• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hot spring water

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The Study of Development Skin Improvement Cosmetic By Spring Water of Onyang (온양온천수를 이용한 피부개선 화장품의 개발)

  • Shim, Seung-Bo;Oh, Seong-Geun;Chun, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.9
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    • pp.4257-4260
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    • 2011
  • Hot spring water is underground water which naturally flows out to the earth's surface or is drilled for artificially and the water temperature should be higher than the region's average temperature for the year or underground water temperature of the earth's shallow strata of the region. Our nation stipulates that hot spring can be called if it is over $25^{\circ}C$. Generally, it is widely know that hot spring water has an effect on blood circulation, pain alleviation, soothing, and skin care and that its efficacy is mainly due to water temperature and a variety of minerals contained in water. The Onyang springs are the oldest spring district in our country and one of the most typical hot springs in this country. The current study found that there's no skin irritation through the skin irritation test applying hot spring water to cosmetic formulas, and that products using Onyang hot spring water showed an increase of 8.56% in epidermal water rate and a decrease of -67.74% in relative transepidermal water loss(TEWL), which indicates that cosmetics using Onyang hot spring water has an effecton skin improvement.

Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics, and Origin of Noble Gas for Low-temperature Hot Spring Waters in the Honam Area (호남지역 저온형 온천수의 수리지화학적 및 안정동위원소 특성과 영족기체의 기원에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Hur, Hyun-Sung;Nagao, Keisuke;Kim, Kyu-Han
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.635-649
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    • 2007
  • Geochemical composition, stable isotopes $({\delta}^{18}O,\;{\delta}D,\;{\delta}^{34}S)$ and noble gases(He, Ne and Ar) of nine hot spring water and three groundwater for five hot springs(Jukam, Hwasun, Dokog, Jirisan, Beunsan) from the Honam area were analyzed to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics and the hydrogeochemical evolution of the hot spring waters, and to interpret the source of sulfur, helium and argon dissolved in the hot spring waters. The hot spring waters show low water temperature ranging from 23.0 to $30.5^{\circ}C$ and alkaline characteristics of pH 7.67 to 9.98. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters is $153{\sim}746{\mu}S/cm$. Groundwaters in this area were characterized by the acidic to neutral pH range$(5.85{\sim}7.21)$, the wide electrical conductivity range $(44{\sim}165{\mu}S/cm)$. The geochemical compositions of hot spring and groundwaters can be divided into three water types: (1) $Na-HCO_3$ water type, (2) Na-Cl water type and (3) $Ca-HCO_3$ water type. The hot spring water of $Ca-HCO_3$ water type in early stage have been evolved through $Ca(Na)-HCO_3$ water type into $Na-HCO_3$ type in final stage. In particular, Jurim alkaline(pH 9.98) hot spring water plotted at the end point of $Na-HCO_3$ type in the Piper diagram is likely to arrive into the final stage in geochemical evolution process. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of the hot spring water samples indicate that the hot spring waters originated from the local meteoric water showing latitude and altitude effects. The ${\delta}^{34}S$ value for sulfate of the hot spring waters varies widely from 0.5 to $25.9%o$. The sulfur source of most hot spring waters in this area is igneous origin. However, The ${\delta}^{34}S$ also indicates the sulfur of JR1 hot water is originated from marine sulfur which might be derived ken ancient seawater sulfates. The $^3He/^4He\;and\;^4He/^{20}Ne$ ratios of the hot spring waters range from $0.0143{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;0.407{\times}10^{-6}\;and\;6.49{\sim}584{\times}10^{-6}$, respectively. The hot spring waters are plotted on the mixing line between air and crustal components. It means that the He gas in the hot spring waters was mainly originated from crustal sources. However, the JR1 hot spring water show a little mixing ratio of the helium gas of mantle source. The $^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar$ ratios of hot spring water are in the range from $292.3{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;304.1{\times}10^{-6}$, implying the atmospheric argon source.

Hydrochemistry and Noble Gas Origin of Various Hot Spring Waters from the Eastern area in South Korea (동해안지역 온천유형별 수리화학적 특성 및 영족기체 기원)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Nagao, Keisuke;Kim, Kyu-Han;Choi, Hun-Kong;Sumino, Hirochika;Park, Ji-Sun;Park, Chung-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Ig;Hur, Soon-Do
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrogeochemical characteristics of hot spring waters and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical environment of the hot spring waters distributed along the eastern area of the Korean peninsula. For this purpose, We carried out the chemical, stable isotopic and noble gas isotopic analyses for eleven hot spring water and fourteen hot spring gas samples collected from six hot spring sites. The hot spring waters except the Osaek hot spring water show the pH range of 7.0 to 9.1. However, the Osaek $CO_2$-rich hot spring water shows a weak acid of pH 5.7. The temperature of hot spring waters in the study area ranges from $25.7^{\circ}C$ to $68.3^{\circ}C$. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters varies widely from 202 to $7,130{\mu}S/cm$. High electrical conductivity (av., $3,890{\mu}S/sm$) by high Na and Cl contents of the Haeundae and the Dongrae hot spring waters indicates that the hot spring waters were mixed with seawater in the subsurface thermal system. The type of hot springs in the viewpoint of dissolved components can be grouped into three types: (1) alkaline Na-$HCO_3$ type including sulfur gas of the Osaek, Baekam, Dukgu and Chuksan hot springs, and (2) saline Na-Cl type of the Haeundae and Dongrae hot springs, and (3) weak acid $CO_2$-rich Na-$HCO_3$ type of Osaek hot spring. Tritium ratios of the Haeundae and the Dongrae hot springs indicate different residence time in their aquifers of older water of $0.0{\sim}0.3$ TU and younger water of $5.9{\sim}8.8$ TU. The ${\delta}^{18}O$ and ${\delta}D$ values of hot spring waters indicate that they originate from the meteoric water, and that the values also reflect a latitude effect according to their locations. $^3He/^4He$ ratios of the hot spring waters except Osaek $CO_2$-rich hot spring water range from $0.1{\times}10^{-6}$ to $1.1{\times}10^{-6}$ which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. It means that the He gas in hot spring waters was originated mainly from atmosphere and crust sources, and partly from mantle sources. The Osaek $CO_2$-rich hot spring water shows $3.3{\times}10^{-6}$ in $^3He/^4He$ ratio that is 2.4 times higher than those of atmosphere. It provides clearly a helium source from the deep mantle. $^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar$ ratios of hot spring water are in the range of an atmosphere source.

Hydrochemistry and noble gas origin of hot spring waters of Icheon and Pocheon area in Korea (이천 및 포천지역 온천수의 수리화학적 특성 및 영족기체 기원)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Koh, Yung-Kwon;Shin, Seon-Ho;Nagao, Keisuke;Kim, Kyu-Han;Kim, Gun-Young
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.529-541
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    • 2009
  • Hydrochemical, stable isotopic ($\delta^{18}O$ and dD) and noble gas isotopic analyses of seven hot spring water samples, eleven groundwater samples and six surface water samples collected from the Icheon and Pocheon area were carried out to find out hydrochemical characteristics, and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical evolution of the hot spring waters. The hot spring waters show low temperature type ranging from 21.5 to $31.4^{\circ}C$ and the pH value between 6.69 and 9.21. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters has the range from 310 to $735\;{\mu}S/cm$. Whereas the hot spring water in the Icheon area shows the geochemical characteristics of neutral pH, the $Ca-HCO_3$(or $Ca(Na)-HCO_3$) chemical type and a high uranium content, the hot spring water in the Pocheon area shows the characteristics of alkaline pH, the $Na-HCO_3$ chemical type and a high fluorine content. These characteristics indicate that the hot spring water in the Icheon area is under the early stage in the geochemical evolution, and that the hot spring water in the Pocheon area has been geochemically evolved. The $\delta^{18}O$ and ${\delta}D$ values of hot spring waters show the range of $-10.1{\sim}-8.69%o$ and from $-72.2{\sim}-60.8%o$, respectively, and these values supply the information of the recharge area of hot spring waters. The $^3He/^4He$ ratios of the hot spring waters range from $0.09\;{\times}\;10^{-6}$ to $0.65\;{\times}\;10^{-6}$ which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. Whereas the helium gas in the Icheon hot spring water was mainly provided from the atmospheric source mixing with the mantle(or magma) origin, the origin of helium gas in the Pocheon hot spring water shows a dominant crustal source. $^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar$ ratios of hot spring water are in the range of an atmosphere source.

The studies of actual condition and therapeutic effects of hot spring water in Korea (우리나라 온천의 실태와 치료적 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Park Rae-Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2000
  • Hot spring water is petrifaction water and mixed with animals and plants disintegrated water in the underground. The ingredient are complicated and abundant. The contained element is used to facilitate the function of human body. activate the human structure movement. discharge waste material due to increase circulation and metabolism, also it can remain the homeostasis. We can not find research for spa therapy in our country. We use to drink and bath in the hot spring water bue don't have rehabilitation facilities

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Hydrogeochemical, Stable and Noble Gas Isotopic Studies of Hot Spring Waters and Cold Groundwaters in the Seokmodo Hot Spring Area of the Ganghwa Province, South Korea (강화 석모도 지역 온천수와 지하수의 수리지구화학 및 동위원소 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Han;Jeong, Yun-Jeong;Jeong, Chan-Ho;Keisuke, Nagao
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.15-32
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    • 2008
  • The hydrochemical and isotopic (stable isotopes and noble gas isotopes) analyses for hot spring waters, cold groundwaters and surface water samples from the Seokmodo hot spring area of the Ganghwa province were carried out to characterize the hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal waters and to interpret the source of thermal water and noble gases and the geochemical evolution of hot spring waters in the Seokmodo geothermal system. The hot spring waters and groundwaters show a weakly acidic condition with the pH values ranging from 6.42 to 6.77 and 6.01 to 7.71 respectively. The outflow temperature of the Seokmodo hot spring waters ranges from $43.3^{\circ}C\;to\;68.6^{\circ}C$. Relatively high values of the electrical conductivities which fall between 60,200 and $84,300{\mu}S/cm$ indicate that the hot spring waters were mixed with seawater in the subsurface geothermal system. The chemical compositions of the Seokmodo hot spring waters are characterized by Na-Ca-Cl water type. On the other hand, cold groundwaters and surface waters can be grouped into three types such as the Na(Ca)-$HCO_3$, Na(Ca)-$SO_4$ and Ca-$HCO_3$ types. The ${\delta}^{18}O\;and\;{\delta}D$ values of hot spring waters vary from -4.41 to -4.47%o and -32.0 to -33.5%o, respectively. Cold groundwaters range from -7.07 to -8.55%o in ${\delta}^{18}O$ and from -50.24 to -59.6%o in ${\delta}D$. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data indicate that the hot spring waters were originated from the local meteoric water source. The enrichments of heavy isotopes ($^{18}O\;and\;^2H$) in the Seokmodo hot spring waters imply that the thermal water was derived from the diffusion Bone between fresh and salt waters. The ${\delta}^{34}S$ values ranging from 23.1 to 23.5%o of dissolved sulfate are very close to the value of sea water sulfate of ${\delta}^{34}$S=20.2%o in this area, indicating the origin of sulfate in hot springs from sea water. The $^3H/^4He$ ratio of hot spring waters varies from $1.243{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;1.299{\times}10^{-6}cm^3STP/g$, which suggests that He gas in hot spring waters was partly originated from a mantle source. Argon isotopic ratio $(^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar=298{\times}10^{-6}cm^3STP/g)$ in hot spring waters corresponds to the atmospheric value.

A Study on the Development of Evaluation Model for Hot Spring Water Tourist Service Quality in Small City - Focused on the Suanbo Hot Spring Water - (소도시 온천 관광객 서비스 질 평가모형개발 - 수안보 온천을 중심으로 -)

  • Yoon, Jang-Youl;Jin, Jang-Won;Kim, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2009
  • The recently research shows that the many tourists of Suanbo hot spring waters haven't satisfied the service. These reasons due to that they did not properly consider the satisfaction of tourists' services and index. However, satisfaction level of hot spring waters tourists is interacted complicatedly with various factors, the interactions are not easily identified. A structural equations model is adopted to capture the complex relationships among variables. In the model estimation, we used 140 survey data of Suanbo hot spring waters tourists. The SEM with several factors mentioned above as exogenous variables shows that they have complex and strong relationships. As results of a SEM, it was shown that variables influencing in pleasance are surrounding scenery, clean condition inside hot springs and congestion for use in satisfaction level most. Secondly, in case of kindness, attitudes of employees influence in satisfaction level most, followed by attitudes of residents and kindness of employees. Thirdly, in case of information, it was shown guidance on internal roads influencing in satisfaction level most, followed by guidance on owner drivers, guidance on surrounding tourist attractions and guidance on public transportation. Finally, a variable influencing in accessibility most is satisfaction level of public transportation.

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The Effect of Balneotherapy on Children Autonomic Nervous System Function and Body Composition (온천이 소아의 체성분과 자율 신경 기능에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Min-Seo;Lee, Nam-Heon;Han, Jae-Kyung
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of hot spring therapy on children weight, body composition and heart rate variability. Methods: The study was carried out from 30 children who visited the spa from August 1, 2011 to August 31, 2011. We measured the change of weight, body composition, and heart rate variability after hot spring therapy for an hour per day. Results: The subject was consisted of 13 boys and 17 girls. This study revealed that their weight got lost from a hot spring therapy, which was statistically significant. Their body mass index(BMI) was decreased in from a hot spring therapy, which was not statistically significant. Total body water, muscle, protein, and mineral were decreased from a hot spring therapy, which was statistically significant. We measured HRV(heart rate variability) before and after the hot spring therapy. The mean HRT was increased, which was statistically insignificant. SDNN(standard deviation of the NN interval) and RMSSD(square root of the mean of the sum of the square of differences) were not different before and after the hot spring therapy. ln TP was decreased insignificantly. ln VLF was not affected before and after hot spring therapy. ln LF and ln HF was decreased, LF norm was increased, and HF norm was decreased, which were not statistically significant. Also, LF/HF ratio was increased insignificantly. Conclusions: From these results, we concluded that the weight, total body water, muscle, protein, and mineral got lost from the hot spring therapy. However, the HRV was not affected from the hot spring therapy.

Geochemical Significance of $^{14}C$ Age from the Dongrae Hot Spring Water (동래온천수의 $^{14}C$ 연대의 지구과학적 의의)

  • Lee, Seung-Gu;Nakamura, Toshio;Kim, Tong-Kwon;Ohta, Tomoko;Kim, Hyoung-Chan;Lee, Tae-Jong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.541-548
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    • 2009
  • The Dongrae thermal water area located at the southeastern marginal part of the Korean Peninsula is one of the oldest hot springs in Korea. The Dongrae thermal water shows Na-Cl type of water chemistry, whereas the shallow cold groundwater is Ca(-Na)-$HCO_3$ type. In this paper, we discuss the age of the Dongrae hot spring, i.e. groundwater cycle among meteoric water-surface water-shallow groundwater-hot spring water. The $^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr$ ratios of the thermal water in Dongrae area range from 0.705663 to 0.705688 and are lower than those of groundwater, surface water and rain water as well as aquifer bearing granite. These Sr isotopic signatures in the Dongrae thermal water indicate that the circulation rate between thermal water and current meteoric water including groundwater, surface water and rain water in the Dongrae area should be very slow. The $^{14}C$ age of the Dongrae hot spring water range from $1,271{\pm}36$ BP(before present) to $2,467{\pm}36$ BP whereas that of the shallow groundwater is $-495{\pm}33$ BP. This suggests that the period of groundwater cycle among meteoric water, surface water, shallow groundwater and hot spring should be more than 1,270 years. Then, it also indicates that the present Dongrae hot spring may be a mixed water between the old thermal water heated for at least 1,270 years and the present shallow cold groundwater.

Analysis of long-term water level change of Dongrae hot spring using time series methods (시계열 방법을 이용한 동래온천 수위의 장기적인 변화 분석)

  • Jeon, Hang-Tak;Hamm, Se-Yeong;Cheong, Jae-Yeol;Lee, Cheol-Woo;Lee, Jong-Tae;Lim, Woo-Ri
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.529-544
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    • 2018
  • Dongrae hot spring belongs to the residual magma type and has a long history of bathing since the Silla dynasty in Korea. Due to long development of hot spring water, it is expected that the amount of hot spring water in Dongrae hot spring has been changed. In this study, long-trem water level data of Dongrae hot spring were examined for recognizing the change of the hot spring. By the fluctuation analysis of the hot spring water level from January 1992 to July 2018, the maximum and minimum annual drawdowns of no. 27 well were 137.70 and 71.60 meters, respectively, with an average drawdown of 103.39 m. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum annual drawdowns of no. 29 well were 137.80 and 71.70 meters, with an average drawdown of 103.49 m. Besides, drawdown rate became bigger in recent years. As a result of analyzing autocorrelation of the two wells, the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.919 to 0.991, showing seasonal groundwater level fluctuation. The cross correlation analysis between water level and precipitation as well as water level and hot spring discharge resulted in the correlation coefficients of -0.280 ~ 0.256 and 0.428 ~ 0.553, respectively. Therefore, using Dongnae hot-spring water level data from 1992 to 2018, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's test showed that the continuous decline of water level was mainly caused by the pumping of the hot spring water among various reasons.