• Title/Summary/Keyword: Hydrogen sulfide

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Field Study of Emission Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide by Pig Building Types (돈사 작업장 유형에 따른 암모니아와 황화수소의 실내농도 및 발생량에 관한 현장 조사)

  • Kim, Ki Youn;Park, Jae Beom;Kim, Chi-Nyon;Lee, Kyung Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 2006
  • The principal aim of this field study was to determine the concentrations and emissions of gaseous contaminants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the different types of pig buildings in Korea and allow objective comparison between Korea and the other countries in terms of pig housing types. This field study was performed from May to June and from September to October in 2002. Pig buildings investigated in this research were selected in terms of three criteria; manure removal system, ventilation mode and growth stage of pig. Measurements of concentration and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were done in 5 housing types and the visited farms were 15 sites per each housing type. Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were measured at three locations of the central alley in the pig building and emission rates of them were estimated by multiplying the average concentration($mg/m^3$) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate($m^3/h$) and expressed either per pig of liveweight 75kg(mg/h/pig) or per area($mg/h/m^2$). Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were averaged to 7.5 ppm and 286.5 ppb and ranged from 0.8 to 21.4 ppm and from 45.8 to 1,235 ppb, respectively. The highest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the mechanically ventilated buildings with slats; 12.1 ppm and 612.8 ppb, while the lowest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the pig buildings with deep-litter bed system(2.2 ppm) and the naturally ventilated pig buildings with manure removal system by scraper(115.2 ppb), respectively(p<0.05). All the pig buildings were investigated not to exceed the threshold limit values(TLVs) of ammonia(25 ppm) and hydrogen sulfide(10 ppm). The mean emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide per pig(75kg in terms of liveweight) and area($m^2$) from pig buildings were 250.2 mg/h/pig and 37.8 mg/h/pig and $336.3mg/h/m^2$ and $50.9mg/h/m^2$, respectively. The pig buildings with deep-litter bed system showed the lowest emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide(p<0.05). However, the emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the other pig buildings were not significantly different(p>0.05). Concentrations and emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were relatively higher in the pig buildings managed with deep-pit manure system with slats and mechanical ventilation mode than the different pig housing types. In order to prevent pig farm workers from adverse health effect caused by exposure to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in pig buildings, they should wear the respirators during shift and be educated sustainably for the guideline related to occupational safety.

Acute toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to larvae and adults of blue crab Portunus trituberculatus white shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros and prawn Macrobrachium nipponens (꽃게, 중하 및 징거미새우의 유생과 성체에 대한 황화수소의 급성독성)

  • Kang, Ju-Chan
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 1997
  • In the present study, acute toxicity data were obtained for hydrogen sulfide to larvae and adults of blue crab Portunus trituberculatus, white shrimp Metapenacus monoceros and prawn Macrobrachium nipponense under continuous flow through system. The larvae 96hr-$LC_{50}$ values of hydrogen sulfide were 7.3, 9.3 and $9.0{\mu}g/\ell$ for P. trituberculatus, M. monoceros and M. nipponense respectively. The larval sensitivity of the three crustaceans studied for the hydrogen sulfide was in the order of P. trituberculatus> M. nipponense> M. monoceros. The adults 96hr-$LC_{50}$ values of hydrogen sulfide were 42.5, 37.8 and $56.6{\mu}g/\ell$ for P. trituberculatus, M. monoceros and M. ripponense, respectively. The order of toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to adults of the three crustaceans was P. tritruberculatus> M. monoceros> M. nipponense. The larval/adult ratios of hydrogen sulfide toxicity were 5.8, 4.1 and 6.3 for P. trituberculatus M. monoceros and M. nipponense respectively, and larvae were found to be more sensitive to hydrogen sulfide than adults in all cases.

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Measurement of Low Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations in the Coastal Area Near the Ulsan Industrial Complex (울산 산업단지인근 해변지역에서의 저 농도 황화수소 측정)

  • Yu, Mee Seon;Yang, Sung-Bong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1555-1562
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    • 2016
  • Concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in ambient air have been measured from January 2014 to June 2016 in a coastal area near the Ulsan National Industrial Complex. The measurement sites were 1 km, 2.6 km, 5.6 km, and 20 km away from a kraft pulp mill, which is located at the most southern edge of the complex. Concentrations above 0.4 ppb were monitored every 5 min and the highest concentration of the day was determined. From a total of 775 measurement days, hydrogen sulfide concentrations > 20 ppb were recorded on 36 and 38 days at the measurement site closest to the mill and the residential area 2.6 km away from the mill, respectively. At the site farthest from the mill, the concentrations were always 20 ppb lower than the malodor regulation for the residential area but sometimes higher than the odor recognition threshold for hydrogen sulfide. Although several emission sources of hydrogen sulfide have been published in the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register of Korea, the kraft pulp mill is considered to be the biggest contributor of atmospheric hydrogen sulfide in the southern coastal area of Ulsan.

Semi-pilot Scaled Biofilter Treatment of Malodorous Waste Air Containing Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia: 1. Performance of Biofilter Packed with Media with Immobilized Thiobacillus sp. IW and Return-sludge (황화수소와 암모니아를 함유한 악취폐가스의 세미파일럿 규모 바이오필터 처리: 1. Thiobacillus sp. IW 및 반송슬러지를 고정한 담체를 충전한 바이오필터 운전)

  • Lee, Eun Ju;Park, Hyeri;Lim, Kwang-Hee
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.568-574
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    • 2013
  • A semi-pilot biofilter packed with media with immobilized Thiobacillus sp. IW and return sludge, was operated under various operating conditions in order to treat malodorous waste air containing both hydrogen sulfide and ammonia which are major air pollutants emitted from composting factories and many publicly owned treatment works (POTW). At the incipient and middle stages of a semi-pilot biofilter operation, the hydrogen sulfide-removal efficiency behaves regardless of an inlet-load of ammonia. However, the ammonia-removal efficiency decreased as an inlet-load of hydrogen sulfide increased. Nevertheless, at the final stage of the semi-pilot biofilter operation, the ammonia-removal efficiency was not affected by the increase of hydrogen sulfide-inlet load. It is attributed to that a serious acidification of semi-pilot biofilter-media did not occur due to continuous injection of buffer solution at the final stage of the semi-pilot biofilter operation. When both hydrogen sulfide and ammonia contained in malodorous waste air were treated simultaneously by semi-pilot biofilter, the maximum elimination capacities of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia turned out to be ca. 58 and $30g/m^3/h$, respectively. These maximum elimination capacities were estimated to be ca. 39 and 46% less than those for lab-scaled biofilter-separate elimination of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, respectively. Thus, for the simultaneous biofilter-treatment of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, the maximum elimination capacity of ammonia decreased by 7% more than that of hydrogen sulfide.

Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methylmercaptan Using Thiobacillus in a Three Phase Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

  • KIM, KYUNG-RAN;KWANG-JOONG OH;KYUNG-YONG PARK;DONGUK KIM
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 1999
  • A three phase fluidized bed bioreactor immobilized with Thiobacillus sp. IW was tested to remove hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan with high loading rate. In a single gas treatment, the bioreactor removed 92- 98% of hydrogen sulfide with loading rate of 15- 66 g/l/h and removed 87-98% of methylmercaptan with loading rate of 14-60 gl/sup -1/h/sup -1/. In the mixed gas treatment, the removal efficiencies of hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan maintained at 89-99% for various inlet loading rates and were not affected by the inlet loading ratio of both gases in low loading rates. When the inlet concentration of methylmercaptan increased 3.8 times and was maintained for 30 h to observe the response of the bioreactor to sudden environmental change, the removal efficiency of methylmercaptan was maintained at an average of 91%.

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Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide on Surface Modified Activated Carbon using Ferric Nitrate (질산철을 이용하여 표면개질된 활성탄의 황화수소 흡착)

  • Jeong, Moonjoo;Lee, Seongwoo;Kim, Daekeun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to fabricate a ferric nitrate impregnated activated carbon, and the performance for hydrogen sulfide by adsorption was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was utilized to control pH in the process during generation of ferric hydroxide on the surface of the carbon. Critical mixing duration for generation of ferric hydroxide on the carbon was 48 hrs at pH 1 of the solution, in which the chemical adsorption of hydrogen sulfide was enhanced. The adsorption capacity of the impregnated carbon increased up to 0.10 g hydrogen sulfide/g carbon, which was 4.3 times higher than that of the raw carbon. Presence of FeOOH on the surface of the impregnated carbon was examined by X-ray diffraction.

Development of Porous Sorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Hot Coal Gas -II. Kinetics of Suffidation on Zinc Oxide - (고온석탄가스에서 황화물을 제거하기 위한 다공성 흡착제의 개발 -II. 산화아연의 황화반응에 관한 연구-)

  • 서인식;이재복;류경옥
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 1988
  • Calcium oxide, lithium oxide and titanium oxide were investigated as additives of zinc oxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide at high temperature. This experiment was performed in the range of 1.0-2.0 vol.% H$_2$S concentration at 623-873 K reaction temperature, using a thermogravimetric analyzer. A pore blocking model was found to fit the reaction rate and the kinetics data were sucessfully expressed by this model. The reactions between additive sorbents and hydrogen sulfide were first order with respect to hydrogen sulfide concentration in a gaseous mixture with nitrogen. Among the used sorbents, ZnO-CaO 0.5 at.% and ZnO-TiO$_2$ 2.0 at.% sorbents had the best additive effects on the sulfidation reaction between additive sorbents and hydrogen sulfide, whereas the ZnO-Li$_2$O sorbents were ineffective.

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A Case of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Intoxication Caused Rapid Loss of Consciousness (급속한 의식 변화를 초래한 급성 황화수소 중독 1례)

  • Ahn, Jung-Hwan;Jung, Yoon-Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 2004
  • Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless, and malodorous 'rotten eggs' gas that results from the decay of organic material. It is a byproduct of industry and agriculture. The mechanism of its toxicity is primarily related to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, which causes a decrease in available cellular energy. Because there is no rapid method of detection that is of clinical diagnostic use, management decisions must be made based on history, clinical presentation, and diagnostic tests that imply hydrogen sulfide's presence. Although there is some anecdotal evidence to suggest that the early use of hyperbaric oxygen is beneficial, supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy. We describe an occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas in 51-year-old man. While cleaning the sewage of pigs. he became unconscious. When he arrived in the emergency department, he had irritability and confused mentality. The typical smell of rotten eggs on clothing and exhaled air were enough to be considered to be exposed to hydrogen sulfide. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was performed. He had a recovery to normal function.

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Trichloroethylene Removal Using Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Ferric Iron (황환원균과 3가철을 이용한 Trichloroethylene의 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Ki-Chul;Min, Jee-Eun;Park, In-Sun;Park, Jae-Woo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2008
  • Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is universally distributed in the sediment, especially in marine environment. SRB reduce sulfate as electron acceptor to hydrogen sulfide in anaerobic condition. Hydrogen sulfide is reducing agent enhancing the reduction of the organic and inorganic compounds. With SRB, therefore, the degradability of organic contaminants is expected to be enhanced. Ferrous iron reduced from the ferric iron which is mainly present in sediment also renders chlorinated organic compounds to be reduced state. The objectives of this study are: 1) to investigate the reduction of TCE by hydrogen sulfide generated by tht growth of SRB, 2) to estimate the reduction of TCE by ferrous iron generated due to oxidation of hydrogen sulfide, and 3) to illuminate the interaction between SRB and ferrous iron. Mixed bacteria was cultivated from the sludge of the sewage treatment plant. Increasing hydrogen sulfide and decreasing sulfate confirmed the existence of SRB in mixed culture. Although hydrogen sulfide lonely could reduce TCE, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by SRB was not sufficient to reduce TCE directly. With hematite as ferric iron, hydrogen sulfide produced by SRB was consumed to reduce ferric ion to ferrous ion and ferrous iron produced by hydrogen sulfide oxidation decreased the concentration of TCE. Tests with seawater confirmed that the activity of SRB was dependent on the carbon source concentration.

Evaluation of Short-Term Exposure Levels on Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide During Manure-Handling Processes at Livestock Farms

  • Park, Jihoon;Kang, Taesun;Heo, Yong;Lee, Kiyoung;Kim, Kyungran;Lee, Kyungsuk;Yoon, Chungsik
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2020
  • Background: Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are harmful gases generated during aerobic/anaerobic bacterial decomposition of livestock manure. We evaluated ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations generated from workplaces at livestock farms and determined environmental factors influencing the gas concentrations. Methods: Five commercial swine farms and five poultry farms were selected for monitoring. Real-time monitors were used to measure the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations and environmental conditions during the manure-handling processes. Monitoring was conducted in the manure storage facility and composting facility. Information on the farm conditions was also collected through interview and walk-through survey. Results: The ammonia concentrations were significantly higher at the swine composting facilities (9.5-43.2 ppm) than at other manure-handling facilities at the swine and poultry farms, and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide were identified during the manure agitation and mixing process at the swine manure storage facilities (6.9-19.5 ppm). At the poultry manure-handling facilities, the ammonia concentration was higher during the manure-handling processes (2.6-57.9 ppm), and very low hydrogen sulfide concentrations (0-3.4 ppm) were detected. The air temperature and relative humidity, volume of the facility, duration of manure storage, and the number of animals influenced the gas concentrations. Conclusion: A high level of hazardous gases was generated during manure handling, and some levels increased up to risk levels that can threaten workers' health and safety. Some of the farm operational factors were also found to influence the gas levels. By controlling and improving these factors, it would be possible to protect workers' safety and health from occupational risks.