• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hypoxia

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Hypoxia-Induced EDNO Release is Further Augmented by Previous Hypoxia and Reoxygenation in Rabbit Aortic Endothelium

  • Han, Jae-Jin;Suh, Suk-Hyo;Suh, Kyung-Phil;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 1998
  • The present study was designed: (1) to determine whether or not hypoxia stimulates the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) from endothelial cells, and (2) to examine whether or not the hypoxia-induced EDRFs release is further augmented by previous hypoxia-reoxygenation, using bioassay system. In the bioassay experiment, rabbit aorta with endothelium was used as EDRFs donor vessel and rabbit carotid artery without endothelium as a bioassay test ring. The test ring was contracted by prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$ $(3{\times}10^{-6}\;M/L)$, which was added to the solution perfusing through the aortic segment. Hypoxia was evoked by switching the solution aerated with 95% $O_2/5%\;CO_2$ mixed gas to one aerated with 95% $N_2/5%\;CO_2$ mixed gas. When the contraction induced by prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$ reached a steady state, the solution was exchanged for hypoxic one. And then, hypoxia and reoxygenation were interchanged at intervals of 2 minutes (intermittent hypoxia). The endothelial cells were also exposed to single 10-minute hypoxia (continuous hypoxia). When the bioassay ring was superfused with the perfusate through intact aorta, hypoxia relaxed the precontracted bioassay test ring markedly. Whereas, when bioassay ring was superfused with the perfusate through denuded aorta or polyethylene tubing, hypoxia relaxed the precontracted ring slightly. The relaxation was not inhibited by indomethacin but by nitro-L-arginine or methylene blue. The hypoxia-induced relaxation was further augmented by previous hypoxia-reoxygenation and the magnitude of the relaxation by intermittent hypoxia was significantly greater than that of the relaxation by continuous hypoxia. The results suggest that hypoxia stimulates EDNO release from endothelial cells and that the hypoxia-induced EDNO release is further augmented by previous hypoxia-reoxygenation.

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NDRG3-mediated lactate signaling in hypoxia

  • Park, Kyung Chan;Lee, Dong Chul;Yeom, Young Il
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.301-302
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    • 2015
  • Hypoxia is associated with many pathological conditions as well as the normal physiology of metazoans. We identified a lactate-dependent signaling pathway in hypoxia, mediated by the oxygen- and lactate-regulated protein NDRG family member 3 (NDRG3). Oxygen negatively regulates NDRG3 expression at the protein level via the PHD2/VHL system, whereas lactate, produced in excess under prolonged hypoxia, blocks its proteasomal degradation by binding to NDRG3. We also found that the stabilized NDRG3 protein promotes angiogenesis and cell growth under hypoxia by activating the Raf-ERK pathway. Inhibiting cellular lactate production abolishes NDRG3-mediated hypoxia responses. The NDRG3-Raf-ERK axis therefore provides the genetic basis for lactate-induced hypoxia signaling, which can be exploited for the development of therapies targeting hypoxia-induced diseases in addition to advancing our understanding of the normal physiology of hypoxia responses. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 301-302]

NF-${\kappa}B$ Inhibitor Suppresses Hypoxia-induced Apoptosis of Mouse Pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell Line MIN6

  • Koh, Hyun Sook;Kim, Jae Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.14-24
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    • 2014
  • Hypoxia is one of the main reasons for islet apoptosis after transplantation as well as during isolation. In this study, we attempted to determine the potential usefulness of NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor for suppression of hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis as well as the relationship between IP-10 induction and ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis in hypoxia. To accomplish this, we cultured the mouse pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell line MIN6 in hypoxia (1% $O_2$). Among several examined chemokines, only IP-10 mRNA expression was induced under hypoxia, and this induced IP-10 expression was due to NF-${\kappa}B$ activity. Since a previous study suggested that IP-10 mediates ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis, we measured hypoxia-induced IP-10 protein and examined the effect of anti-IP-10 neutralizing Ab on hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. However, IP-10 protein was not detected, and anti-IP-10 neutralizing Ab did not rescue hypoxia-induced MIN6 apoptosis, indicating that there is no relationship between hypoxia-induced IP-10 mRNA expression and hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. Since it was still not clear if NF-${\kappa}B$ functions as an apoptotic or anti-apoptotic mediator in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis, we examined possible involvement of NF-${\kappa}B$ in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. Treatment with 1 ${\mu}M$ NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor suppressed hypoxiainduced apoptosis by more than 50%, while 10 ${\mu}M$ AP-1 or 4 ${\mu}M$ NF-AT inhibitor did not, indicating involvement of NF-${\kappa}B$ in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that IP-10 is not involved in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis, and that NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor can be useful for ameliorating hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis.

Reoxygenation Stimulates EDRE(s) Release from Endothelial Cells of Rabbit Aorta

  • Suh, Suk-Hyo;Han, Jae-Jin;Park, Sung-Jin;Choi, Jai-Young;Sim, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Young-Chul;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.393-404
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    • 1999
  • We have reported that hypoxia stimulates EDRF(s) release from endothelial cells and the release may be augmented by previous hypoxia. As a mechanism, it was hypothesized that reoxygenation can stimulate EDRF(s) release from endothelial cells and we tested the hypothesis via bioassay experiment. In the bioassay experiment, rabbit aorta with endothelium was used as EDRF donor vessel and rabbit carotid artery without endothelium as a bioassay test ring. The test ring was contracted by prostaglandin $F_{2a}\;(3{\times}10^{-6}\;M)$ which was added to the solution perfusing through the aorta. Hypoxia was evoked by switching the solution aerated with 95% $O_2/5%\;CO_2$ mixed gas to one aerated with 95% $O_2/5%\;CO_2$ mixed gas. Hypoxia/reoxygenation were interexchanged at intervals of 2 minutes (intermittent hypoxia). In some experiments, endothelial cells were exposed to 10-minute hypoxia (continuous hypoxia) and then exposed to reoxygenation and intermittent hypoxia. In other experiments, the duration of reoxygenation was extended from 2 minutes to 5 minutes. When the donor aorta was exposed to intermittent hypoxia, hypoxia stimulated EDRF(s) release from endothelial cells and the hypoxia-induced EDRF(s) release was augmented by previous hypoxia/reoxygenation. When the donor aorta was exposed to continuous hypoxia, there was no increase of hypoxia-induced EDRF(s) release during hypoxia. But, after the donor aorta was exposed to reoxygenation, hypoxia-induced EDRF(s) release was markedly increased. When the donor aorta was pretreated with nitro-L-arginine $(10^{-5}$ M for 30 minutes), the initial hypoxia-induced EDRF(s) release was almost completely abolished, but the mechanism for EDRF(s) release by the reoxygenation and subsequent hypoxia still remained to be clarified. TEA also blocked incompletely hypoxia-induced and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced EDRF(s) release. EDRF(s) release by repetitive hypoxia and reoxygenation was completely blocked by the combined treatment with nitro-L-arginine and TEA. Cytochrome P450 blocker, SKF-525A, inhibited the EDRF(s) release reversibly and endothelin antgonists, BQ 123 and BQ 788, had no effect on the release of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase inhibited the EDRF(s) release from endothelial cells. From these data, it could be concluded that reoxygenation stimulates EDRF(s) release and hypoxia/reoxygenation can release not only NO but also another EDRF from endothelial cells by the production of oxygen free radicals.

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Hepatic Injury Studied in Two Different Hypoxic Models (저산소 모델에 따른 간장 기능 손상에 관한 연구)

  • 윤기욱;이상호;이선미
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2000
  • We hypothesized that the extent of hypoxic injury would be involved in reduction of oxygen delivery to the tissue. Livers isolated from 18 hr-fasted rats were subjected to $N_2$-induced hypoxia or low flow hypoxia. Livers were perfused with nitrogen/carbon dioxide gas for 45min or perfused with normoxic Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KHBB) at low flow rates around 1 ml/g liver/min far 45min, which caused cells to become hypoxic because of insufficient delivery of oxygen. When normal flow rates(4 ml/g liver/min) of KHBB (pH 7.4, 37$^{\circ}C$, oxygen/carbon dioxide gas) were restored for 30min reoxygenation injury occurred. Lactate dehydrogenase release gradually increased in $N_2$-induced hypoxia, whereas it rapidly increased in low flow hypoxia. Total glutathione in liver tissue was not changed but oxidized glutathione markedly increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation, expecially in $N_2$-induced hypoxia. Similarly, lipid peroxidation in liver tissue significantly increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation in low flow hypoxia. Hepatic drug metabolizing functions (phase I, II) were suppressed during hypoxia, especially in $N_2$-induced hypoxia but improved by reoxygenation in both models. Our findings suggest that hypoxia results in abnormalities in drug metabolizing function caused by oxidative stress and that this injury is dependent on hypoxic conditions.

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Prediction of Hypoxia-inducible Factor Binding Site in Whale Genome and Analysis of Target Genes Regulated by Predicted Sites (고래의 게놈에서 hypoxia-inducible factor binding site의 예측과 target gene에 대한 분석)

  • Yim, Hyung-Soon;Lee, Jae-Hak
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2015
  • Whales are marine mammals that are fully adapted to aquatic environment. Whales breathe by lungs so they require adaptive system to low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) while deep and prolonged diving. However, the study for the molecular mechanism underlying cetacean adaptation to hypoxia has been limited. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the central transcription factor that regulates hypoxia-related gene expression. Here we identified HIF-binding sites in whale genome by phylogenetic footprinting and analyzed HIF-target genes to understand how whales cope with hypoxia. By comparison with the HIF-target genes of terrestrial mammals, it was suggested that whales may retain unique adaptation mechanisms to hypoxia.

Hypoxia Induces Paclitaxel-Resistance through ROS Production

  • Oh, Jin-Mi;Ryu, Yun-Kyoung;Lim, Jong-Seok;Moon, Eun-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2010
  • Oxygen supply into inside solid tumor is often diminished, which is called hypoxia. Many gene transcriptions were activated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$. Here, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on paclitaxel-resistance induction in HeLa cervical tumor cells. When HeLa cells were incubated under hypoxia condition, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level was increased. In contrast, paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was reduced by the incubation under hypoxia condition. Paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was also inhibited by treatment with DMOG, chemical HIF-$1{\alpha}$ stabilizer, in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in intracellular ROS level was detected by the incubation under hypoxia condition. A basal level of cell density was increased in response to 10 nM $H_2O_2$. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level was increased by treatment with various concentration of $H_2O_2$. The increased level of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ by hypoxia was reduced by the treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known ROS scavenger. Paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was increased by treatment with NAC. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hypoxia could play a role in paclitaxel-resistance induction through ROS-mediated HIF-$1{\alpha}$ stabilization. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced ROS could, in part, control tumor cell death through an increase in HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level.

Role of Phospholipase $A_2$ in Hypoxia-Induced Renal Cell Injury

  • Choi, Won-Rak;Ko, Sun-Hee;Cho, Su-In;Woo, Jae-Suk;Jung, Jin-Sup;Lee, Sang-Ho;Kim, Yong-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 1999
  • The present study was designed to assess the roles of $PLA_2$ activation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in hypoxia-induced renal cell injury. Hypoxia increased LDH release in a dose-dependent manner in rabbit renal cortical slices, and this increase was significant after 20-min hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced LDH release was prevented by amino acids, glycine and alanine, and extracellular acidosis (pH 6.0). Buffering intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ by a chelator, but not omission of $Ca^{2+}$ in the medium produced a significant reduction in hypoxia-induced LDH release. The effect of hypoxia was blocked by $PLA_2$ inhibitors, mepacrine, butacaine, and dibucaine. A similar effect was observed by a 85-kD $cPLA_2$ inhibitor $AACOCF_3.$ AA increased hypoxia-induced LDH release, and albumin, a fatty acid absorbent, prevented the LDH release, suggesting that free fatty acids are involved in hypoxia-induced cell injury. These results suggest that $PLA_2$ activation and its metabolic products play important roles in pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced cell injury in rabbit renal cortical slices.

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Role of Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase Activation in Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Cell Injury in Renal Epithelial Cells

  • Jung Soon-Hee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.441-446
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    • 2005
  • The molecular mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in cell death caused by ischemia/reperfusion in vivo or hypoxia in vitro. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been reported to be involved in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in renal epithelial cells. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the role of P ARP activation in chemical hypoxia in opossum kidney (OK) cells. Chemical hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Exposure of OK cells to chemical hypoxia resulted in a time-dependent cell death. In OK cells subjected to chemical hypoxia, the generation of ROS was increased, and this increase was prevented by the $H_2O_2$ scavenger catalase. Chemical hypoxia increased P ARP activity and chemical hypoxia-induced cell death was prevented by the inhibitor of PARP activation 3-aminobenzamide. Catalase prevented OK cell death induced by chemical hypoxia. $H_2O_2$ caused PARP activation and $H_2O_2-induced$ cell death was prevented by 3-aminobenzamide. Taken together, these results indicate that chemical hypoxia-induced cell injury is mediated by PARP activation through H202 generation in renal epithelial cells.

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Hypoxia suffocates histone demethylases to change gene expression: a metabolic control of histone methylation

  • Park, Hyunsung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.11
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    • pp.537-538
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    • 2017
  • Hypoxia affects various physiological and pathophyological processes. Hypoxia changes the expression of hypoxia-responsive genes through two main pathways. First, hypoxia activates transcription factors (TF) such as Hypoxia-inducible Factor (HIF). Second, hypoxia decreases the activity of Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases (JMJDs) that require $O_2$ and ${\alpha}$-Ketoglutarate (${\alpha}$-KG) as substrates. The JMJDs affect gene expression through their regulation of active or repressive histone methylations. Profiling of H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 under both normoxia and hypoxia identified 75 TFs whose binding motifs were significantly enriched in the methylated regions of the genes. TFs showing similar binding strengths to their target genes might be under the 'metabolic control' which changes histone methylation and gene expression by instant changing catalytic activities of resident histone demethylases.