• Title, Summary, Keyword: IL-2

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A Study of EFFECT and MECHANISM of IL-2 on SURVIVAL of EOSINOPHILS (Interleukin-2가 호산구 생존에 미치는 영향과 가전에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyo-Seok;Lee, Young-Mok;Choi, Young-Soo;Kim, Kyung-Ho;Im, Geon-Il;Moon, Seung-Hyug;Jeong, Sung-Whan;Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Uh, Soo-Taek;Kim, Yong-Hun;Park, Choon-Sik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.348-358
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    • 1996
  • Background : Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is responsible for eosinophilia in allergic diseases. In allergic bronchial asthma, there is a correlation between the extent of eosinophil infiltration in bronchial mucosa and IL-5 concentrations. In addition, IL-2 concentration is elevated in the airways and associated with eosinophilia in symptomatic patients with bronchial asthma. In animal studies, IL-2 can induce eosinophilia by increasing the synthesis of IL-5, however, it is still unknown how IL-2 can induce eosinophila in human being. The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect and mechanism of IL-2 on prolongation of eosinophil survival. Methods : After purifiing the eosinophils from the venous blood of allergic patients with eosinophilia, we measured the survival rates of eosinophils using trypan blue dye exclusion test, and the number of eosinophils with Randolp's solution. We compared the survival rates of eosinophils in the presence of IL-2 or IL-5. Neutralizing antibody for IL-5 was added in IL-2 treated eosinophils to reveal whether IL-2 induced prolongation of eosinophil survival was mediated by IL-5. We checked IL-5 m-RNA expression of lymphocytes in the presence of IL-2 by using Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to revealed the effect of IL-2 on IL-5 m-RNA expression on lymphocyte. $\alpha$ and $\beta$ IL-2 receptors were measured on eosinophils and lymphocytes with flow-cytometer after stimulated with IL-2. Results : 1) Eosinophil survival rates increased dose dependently on IL-5 and IL-2. 2) The eosinophil survival rates increased by IL-2 were not inhibited by the pretreatment with neutralizing antibody for IL-5. 3) IL-5 m-RNA was not expressed on lymphocytes by the treatment with IL-2 up to 96 hours. 4) IL-2 upregulate the expression of IL-$2R{\alpha}$ on eosinophils, instead of no effect on the expression of IL-$2R{\beta}$. Conclusion: Interleukin-2 had the enhancing effect on the survival rates of eosinophils. The mechanism behind IL-2 induced eosinophilia might be the increment of IL-2 receptors on eosinophils rather than IL-5 synthesis by lymphocytes.

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Differential Effects of Anti-IL-1R Accessory Protein Antibodies on IL-1α or IL-1β-induced Production of PGE2 and IL-6 from 3T3-L1 Cells

  • Yoon, Do-Young;Dinarello, Charles A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.562-570
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    • 2007
  • Soluble or cell-bound IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) does not bind IL-1 but rather forms a complex with IL-1 and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) resulting in signal transduction. Synthetic peptides to various regions in the Ig-like domains of IL-1RAcP were used to produce antibodies and these antibodies were affinity-purified using the respective antigens. An anti-peptide-4 antibody which targets domain III inhibited 70% of IL-$1\beta$-induced productions of IL-6 and PGE2 from 3T3-L1 cells. Anti-peptide-2 or 3 also inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production by 30%. However, antipeptide-1 which is directed against domain I had no effect. The antibody was more effective against IL-$1\beta$ compared to IL-$1\alpha$. IL-1-induced IL-6 production was augmented by coincubation with PGE2. The COX inhibitor ibuprofen blocked IL-1-induced IL-6 and PGE2 production. These results confirm that IL-1RAcP is essential for IL-1 signaling and that increased production of IL-6 by IL-1 needs the co-induction of PGE2. However, the effect of PGE2 is independent of expressions of IL-1RI and IL-1RAcP. Our data suggest that domain III of IL-1RAcP may be involved in the formation or stabilization of the IL-1RI/IL-1 complex by binding to epitopes on domain III of the IL-1RI created following IL-1 binding to the IL-1RI.

IL-18R ${\alpha}$ Mediated GATA-3 Induction by Th2 Cells: IL-12 Supports IL-18R ${\alpha}$ Expression in Th2 Cells (Th2 세포에서 IL-12에 의한 IL-18R ${\alpha}$의 발현유지 및 IL-18 자극에 의한 GATA-3의 유도)

  • Joo, In-Sook;Sun, Min-Jung;Kim, Dong-Young;Lee, Su-Jin;Ha, Youn-Mun;Cho, Jeong-Je;Park, Cheung-Seog;Ahn, Hyun-Jong
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2005
  • Background: IL-18 was originally cloned as a IFN-${\gamma}$ inducing factor in primed T cells. In synergy with IL-12, IL-18 has been shown to induce strikingly high levels of IFN-${\gamma}$ production by T cells and to enhance Th1 development. Also this cytokine exerts induction of Th2 development through IL-4 induction. Methods: Resting $CD4^+$ T cells were sorted by negative selection and activated by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 Ab. Expression of IL-12 binding sites, IL-18 binding sites, IL-18R ${\alpha}$, and GATA-3 mRNA were analysed by FACS and RT-PCR, respectively. Results: Resting $CD4^+$ T cells expressed IL-18R ${\alpha}$ chain but not IL-18 binding sites, suggesting a lack of IL-18R ${\beta}$ expression. IL-18R ${\alpha}$ was maintained on the Th1 and Th2 committed cells. IL-18 binding sites were induced on the Th1 but not Th2 cells. Exposure of these cells to IL-18 led to up-regulation of GATA-3 mRNA expression only in Th2 committed cells. To elucidate the relationship between IL-18R ${\alpha}$ expression and GATA-3 induction by IL-18, Th1 and Th2 committed cells were further cultured in medium with or without IL-12 for 2 days. IL-12 binding sites were maintained on the Th1 and Th2 cells regardless of IL-12 treatment, but IL-18R a expression was rapidly down-regulated on the IL12-untreated Th2 cells which did not induce GATA-3 mRNA expression followed by IL-18 stimulation. Conclusion: IL-12 supports expression of IL-18R ${\alpha}$ and GATA-3 mRNA expression was induced by IL-18 through IL-18R ${\alpha}$ without expression of IL-18 binding site in Th2 cells.

Effects of Chitosan on the Production of Th1 and Th2 Cytokines in Mice (키토산이 Th1과 Th2 사이토카인 생성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Kwang-Hyuk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 2009
  • Chitosan is derived from chitin by a process of controlled deacetylation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chitosan on the production of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-$\gamma$ (IFN-$\gamma$), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in mice. The culture supernatants of splenocytes exposed with chitosan alone or chitosan plus cell stimulants, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concanavalin A (Con A), and phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) were harvested to assay IL-2, IFN-$\gamma$, IL-4, and IL-10 production. IL-2, IFN-$\gamma$, and IL-4 from splenocytes exposed to chitosan showed a greater increase compared to the PBS control group. IL-2 and IFN-$\gamma$ levels in the culture supernatants from splenocytes exposed to LPS+chitosan were higher than those of the groups exposed to LPS alone. IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the culture supernatants from splenocytes exposed to LPS+chitosan were lower than those of the groups exposed to LPS only. These findings demonstrate that chitosan upregulates the immune responses by Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-$\gamma$) and downregulates those by Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in LPS-associated immunity. These results show the potential of its usefulness for balancing the Th1/Th2 immune response, if more research results were accumulated.

Effects of Eucalyptus and Geranium on Production of IL-2 and IL-4 in Mouse Splenocytes (Eucalyptus와 geranium이 마우스 splenocytes에서 IL-2 및 IL-4 생성에 대한 효과)

  • Cha Bong Kyu;Chang Myung Woong;Jeong Young Kee;Kim Kwang Hyuk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 2006
  • Aromatherpy is the controlled use of essential oils to promote health and well-being. In this work we have investigated the effect of eucalyptus and geranium on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin4 (IL-4). Mouse splenocytes were incubated with essential oils. The culture supernatants of mouse splenocytes exposed with these oils were harvested to assay IL-2 and IL-4 production. The quantitative changes of IL-2 in splenocytes culture supernatants after exposure with these oils were decreased at high doses, but increased at low doses. But its of IL-4 were increased generally at high doses of eucalyptus. In case of the exposure of geranium, its of IL-4 were dose-dependently increased. These kinds of essential oils showed the probability to improve IL-2- and IL-4-related immune responses at the optimum exposure.

Association of Genetic Polymorphism of IL-2 Receptor Subunit and Tuberculosis Case

  • Lee, Sang-In;Jin, Hyun-Seok;Park, Sangjung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2018
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. It is known that not only the property of microorganism but also the genetic susceptibility of infected patients is controlled. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine belonging to type 1 T helper (Th1) activity. In addition, IL-2, when infected with MTB, binds IL-2 receptor and promotes T cell replication and is involved in granuloma formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the IL-2 receptor gene in tuberculosis patients and normal individuals. We analyzed 22 SNPs in three genes using the genotype data of 443 tuberculosis cases and 3,228 healthy controls from the Korea Association Resource for their correlation with tuberculosis case. IL2RA, IL2RB, and IL2RG genes were genotyped of 16, 4, and 2 SNPs, respectively. Among three genes, only IL2RA gene polymorphisms showed statistically significant association with tuberculosis case. 6 SNPs with high significance were identified in the IL2RA gene. In addition, the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure of IL2RA gene was confirmed. SNP imputation of IL2RA gene was performed, it was confirmed that more SNPs were significant between case and control. If we look at the results of IL2RA gene analysis above, we can see that genetic polymorphism in the gene expressing $IL-2R{\alpha}$ will regulate the expression level of $IL-2R{\alpha}$, and the change in the immune system involved in $IL-2R{\alpha}$. In this study, genetic polymorphism that may affect host immunity suggests that susceptibility to tuberculosis may be controlled.

Interleukin-18 Synergism with Interleukin-2 in Cytotoxicity and NKG2D Expression of Human Natural Killer Cells

  • Qi, Yuan-Ying;Lu, Chao;Ju, Ying;Wang, Zi-E;Li, Yuan-Tang;Shen, Ya-Juan;Lu, Zhi-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7857-7861
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    • 2014
  • Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. Interleukin (IL)-18 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that induces potent NK cell-dependent anti-tumor responses when administrated with other cytokines. In this study, we explored the effects of combining IL-18 and IL-2 on NK cytotoxicity as well as expression levels of the NK cell receptor NKG2D in vitro. Freshly isolated PBMCs were incubated for 48 h with IL-18 and IL-2, then CD107a expression on $CD3^-CD56^+$ NK cells was determined by three-colour flow cytometry to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NK cells against human erythroleukemia K562 cells and human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was also employed to determine NKG2D expression on NK cells. The combined use of IL-18 and IL-2 significantly increased CD107a expression on NK cells compared with using IL-18 or IL-2 alone, suggesting that the combination of these two cytokines exerted synergistic enhancement of NK cytotoxicity. IL-18 also enhanced NKG2D expression on NK cells when administered with IL-2. In addition, blockade of NKG2D signaling with NKG2D-blocking antibody attenuated the up-regulatory effect of combining IL-18 and IL-2 on NK cytolysis. Our data revealed that IL-18 synergized with IL-2 to dramatically enhance the cytolytic activity of human NK cells in a NKG2D-dependent manner. The results appear encouraging for the use of combined IL-18 and IL-2 in tumor immunotherapy.

Study on Alteration of Interleukin-$1{\beta}$, -2, -6 Production and Serum Level in Schizophrenic Patients (정신분열증 환자에서 Interleukin-$1{\beta}$, -2, -6 생산능과 혈청농도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yong-Ku;Lee, Min-Soo;Suh, Kwang-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.98-108
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    • 1994
  • The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain unknown. It has been postulated that infectious-autoimmune process may play a role in the pathogenesis of symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. Findings of altered interleukin(IL) regulation have been regarded as additional proof that schzophrenia has an infectious-autoimmune background. In the present study, we measured mitogen-stimulated production of and serum level of IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2, IL-6 using ELISA in 16 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and in 16 age, sex matched healthy controls. The results were as follows : 1) There was a significant decrease of IL-2 production in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls(respectively $1.90{\pm}0.13ng/m{\ell}$, $2.79{\pm}0.14ng/m{\ell}$, p<0.001). But there was no significant difference of IL-$1{\beta}$ production and IL-6 production between schizophrenic patients and normal controls. 2) There was a significant increase of serum level of IL-2 in schizophrenic pateitns than in normal controls(respectively $184.8{\pm}12.8pg/m{\ell}$, $104.2{\pm}34.2pg/m{\ell}$, p<0.01). Serum level of IL-$1{\beta}$ was partially detected in both groups and serum level of IL-6 was not detected in both groups. 3) There was no significant differences of IL-$1{\beta}$, -2, -6 production & serum level of IL-2 according to male vs female, paranoid type vs undifferentiated type, drug-naive group vs drug-free group in schizophrenic patients. 4) There was significant correlation between IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 production(r=0.86, p<0.001). No correlation between IL-$1{\beta}$, -2, -6 production, serum level of IL-2 and age, duration of illness, and BPRS score was found. It has been suggested that the low lymphocyte production of IL-2 in the patients with autoimmune disease occurs because the T cells are activated and lymphocyte-derived IL-2 has been released into the serum. The authors suggest that decreased IL-2 production in our schizophrenic patients is due to increased IL-2 serum level in those patients. Thus our finding of low IL-2 production and high serum level of IL-2 in our schizophrenic patients is compatible with the possibility that our patients have an autoimmune process. Further study on relationship between IL alteration and other immunological abnormalities(the presence of serum autoantibody and of anti-brain antibody, $CD4^+$, $CD8^+$ cell index, etc) in schizophrenic patients will be warranted.

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Increased Interlenkin-2 Serum Level in Male Schizophrenic Patients (남자 정신분열증 환자에서 혈청 Interlenkin-2 농도의 증가)

  • Kim, Yong-Ku;Kim, Sa-Jun;Lee, Min-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 1996
  • We have previously reported that Korean schizophrenic patients hove low production of IL-2 in vitro suggestive of autoimmunity to the pathogenesis of the disorder. In an attempt to further explore this issue, we measured in vivo serum levels of interleukins(IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2, and IL-6) using a quantitative "sandwich" enzyme immunoassay(ELISA) in 26 male schizophrenic patients and in 26 age-matched normal controls. Patients met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and were drug free for at least six months. The severity of symptoms was assessed by SANS and SAPS. We found a significant increase of IL-2 level(p<0.05) in schizophrenic patients as compared with normal controls. There were significant positive correlations between IL-2, IL-6 levels and negative symptom scores. There were no correlations between age, age at onset, duration of illness and interleukin levels. Our results may support the hypothesis of viral-autoimmune dysfunction in schizophrenia. IL-2 or IL-6 may be associated with specific clinical feature in schizophrenic syndrome, especially negative symptom.

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Suppressive Effect of SaengRyoSaMulTang on Activated RBL-2H3 Mast Cells (RBL-2H3 비만세포의 알레르기 염증 반응에 미치는 생료사물탕(生料四物湯)의 영향)

  • Son, Mi-Ju;Han, Jae-Kyung;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.28-39
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: SaengRyoSaMulTang is a herbal formula in Oriental Medicine, known anti-allergens. However, its mechanism and cellular targets have not been found yet. Thus the study has developed to investigate the suppressive effect of SaengRyoSaMulTang. Methods: In the study, cellular viability, IL-4, IL-13 mRNA expression, IL-4, IL-13 production, manifestations of GATA-1, GATA-2, NF-AT1, NF-AT2, AP-1 and NF-${\kappa}$B p65 transcription factors were examined by Real-Time PCR, ELISA analysis and western blotting. Results: As a result of treating with SaengRyoSaMulTang extract(SRSMT), the study has shown that the amount of Th2 cytokines, which include PI induced IL-4 and IL-13, plays a significant role in suppressing effect. RBL-2H3 mast cells significantly suppressed the PI-induced Th2 cytokine production including IL-4 and IL-13 in a dose dependent manner. PI-induced IL-4 and IL-13 production was significantly suppressed by SRSMT intervention. Western blot analysis of transcription factors involving IL-4 and IL-13 expression also revealed a prominent decreases of mast cell's specific transcription factors including GATA-1, GATA-2, NF-AT2, c-Jun and c-Fos, but NF-${\kappa}$B p65. Conclusions: The study suggests that the anti-allergenic activities of SRSMT may regulate the transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2, NF-AT2, c-Jun and c-Fos inhibiting Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mast cells.