• Title, Summary, Keyword: IFN-${\gamma}$

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Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Interferon-gamma Produced by Escherichia coli (대장균이 생산한 재조합 인체 감마인터페론의 발현과 정제)

  • Park, Jung-Ryeol;Kim, Sung-Woo;Kim, Jae-Bum;Jung, Woo-Hyuk;Han, Myung-Wan;Jo, Young-Bae;Jung, Joon-Ki
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.204-211
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    • 2006
  • For the production of the recombinant human interferon-gamma(rhIFN-${\gamma}$) in Escherichia coli, human glucagon and ferritin heavy chain were used as fusion partners. Even though rhIFN-${\gamma}$ is expressed as an inclusion body form in E. coli because of strong hydrophobicity of itself, over 50% of fused rhIFN-${\gamma}$ was expressed as soluble form in E. coli $Origami^{TM}$(DE3) harboring pT7FH(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ which encodes ferritin heavy chain-fused rhIFN-${\gamma}$. In the case of using glucagon-ferritin heavy chain hybrid mutant as a fusion partner, 6X His-tag was additionally introduced to N-terminus of GFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ for enhancing purification yields of rhIFN-${\gamma}$. Fusion protein HGFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ with two 6X His-tag was more effectively bound to Ni-NTA agarose bead than GFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ with a 6X His-tag. rhIFN-${\gamma}$ was completely purified from enterokinase-treated HGFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ by Ni-NTA affinity column. For high-level production of rhIFN-${\gamma}$, glucose was used as the sole carbon source with simple exponential feeding rate($2.4{\sim}7.2g/h$) in fed-batch process. The effective lactose concentration for the expression of the rhIFN-${\gamma}$ was $10{\sim}20mM$. Under the fed-batch culture conditions, rhIFN-${\gamma}$ production yield reached 11 g DCW/L for 6 hours after lactose induction.

The Priming Effect of IFN-$\gamma$ and Numbers of IFN-$\gamma$ Receptors in Patients with Chronic Refractory Tuberculosis (난치성 결핵 환자의 단핵구에서 IFN-$\gamma$ 활성화 효과 및 IFN-$\gamma$ 수용체의 숫적 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Cheol;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.304-310
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    • 1999
  • Background: IFN-$\gamma$ plays an important role in host response to intracellular organisms such as mycobacterium. Human infection with mycobacterium leads to a wide variety of outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection to widespread and rapidly fatal disease. Recent reports suggest that alteration of the function of IFN-$\gamma$ caused by a defective IFN-$\gamma$ receptor gene can explain different host response to mycobacterium. In this study, we investigated the role of IFN-$\gamma$ in the development of chronic refractory tuberculosis. Methods: The LPS-induced TNF-$\alpha$ production with or without IFN-$\gamma$ priming was compared by using monocytes taken from recently diagnosed tuberculosis, chronic refractory tuberculosis patients and controls. And the IFN-$\gamma$ receptor was measured by indirect fluorescent antibody technique to know whether change in the priming effect of IFN-$\gamma$ is related to IFN-$\gamma$ receptor deficiency or not. Results: The ratio of TNF-$\alpha$ produced in response to stimulation with INF-$\gamma$ and LPS to LPS alone was $13.5{\pm}7.6$ in controls, $10.8{\pm}6.4$ in recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients and $6.7{\pm}3.9$ in chronic refractory tuberculosis patients. The priming effect of IFN-$\gamma$ significantly decreased in chronic refractory tuberculosis patients compared with that in controls(p=0.002). However, IFN-$\gamma$ receptor deficiency was detected in one of chronic refractory tuberculosis patients. Conclusion: The decrease of the priming effect of IFN-$\gamma$ may play an important role in the development of chronic refractory tuberculosis, and in some patients, this may be related to the IFN-$\gamma$ receptor deficiency.

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Effects of IFN-γ on IL-18 Expression in Pregnant Rats and Pregnancy Outcomes

  • Si, Li-Fang;Zhang, Shou-Yan;Gao, Chun-Sheng;Chen, Shu-Lin;Zhao, Jin;Cheng, Xiang-Chao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1399-1405
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    • 2013
  • The present study focused on establishing the effects of interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$) on interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression patterns and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats at the post-implantation stage were randomized into control, low IFN-${\gamma}$ (L-IFN-${\gamma}$) and high IFN-${\gamma}$ groups (H-IFN-${\gamma}$) that received normal saline, 100 IU/g of IFN-${\gamma}$ and 500 IU/g of IFN-${\gamma}$ vaginal muscular injection, respectively. The effects of IFN-${\gamma}$ on IL-18 expression and pregnancy outcomes were assessed systematically using several methods, including immunohistochemistry streptavidin-perosidase (SP), image pattern analysis, enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), whole blood count (WBC) count, microscopy and visual observation. IL-18 was detected in the uteri of all pregnant rats, and mainly distributed in the endometrium, decidual cells, vascular endothelium and myometrium. Immunohistochemistry and image pattern analyses revealed significantly lower IL-18 expression in the H-IFN-${\gamma}$ group compared to the L-IFN-${\gamma}$ and control groups (p<0.01), indicating that high doses of IFN-${\gamma}$ induce downregulation of IL-18 in the uterus of pregnant rats. ELISA results disclosed that IL-18 expression in peripheral blood of the H-IFN-${\gamma}$ group was lower than that of the L-IFN-${\gamma}$ group (p<0.05), and significantly reduced compared to the control group (p<0.01). Moreover, the number of peripheral leukocytes in the H-IFN-${\gamma}$ group was significantly higher than those in the control and L-IFN-${\gamma}$ groups (p<0.01). Morphology analysis showed no evident differences between the L-IFN-${\gamma}$ and control groups. However, for the H-IFN-${\gamma}$ group, uterine mucosa bleeding, necrosis and excoriation were observed using microscopy. Visual observation revealed marroon, swelling, crassitude and no embryo in the uterus, which are obvious indicators of abortion. These results indicate that IFN-${\gamma}$ plays a regulatory role in IL-18 expression in the uterus and peripheral blood of pregnant rats at the post-implantation stage. Moreover, high levels (500 IU/g) of IFN-${\gamma}$ influence normal pregnancy at the early stages in rats by downregulating IL-18 expression in the uterus and peripheral blood and increasing the number of peripheral leukocytes, consequently triggering termination of pregnancy.

Effects of cytokines in the activation of peritoneal macrophages from mice infected with Toxopluma gondii (Cytokine이 Toxoplasma감염 마우스 복강대식세포의 활성화에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영하;신대환
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 1994
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the role of cytokines in the activation of peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice. Peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice (10 cysts of Beverley strain/mouse) were harvested 8 weeks after infection, and incubated with the mitogen-induced lymphokine, recombinant mouse $interferon-{\gamma}(IFN-{\gamma})$, recombinant mouse tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}{\;}(TNF-{\alpha})$ alone or in combination with 4$IFN-{\gamma}(IFN-{\gamma}/TNF-{\alpha})$ for 24hr at 37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$. Macrophage activation was measured by the amount of $H_20_2{\;}and{\;}N0_2^{-}$ production, and antiToxoplasma activities of macrophages. $IFN-{\gamma}{\;}or{\;}IFN-{\gamma}/TNF-{\alpha}-treated$ macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice revealed significantly higher $H_20_2$ production than resident macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice. The production of $N0_2^{-}{\;}by{\;}TNF-{\alpha}-,{\;}IFN-{\gamma}-{\;}or{\;}IFN-{\gamma}/TNF-{\alpha}-treated$ macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice were significantly higher than that by resident macrophages, whereas lymphokine-treated group produced similar amount as that produced by resident macrophages. Anti-Toxoplasma activities of cytokinetreated macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice were Significantly higher than those of resident macrophages. $IFN-{\gamma}-treated$ macrophages were significantly increased production of $H_20_2{\;}and{\;}N0_2^{-}$, and anti-Toxoplasma activities of macrophages between normal and Toxoplasma-infected mice, whereas the other cytokine-treated groups were not significant differences between them. These data suggested that IFN-{\gamma}was the only one of cytokines capable of significantly activating the peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasmainfected mice.

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Influence of Interferon-${\gamma}$ Deficiency in Immune Tolerance Induced by Male Islet Transplantation

  • Kim, Yong-Hee;Lim, Young-Kyoung;Park, Chung-Gyu
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2011
  • Background: Traditionally, interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$) was regarded as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, however, recent reports suggested role of IFN-${\gamma}$ in immune tolerance. In our previous report, we could induce tolerance to male antigen (HY) just by male islet transplantation in wild type C57BL/6 mice without any immunological intervention. We tried to investigate the influence of IFN-${\gamma}$ deficiency on tolerance induction by male islet transplantation. Methods: To examine the immunogenicity of male tissue in the absence of IFN-${\gamma}$, we transplanted male IFN-${\gamma}$ knock-out (KO) skin to female IFN-${\gamma}$ KO mice. Next, we analyzed male IFN-${\gamma}$ KO islet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic female IFN-${\gamma}$ KO mice. And, we checked the functionality of grafted islet by graft removal and insulin staining. Results: As our previous results in wild type C57BL/6 mice, female IFN-${\gamma}$ KO mice rejected male IFN-${\gamma}$ KO skin within 29 days, and did not reject male IFN-${\gamma}$ KO islet. The maintenance of normal blood glucose level was dependent on the presence of grafted male islet. And the male islet recipient did not reject 2nd challenge of male islet graft also. Conclusion: Deficiency of IFN-${\gamma}$ does not have influence on the result of male skin graft and male islet transplantation. Conclusively, male islet transplantation induced T cell tolerance is not dependent on the presence of IFN-${\gamma}$.

The Effect of IFN-$\gamma$ on the Phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Activation of Human Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophage (Interferon-$\gamma$가 사람 폐포대식세포의 결핵균 탐식과 활성화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Seuk;Kim, Jae-Yeal;Lee, Gwi-Lae;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.36-44
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    • 1998
  • Background: IFN-$\gamma$ is known to activate mononuclear phagocytes and to mediate host defense mechanism against some intracellular microorganisms, but little is known about anti-mycobacterial activity and mechanism of IFN-$\gamma$ in human. In this study, we investigated the role of IFN-$\gamma$ in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis by observing the effect of IFN-$\gamma$ on the phagocytosis of M.tuberculosis(MTB) and on the production of TNF-$\alpha$ by human pulmonary alveolar macrophage. Method: Pulmonary alveolar macrophage(PAM) were prepared with adhesion purification method from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from 8 persorn without active lung lesion and cultured($1{\times}10^6cells/ml$) with MTB($3{\times}10^7$ bacteria/ml) with or without IFN-$\gamma$(300U/ml), LPS(0.5ug/ml) and autologous serum(10%). After 2 hours, the percentage of PAM-phagocytosed MTB was counted after AFB staining(modified Kynion method). TNF-$\alpha$ production by PAM stimulated by IFN-$\gamma$(300U/ml), MTB($1{\times}10^6bacteria/ml$) and LPS(0.5ug/ml) for 24hours was measured in culture supernatant using ELISA method. The degree of phagocytosis of MTB by PAM stimulated with IFN-$\gamma$(300U/ml) and LPS(0.5ug/ml) for 24hours was also investigated. Results: IFN-$\gamma$ did not influence the phagocytosis of MTB by PAM(percentage of PAM-phagocytosed MTB: control: $22.1{\pm}4.9$, IFN-$\gamma$: $20.3{\pm}5.3$) and did not increase TNF-$\alpha$ production by PAM (control: $21{\pm}38pg/ml$, IFN-$\gamma$: $87{\pm}106pg/ml$), and the degree of phagocytosis of MTB by PAM pre-stimulated with IFN-$\gamma$ for 24 hours, was not increased (control: $24.5{\pm}9.5$, IFN-$\gamma$: $23.4{\pm}10.1$). Conclusion: IFN-$\gamma$ does not influence on the phagocytosis of MTB and TNF-$\alpha$ production by PAM.

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The Effect of Interferon-γ on Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Rat (Interferon-γ 투여가 쥐에서의 Bleomycin 유도 폐 섬유화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hyoung Kyu;Kim, Yong Hyun;Kwon, Soon Seog;Kim, Young Kyoon;Kim, Kwan Hyung;Moon, Hwa Sik;Park, Sung Hak;Song, Jeong Sup
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.51-66
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that participate in the extracellular matrix metabolism play a important role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. The effects of the MMPs are regulated by several factors including Th-1 cytokines, $interferon-{\gamma}$ ($IFN-{\gamma}$). Up to now, $IFN-{\gamma}$ is known to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis, but little is known regarding the exact effect of $IFN-{\gamma}$ on the regulation of the MMPs. This study investigated the effects of $interferon-{\gamma}$ on the pulmonary fibrosis and the expression of the lung MMP-2,-9, TIMP-1,-2, and Th-2 cytokines in aa rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods : Male, specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an intratracheal bleomycin instillation. The rats were randomized to a saline control, a bleomycin treated, and a bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ treated group. The bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ treated group was subjected to an intramuscular injection of $IFN-{\gamma}$ for 14 days. At 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the bleomycin instillation, the rats were sacrificed and the lungs were harvested. In order to evaluate the effects of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ on lung fibrosis and inflammation, the lung hydroxyproline content, inflammation and fibrosis score were measured. Western blotting, zymography and reverse zymography were performed at 3, 7, 14, 28 days after bleomycin instillation in order to evaluate the MMP-2,-9, and TIMP-1,-2 expression level. ELISA was performed to determine the IL-4 and IL-13 level in a lung homogenate. Results : 1. 7 days after bleomycin instillation, inflammatory changes were more severe in the bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group than the bleomycin group (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$2.08{\pm}0.15:2.74{\pm}0.29$, P<0.05), but 28 days after bleomycin instillation, lung fibrosis was significantly reduced as a result of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$3.94{\pm}0.43:2.64{\pm}0.13$, P<0.05). 2. 28 days after bleomycin instillation, the lung hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced as a result of $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$294.04{\pm}31.73{\mu}g/g:194.92{\pm}15.51{\mu}g/g$, P<0.05). 3. Western blotting showed that the MMP-2 level was increased as a result of the bleomycin instillation and highest in the 14 days after bleomycin instillation. 4. In zymography, the active forms of MMP-2 were significantly increased as a result of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment 3 days after the bleomycin instillation, bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$209.63{\pm}7.60%:407.66{\pm}85.34%$, P<0.05), but 14 days after the bleomycin instillation, the active forms of MMP-2 were significantly reduced as a result of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$159.36{\pm}20.93%:97.23{\pm}12.50%$, P<0.05). 5. The IL-4 levels were lower in the bleomycin and bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ groups but this was not significant, and the IL-13 levels showed no difference between the experiment groups. Conclusion : The author found that lung inflammation was increased in the early period but the pulmonary fibrosis was inhibited in the late stage as a result of $IFN-{\gamma}$. The inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis by $IFN-{\gamma}$ appeared to be associated with the inhibition of MMP-2 activation by $IFN-{\gamma}$. Further studies on the mechanism of the regulation of MMP-2 activation and the effects of MMP-2 activation on pulmonary fibrosis is warranted in the future.

IFN-${\gamma}$mRNA Expression in Tuberculous Pleural Lymphocytes After in vitro Stimulation with M. tuberculosis Antigens (결핵균 항원 자극에 의한 결핵성 흉수 림프구의 IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA 발현)

  • Park, Jae Seuk;Kim, Youn Seup;Jee, Young Koo;Lee, Kye Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2004
  • Background : IFN-${\gamma}$ is the main effector mediator of the host immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Evaluating the IFN-${\gamma}$ gene expression in response to M. tuberculosis antigens may help in elucidating the host defense mechanism against M. tuberculosis and in the development of a vaccine. Methods : The IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA expression in the lymphocytes obtained from pleural effusions from tuberculous pleurisy patients (TB-PLC) after in vitro stimulation with whole cell M. tuberculosis(H37Rv), purified protein derivatives(PPD), man-lipoarabinamman (man-LAM), ara-LAM and Antigen 85B(Ag85B) were evaluated. The degree of IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA expression was determined by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results : M. tuberculosis induced the expression of IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA in the TB-PLC in time and dose dependent manners. The PPD and Ag85B induced high levels of IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA expression in the TB-PLC. However, man-LAM inhibited IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA expression in the TB-PLC, while ara-LAM did not. Conclusion : IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA expression in TB-PLC is stimulated by PPD and Ag85B, but inhibited by man-LAM.

Production of a Functional Mouse Interferon ${\gamma}$from Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Lim, Young-Yi;Park, Seung-Moon;Jang, Yong-Suk;Yang, Moon-Sik;Kim, Dae-Hyuk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.537-543
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    • 2003
  • The mouse interferon gene (MuIFN-${\gamma}$) was cloned and then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expressed MuIFN-$\{gamma}$ protein (MuIFN-${\gamma}$) was successfully secreted into culture medium due to the presence oi the signal peptide of rice amylase 1A. Two different promoters fused to MuIFN-${\gamma}$ were tested: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) promoter and a yeast hybrid ADH2-GPD (AG) promoter consisting of alcohol dehydrogenase II (ADH2) and GPD promoter. Using the hybrid promoter, the accumulation of MuIFN-${\gamma}$transcript was the highest after the 24 h cultivation, and then gradually decreased as the cultivation proceeded. However, both cell growth and recombinant MuIFN-${\gamma}$production reached their peaks after the 4-day cultivation. It was possible to produce 6.5 mg/l of MuIFN-${\gamma}$ without any changes in cell growth. Using GPD promoter, the MuIFN-${\gamma}$ transcript accumulation and the recombinant MuIFN-${\gamma}$ production followed the same pattern as the cell growth. However. compared to that of the hybrid promoter, the production of recombinant MuIFN-${\gamma}$ was 0.2 mg/l. The secreted MuIFN-${\gamma}$ had estimated molecular masses of 21 kDa and 23 kDa, which were larger than that of the encoded size due to glycosylation. The protection assay against the viral infection indicated that the recombinant MuIFN-${\gamma}$ was bioactive.

The Usefulness of Pleural IFN-$\gamma$ Level in Differential Diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleural Effusion and Malignant Pleural Effusion (결핵성 흉막염과 악성 흉수의 감별진단에 있어서 흉수 IFN-$\gamma$ 측정의 유용성)

  • Kim, Myung-Sun;Yang, Sung-Eun;Chi, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.280-289
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    • 1998
  • Background: It is sometimes difficult to differentiate tuberculous pleural effusion from malignant pleural effusion by clinical symptoms, signs, by routine tests of pleural fluid, and by pathologic studies. And recently, it was discovered that cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-$\gamma$, TNF-$\alpha$ are elevated in tuberculous pleural fluid, and there have been several attempts to diagnose tuberculous pleural effusion by using these immunological mediators. There are several studies regarding the diagnostic value of IFN-$\gamma$, and there are two studies in Korea. But the diagnostic values of IFN-$\gamma$ in these studies were slightly lower than those in other countries. To compare the diagnostic value of IFN-$\gamma$ with those of CEA and ADA, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of IFN-$\gamma$ in Korean, we mesured IFN-$\gamma$, CEA level and ADA activity in pleural effusions. Methods: ADA activity, IFN-$\gamma$ level and CEA level as well as cell count, differential count, and biochemical assays such as protein content and lactate dehydrogenase were measured in 40 cases of tuberculous pleuritis and 42 cases of malignant pleural effusion. Results: Tuberculous pleural fluid showed higher levels of IFN-$\gamma$ and ADA ($832.6{\pm}357.2$ pg/ml and $82.5{\pm}25.9$ U/L, respectively) than those of malignant pleural effusion ($2.6{\pm}8.0$ pg/ml and $19.2{\pm}10.9$ U/L, respectively) (p<0.01). Malignant pleural effusions showed higher median value (102.2 ng/ml) than tubercalous pleural effusions (1.8 ng/ml) (p<0.01). The sensitivities of IFN-$\gamma$, ADA, CEA were 0.97, 0.87, 0.67 and the specificities of IFN-$\gamma$, ADA, CEA were 1.0, 0.97, 1.0, respectively. There was no significant correlation between ADA activity and IFN-$\gamma$ level. Conclusion: This study showed that IFN-$\gamma$ test would be a very useful clinical test for differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis and malignant pleural effusion because it is very sensitive and specific, although it is an expensive test.

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