in uplift capacity was found to be strongly dependent on the embedment depth and relative density of sand. A satisfactory agreement between the experimental and numerical results on general trend of behaviour and optimum geometry of reinforcement placement is observed. Based on the model test results and the finite element analyses, optimum values of the geogrid parameters for maximum reinforcing effect are discussed and suggested.

Shear Capacity Evaluation of Steel Plate Anchors Using Folded Steel Plate in AU-composite Beam (절곡 강판을 이용한 AU합성보 덮개형 강재앵커의 전단성능 평가)

  • Lim, Hwan Taek;Choi, Byong Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.389-400
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    • 2017
  • Based on U-shaped composite beam, the new form of AU-composite beam were developed to create economical and efficient components reducing the cost and shortening the length of construction work. Because the U-shaped sections are open and needs to be fixed by topping concrete securely. Therefore, it is required to maintain the U-shaped sections in a structure and to work in the safe condition through construction. It also requires accessories that resist the horizontal shear force for synthesis between the top and bottom of the U-shaped section. To reinforce these shortcomings, a shear connector has been developed with various purposes of steel plate anchors. In this study, the steel plate anchors were directly tested and the shear force was evaluated by the horizontal shear force. The experiment was divided into two types, depending on the applicable deck plates. As a result of the experiment, the continuous type specimens showed greater resistance in both strength and displacement than the ones of stud anchor specimen. In discontinuous type case, due to shear simulations and simple element analysis, the less increase the ratio of width to height and the more shear strength decreased. Thus, the shear strength equation of the stud anchor was modified to suggest the new shear strength based on the testing results.

A new base plate system using deformed reinforcing bars for concrete filled tubular column

  • Park, Yong-Myung;Hwang, Won-Sup;Yoon, Tae-Yang;Hwang, Min-Oh
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.375-394
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    • 2005
  • An experimental study was conducted to develop a new base plate anchorage system for concrete filled tubular column under an axial load and a moment. The column was connected to a concrete foundation using ordinary deformed reinforcing bars that are installed at the inside and outside of the column. In order to investigate the moment resisting capacity of the system, horizontal cyclic loads are applied until the ultimate condition is reached with the axial load held constant. To derive a design method for moment resisting capacity, the reinforced concrete section approach was investigated with the assumption of strain compatibility. The results by this approach agreeded well with those of experiments when the bearing pressure of confined concrete and tangent modulus of steel bars are assumed appropriately. Also, it was found that the column interaction curve can be used to predict the yield strength of the base plate system.

A Study on the Structural Standard of the Tube and Coupler Scaffold (단관비계의 구조규격에 관한 연구)

  • 이영섭
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.66-75
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    • 1990
  • This study is conducted to establish the structural standard of tube and coupler scaffold which is suitable for our present stuation through the comparison analysis for domestic and foreign standards as well as measurement of field survey. The results of this study are as follows : 1) The load is classified by three categories, light-duty(equal and lower than 150kg/m$^2$), medium-duty(150-250 kg/m$^2$), heavy-duty(250-350kg/m$^2$), and the equivalent horizontal length of side posts is each, 1.5-1.8m, 1.2-1.5m, equal and lower than 1.2m, and the equivalent horizontal length between front and rear posts is each 1.2-1.5m, 0.9-1.2m, equal and lower thatn 0.9m, in accordance with the load classification. 2) The height between upper and lower runner is equal and lower than 1.5m, and the brace across the width of scaffold should be installed within 15m in horizontal direction at 45 degree angle. 3) The entire scaffold should be securely tied to the wall of permanent structure with uslng anchor and bolt at intervals not to exceed 6m in case of non-connection and 4.5m in case of connection in both horizontal and vertical direction. 4) The post should be installed on the sound foundation tied to lumber footing with using base plate, and standard platform plank should be produced in the factory and widely used in the construction field.

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