• Title, Summary, Keyword: IL-1

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Differential Effects of Anti-IL-1R Accessory Protein Antibodies on IL-1α or IL-1β-induced Production of PGE2 and IL-6 from 3T3-L1 Cells

  • Yoon, Do-Young;Dinarello, Charles A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.562-570
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    • 2007
  • Soluble or cell-bound IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) does not bind IL-1 but rather forms a complex with IL-1 and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) resulting in signal transduction. Synthetic peptides to various regions in the Ig-like domains of IL-1RAcP were used to produce antibodies and these antibodies were affinity-purified using the respective antigens. An anti-peptide-4 antibody which targets domain III inhibited 70% of IL-$1\beta$-induced productions of IL-6 and PGE2 from 3T3-L1 cells. Anti-peptide-2 or 3 also inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production by 30%. However, antipeptide-1 which is directed against domain I had no effect. The antibody was more effective against IL-$1\beta$ compared to IL-$1\alpha$. IL-1-induced IL-6 production was augmented by coincubation with PGE2. The COX inhibitor ibuprofen blocked IL-1-induced IL-6 and PGE2 production. These results confirm that IL-1RAcP is essential for IL-1 signaling and that increased production of IL-6 by IL-1 needs the co-induction of PGE2. However, the effect of PGE2 is independent of expressions of IL-1RI and IL-1RAcP. Our data suggest that domain III of IL-1RAcP may be involved in the formation or stabilization of the IL-1RI/IL-1 complex by binding to epitopes on domain III of the IL-1RI created following IL-1 binding to the IL-1RI.

The IL-1 Gene polymorphisms in Korean Children (한국인 아동에서의 IL-1 유전자 다변성 연구)

  • Yoon, Seong-Sik;Chung, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Ok-Su;Yang, Ku-Ho
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.299-310
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    • 2005
  • The severe form of chronic periodontitis(CP) has been reported to be strongly associated with the presence of allele 2 of composite IL-1B(+3954) and IL-1A(+4845) genetic polymorphisms(genotype positive). However, other studies have reported conflicting findings. These might have resulted from differences in ethnic background and disease entities. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of IL-1A(+4845), IL-1B(+3954), IL-1B(-511), and IL-1 RN(VNTR) genetic polymorphisms in children as a future Korean population. The study population consisted of 92 children from the Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry, Chonnam National University Hospital. Genomic DNA was obtained from buccal swab. The IL-1A(+4845), IL-1B(+3954), and IL-1B(-511) genes were genotyped by amplifying the polymorphic region using multiplex polymerase chain reaction(PCR), followed by restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. IL-1 RN(VNTR) polymorphism were then evaluated by PCR amplification and fragment size analysis in agarose gel. The allele 2 frequency was 41.3%, 4.3%, 47.8%, and 9.9% for IL-1A(+4845), IL-1B(+3954), IL-1B(-511), and IL-1 RN respectively. The frequency of genotype with allele 2 carriage for IL-1A(+4845), IL-1B(+3954), IL-1B(-511), and IL-1 RN was 77.1%, 7.6%, 63.0%, and 15.2% respectively. The allele 2 frequency in IL-1B(+3954) was significantly higher in female than in male population(p<0.05). The negative association was shown between the presence of allele 2 in IL-1B(-511) and in IL-1B(+3954), and the carriage rate of IL-1B(+3954) allele 2 tended to lower in IL-1B(-511) allele 2(P=0.056). Only 7.3% of children carried the composite genotype of IL-1A(+4845) and IL-1B(+3954). These results suggest that the polymorphism of IL-1B(+3954) and the positive composite genotype was relatively rare in Korean population.

IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Reduced Chemical-Induced Keratinocyte Apoptosis through Antagonism to IL-1α/IL-1β

  • Lee, Hyejin;Cheong, Kyung Ah;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Nan-Hyung;Noh, Minsoo;Lee, Ai-Young
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2018
  • Extracellular interleukin 1 alpha (IL-$1{\alpha}$) released from keratinocytes is one of the endpoints for in vitro assessments of skin irritancy. Although cells dying via primary skin irritation undergo apoptosis as well as necrosis, IL-$1{\alpha}$ is not released in apoptotic cells. On the other hand, active secretion has been identified in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), which was discovered to be a common, upregulated, differentially-expressed gene in a microarray analysis performed with keratinocytes treated using cytotoxic doses of chemicals. This study examined whether and how IL-1ra, particularly extracellularly released IL-1ra, was involved in chemically-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity and skin irritation. Primary cultured normal adult skin keratinocytes were treated with cytotoxic doses of chemicals (hydroquinone, retinoic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, or urshiol) with or without recombinant IL-1ra treatment. Mouse skin was administered irritant concentrations of hydroquinone or retinoic acid. IL-1ra (mRNA and/or intracellular/extracellularly released protein) levels increased in the chemically treated cultured keratinocytes with IL-$1{\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNAs and in the chemically exposed epidermis of the mouse skin. Recombinant IL-1ra treatment significantly reduced the chemically-induced apoptotic death and intracellular/extracellularly released IL-$1{\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ in keratinocytes. Collectively, extracellular IL-1ra released from keratinocytes could be a compensatory mechanism to reduce the chemically-induced keratinocyte apoptosis by antagonism to IL-$1{\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$, suggesting potential applications to predict skin irritation.

Investigation of IL-1B (-511, +3954) and IL-1RN Gene Polymorphisms in Korean Psoriasis Patients (한국인 건선 환자에서의 IL-1B (-511, +3954)와 IL-1RN 유전자의 다양성 조사)

  • Kim, Yang-Kyum;Pyo, Chul-Woo;Kim, Tae-Yoon;Kim, Tai-Gyu
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.242-247
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    • 2003
  • Background: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is characterized by a marked proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular dilation and leukocyte infiltration. Cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. An overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines was characterized in psoriasis plaque. Among these cytokines, IL-$1{\beta}$ is major pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesized during the infection and inflammatory process. The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) competes for the same IL-1 receptor for $IL-1{\alpha}$ and $-1{\beta}$, which prevents activation of the target cells. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-$1{\beta}$ gene have been reported at position -31, -511 and +3954. Within the IL-1Ra gene (IL-1RN), there is a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of an 86 bp length in intron 2. These polymorphisms related to cytokine production and associated with various diseases. Methods: We investigated the polymorphisms of IL-1B (promoter -511 and +3954) and IL-1RN on 114 psoriasis patients and 311 healthy normal controls in Korean. We performed PCR-RFLP on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1B (promoter -511 and +3954) and fragment analysis on IL-1RN 86 bp VNTR polymorphism. Results: The frequency of IL-1B $-511^*1$ allele (patients vs. controls; 50.0% vs. 42.3%, RR=1.4) was significantly increased and IL-1B $-511^*2$ allele (patients vs. controls; 50.0% vs. 57.7%, RR=0.7) decreased in psoriasis patients compared to normal controls. We also analyzed the IL-1B -511 polymorphism according to patients' characters (age of onset, sex and family history). The IL-1B -511 alleles were significantly associated in patients with male and family history than health normal controls. There were no significant associations of IL-1B +3954 and IL-1RN polymorphisms with psoriasis patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that the polymorphism of IL-1B -511 could be genetic susceptibility to psoriasis in Koreans.

Genetic polymorphisms of the IL-1 ${\beta}$ genes in periodontally healthy Korean population (치주적으로 건강한 한국인에서 IL-1 ${\beta}$ 유전자의 유전자 다형성 발생빈도에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Seung-Yun;Kim, Kyoung-Hwa;Park, Ok-Jin;Kim, Kak-Kyun;Ku, Young;Yoshine, Hiromasa;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 2003
  • Interleukine-1(IL-1)은 여러 가지 기능을 가진 싸이토카인으로써 미생물에 대한 면역반응을 일으킨다. IL-1의 유전자 다형성과 치주질환과의 관련성에 대한 많은 연구가 있어왔지만, 대부분이 백인을 대상으로 한 연구였다. 이후 중국인과 일본인을 대상으로 한 연구에서 IL-1의 유전자 다형성의 분포가 인종간에 차이를 보인다는 점이 발견되었다. 이번 연구에서는 치주적으로 건강한 한국인에서 IL-1${\beta}$-511, IL-1${\beta}$+3954, IL-1RN에 대한 유전자형의 분포를 조사하고자 하였다. 서울대학교 치과병원에 근무하는 치과의사, 치과위생사, 간호조무사 및 서울대학교 치과대학 4학년 학생 중 치주낭 깊이와 부착소실이 4mm 이하인 치주적으로 건강한 한국인 65명을 대상으로 하였다. IL-1${\beta}$-511, IL-1${\beta}$+3954, IL-1RN의 유전자 다형성은 분리한 DNA에 각 대립유전자에 특이성을 지닌 primer를 넣고 PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction)법을 이용하여 증폭시킨후 전기영동법을 이용하여 각 대립유전자의 존재를 확인함으로써 결정하였다. IL-1${\beta}$-511 대립유전자 11, 대립유전자 12, 대립유전자 22의 유전자형에 대하여 각각 23.1%, 49.2%, 26.2%의 분포를 보였다. IL-1${\beta}$+3954의 유전자 다형성은 대립유전자 11, 대립유전자 12의 유전자형에 대하여 각각 89.2%, 10.8%의 분포를 보였으며, 대립유전자 22의 유전자형을 갖는 사람은 한명도 발견되지 않았다. IL-1RN의 유전자형은 5가지의 대립유전자 중에서 1, 대립유전자 2, 대립유전자 4만일 발견되었으며, 대립유전자 11, 대립유전자 12, 대립유전자 14의 유전자형이 86.2%, 12.3%, 1.5%로 분포하였다. 이를 바탕으로 각 대립유전자의 발생빈도 계산한 결과 IL-1${\beta}$-511에서는 대립유전자 1과 2의 비율이 거의 유사하였으나 (47.7%, 52.3%), IL-1${\beta}$+3954, IL-1RN에서는 대립유전자 1이 90%이상 발견되었으며, 또한 대립유전자 1외의 다른 대립유전자가 발견된 경우, 모두 이형접합체였다. 이 연구는 IL-1${\beta}$-511, IL-1${\beta}$+3954, IL-1RN에 대한 유전자형의 분포를 조사한 것으로 한국인에서 이들 유전자의 유전자형의 분포는 백인에서의 분포와 차이를 보이고 있었다. 이후 치주질환자의 유전자형 분포와의 비교로 치주질환과 IL-1${\beta}$-511, IL-1${\beta}$+3954, IL-1RN의 유전자다형성과의 관련성에 관한 추가적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 여겨진다.

Genetic Polymorphism of Interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RN) and Prostate Cancer Risk

  • Xu, Hua;Ding, Qiang;Jiang, Hao-Wen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8741-8747
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Results: We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Conclusions: Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.

Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist(IL-1ra) Gene Polymorphism in Children with Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ Purpura Nephritis (Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ Purpura 신염에서 Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist(IL-1ra) 유전자 다형성)

  • Hwang, Phil-Kyung;Lee, Jeong-Nye;Chung, Woo-Yeong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist(IL-1ra) is an endogenous antiinflammatory agent that binds to IL-1 receptor and thus competitively inhibits the binding of IL-1$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$. Allele 2 in association with various autoimmune diseases has been reported. In order to evaluate the influence of IL-1ra gene VNTR polymorphism on the susceptibility to HSP and its possible association with disease severity, manifested by severe renal involvement and renal sequelae, we studied the incidence of carriage rate and allele frequency of the 2 repeats of IL-1ra allele 2($IL1RN^{*}2$) of the IL-1ra gene in children with HSP with and without renal involvement. Methods : The IL-1ra gene polymorphisms were determined in children with HSP with(n=40) or without nephritis(n=34) who had been diagnosed at Busan Paik Hospital and the control groups(n=163). Gene polymorphism was identified by PCR amplification of the genomic DNA. Results : The allelic frequency and carriage rate of $IL1RN^{*}1$ were found most frequently in patients with HSP and in controls. The allelic frequency of $IL1RN^{*}2$ was higher in patients with HSP compared to that of controls($4.7\%\;vs.\;2.5\%$, P=0.794). The carriage rate of $IL1RN^{*}2$ was higher In patients with HSP compared to that of controls($8.1\%\;vs.\;6.8\%$, P=0.916). The allelic frequency of $IL1RN^{*}2$ was higher in patients with HSP nephritis compared to that of HSP($5.3\%\;vs.\;2.9\%$, P=0.356). The carriage rate of $IL1RN^{*}2$ was higher in Patients with HSP nephritis compared to that of HSP($10.0\%\;vs.\;5.9\%$, P=0.523). Among 13 patients with heavy proteinuria(>1.0 g), 11 had $IL1RN^{*}1$, 1 had $IL1RN^{*}2$ and the others had $IL1RN^{*}4$. At the time of last follow up 4 patients had sustained proteinuria and their genotype was $IL1RN^{*}1$. Conclusion : The allelic frequency and carriage rate of $IL1RN^{*}1$ were found most frequently in patients with HSP and in controls. Our study suggests that the carriage rate and allele frequency of the 2-repeats of IL-1lra allele 2($IL1RN^{*}2$) of the IL-1ra gene may not be associated with susceptibility and severity of renal involvement in children with HSP (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2005;9:175-182)

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Interleukin-1B (IL-1B-31 and IL-1B-511) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene polymorphisms in primary immune thrombocytopenia

  • Yadav, Deependra Kumar;Tripathi, Anil Kumar;Gupta, Divya;Shukla, Saurabh;Singh, Aloukick Kumar;Kumar, Ashutosh;Agarwal, Jyotsna;Prasad, K.N.
    • BLOOD RESEARCH
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.264-269
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    • 2017
  • Background Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated disease caused by autoantibodies against platelets membrane glycoproteins GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb/IX. The etiology of ITP remains unclear. This study evaluated the association of polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-1B-31, IL-1B-511, and IL-1Ra with ITP. Methods Genotyping of IL-1B-31, IL-1B-511, and IL-1Ra was performed in 118 ITP patients and 100 controls by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism and detection of variable number tandem repeats. Results Genotype differences in IL-1B-31 and IL-1Ra were significantly associated with ITP. Patients showed a higher frequency of the IL-1B-31 variant allele (T) and a 1.52-fold greater risk of susceptibility to ITP (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04-2.22, P=0.034). The frequencies of both homozygous and heterozygous variant genotypes of IL-1B-31 were higher (OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.069-5.09, P=0.033 and OR=2.044, 95% CI=1.068-39, P=0.034) among patients and were significantly associated with ITP susceptibility. Both homozygous and heterozygous variant genotypes of IL-1Ra were also more frequent (OR=4.48, 95% CI=1.17-17.05, P=0.0230 and OR=1.80, 95% CI=1.03-3.14, P=0.0494) among patients and were associated with ITP risk. IL-1B-31 and IL-1Ra also showed significant association with severe ITP. However, IL-1B-511 was not associated with ITP. Conclusion IL-1B-31 and IL-1Ra polymorphisms may significantly impact ITP risk, and they could be associated with disease severity, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of ITP.

IL-23 P19 Expression Induced by IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Mononuclear Cells (류마티스관절염 환자의 활액 세포에서 IL-17과 $IL-1{\beta}$에 의한 IL-23p19의 발현 증가)

  • Cho, Mi-La;Heo, Yu-Jung;Oh, Hye-Jwa;Kang, Chang-Min;Lee, Seon-Yeong;Hong, Yeon-Sik;Kim, Ho-Youn
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2008
  • Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine which has been implicated to play a pathogenic role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to investigate the IL-23 inductive activity of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17, $IL-1{\beta}$ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-${\alpha}$) in RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC). Expression of IL-23p19, IL-17, $IL-1{\beta}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ in joint was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). The effects of IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ on expression of IL-23p19 in human SFMC from RA patients were determined by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-23p19 was expressed in the RA fibroblast like synoviocyte (FLS), but not from OA FLS. Similar to the protein expression, IL-23p19 mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR in RA SFMC. IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ could induce RA SFMC to produce the IL-23p19. The effects of IL-17 were much stronger than $IL-1{\beta}$ or TNF-${\alpha}$. These responses were observed in a doseresponsive manner. In addition, IL-17 or $IL-1{\beta}$ neutralizing antibody down-regulated the expression of IL-23p19 induced by LPS in RA-SFMC. Our results demonstrate that IL-23p19 is overexpressed in RA synovium and IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ appears to upregulate the expression of IL-23p19 in RA-SFMC.

EFFECT OF INTERLEUKIM-10 ON THE BONE RESORPTION INDUCED BY INTERLEUKIN-1B (Interleukin-10 이 $interleukin-1{\beta}$로 유도되는 골흡수에 미치는 효과)

  • Yu, Yun-Jung;Kang, Yun-Sun;Lee, Syng-Ill
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.321-339
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    • 1994
  • The cytokines released by osteoblasts induce bone resorption via the differentiation of osteoclast precursors. In this process, $interleukin-1{\beta}$($IL-1{\beta}$)-induced bone resorption is mediated by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulation factor(GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$($TNF-{\alpha}$) released from osteoblasts. Since these cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$) are produced by not only osteoblasts but also monocytes, and interleukin-10(I1-10) inhibits the secretion of these cytokines from monocytes, it may be speculated that IL 10 could modulate the production of GM-CSF, IL-6, and $TNF-{\alpha}$ by osteoblasts, then control $IL-1{\beta}-induced$ bone resorption. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to examine the effects of IL-10 on bone resorption. The sixten or seventeen-day pregnant ICR mice were injected with $^{45}Ca$ and sacrificed one day after injection. Then fetal mouse calvaria prelabeled with $^{45}Ca$ were dissected out. In order to confirm the degree of bone resorption, mouse calvaria were treated with Lipopolysaccharide(LPS), $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\alpha}$, IL-8, $IL-1{\beta}$, and $IL-1{\alpha}$, Then, IL-10 and $interferon-{\gamma}$ ($IFN-{\gamma}$) were added to calvarial medium, in an attempt to evaluate the effect of $IL-1{\beta}-induced$ bone resorption. In addition, osteoclasts formation in bone marrow cell cultures, and the concentration of IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and GM-CSF produced from mouse calvarial cells were investigated in response to $IL-1{\beta}$ alone and simultaneously adding f $IL-1{\beta}$ and IL-10. The degree of bone resorption was expressed as the ratio of $^{45}Ca$ release(the treated/the control). The osteoclasts in bone marrow cultures were indentified by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP) stain and the concentration of the cytokines was quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent method. As results of these studies, bone resorption was induced by LPS(1 ng/ml ; the ratio of $^{45}Ca$ release, $1.14{\pm}0.07$). Also $IL-1{\beta}$(1 ng/ml), $IL-1{\alpha}$(1 ng/ml), and $TNF-{\alpha}$(1 ng/ml) resulted in bone resorption(the rations of $^{45}Ca$ release, $1.61{\pm}0.26$, $1.77{\pm}0.03$, $1.20{\pm}0.15$ respectively), but IL-8 did not(the ratio of $^{45}Ca$ release, $0.93{\pm}0.21$). The ratios of $^{45}Ca$ release in response to IL-10(400 ng/ml) and $IFN-{\gamma}$(100 ng/ml) were $1.24{\pm}0.12$ and $1.08{\pm}0.04$ respectively, hence these cytokines inhibited $IL-1{\beta}$(1 ng/ml)-induced bone resorption(the ratio of $^{45}Ca$ release $1.65{\pm}0.24$). While $IL-1{\beta}$(1 ng/ml) increased the number of TRAP positive multinulcleated cells in bone marrow cultures($20{\pm}11$), simultaneously adding $IL-1{\beta}$(1 ng/ml) and IL-10(400 ng/ml) decreased the number of these cells($2{\pm}2$). Nevertheless, IL-10(400 ng/ml) did not affect the IL-6, GM-CSF, and $TNF-{\alpha}$ secretion from $IL-1{\beta}$(1 ng/ml)-activated mouse calvarial cells. From the above results, it may be suggested that IL-10 inhibites $IL-1{\beta}-induced$ osteoclast differntiation and bone resorption. However, the inhibitory effect of IL-10 on the osteoclast formation seems to be mediated not by the reduction of IL-6, GM-CSF, and $TNF-{\alpha}$ production, but by other mechanisms.

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